Skip to main content


Veterinary RNA viruses

Section Editor: Siba Samal, University of Maryland, USA

The Veterinary RNA viruses section of Virology Journal covers research on RNA viruses of non-human animals, including food, companion, and wild animal species. Both reviews and original research papers on viral structure, function and genetics will be considered as well as articles focusing on viral pathogenesis, virus-host interactions, vaccines, and antiviral therapeutics.

Page 1 of 3

  1. Content type: Research

    Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral gen...

    Authors: Ruihua Zhang, Jingjing Lan, Haie Li, Junhao Chen, Yupeng Yang, Shaoli Lin, Zhijing Xie and Shijin Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:112

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Research

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a member of the family Coronaviridae, causes lethal watery diarrhea in piglets. Previous studies have revealed that the coronaviruses develop various strategies to evad...

    Authors: Yanan Wang, Aoying Sun, Yu Sun, Sijia Zhang, Tian Xia, Tiantian Guo, Zhenye Hao, Li Sun, Yanping Jiang, Xinyuan Qiao, Wen Cui, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li and Li Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:97

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research

    Lates calcarifer, known as seabass in Asia and barramundi in Australia, is a widely farmed species internationally and in Southeast Asia and any disease outbreak will have a great economic impact on the aquacultu...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Xinyu Toh, Jasmine Ong, Yahui Wang, Xuan-Hui Teo, Bernett Lee, Pui-San Wong, Denyse Khor, Shin-Min Chong, Diana Chee, Alvin Wee, Yifan Wang, Mee-Keun Ng, Boon-Huan Tan and Taoqi Huangfu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:71

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research

    The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target d...

    Authors: Di Sun, Mingshu Wang, Xingjian Wen, Sai Mao, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Xiaoyue Chen, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:54

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research

    Equine rotavirus A (ERVA) is the leading cause of diarrhea in neonatal foals and has a negative impact on equine breeding enterprises worldwide. Among ERVA strains infecting foals, the genotypes G3P[12] and G1...

    Authors: Mariano Carossino, Maria E. Barrandeguy, Erdal Erol, Yanqiu Li and Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:49

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emergent virus in salmon aquaculture belonging to the family Reoviridae. PRV is associated with a growing list of pathological conditions including heart and skeletal inflammatio...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:41

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:60

  7. Content type: Research

    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV), a species of the genus Sapelovirus within the family Picornaviridae, are a significant cause of enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis and reproductive disorders in pigs. Howev...

    Authors: Tingting Zhao, Li Cui, Xiangqian Yu, Zhonghai Zhang, Xiaojuan Shen and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:37

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus belonging to the Novirhabdovirus genus, causes severe disease and mortality in many marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. VHSV isolates are cl...

    Authors: Shamila Yusuff, Gael Kurath, Min Sun Kim, Tarin M. Tesfaye, Jie Li, Douglas G. McKenney and Vikram N. Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:31

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Review

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), currently termed Canine morbillivirus, is an extremely contagious disease that affects dogs. It is identified as a multiple cell tropism pathogen, and its host range includes a vast ...

    Authors: Santiago Rendon-Marin, Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Cláudio Wageck Canal and Julian Ruiz-Saenz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:30

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research

    Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Keren Chen, Yang Guo, Yaosheng Chen and Xiaohong Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:13

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research

    The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) remains a significant source of loss in the poultry industry and early diagnosis is required to prevent the disease from spreading. This study examined the combined ...

    Authors: Paula Fonseca Finger, Michele Soares Pepe, Luana Alves Dummer, Carolina Georg Magalhães, Clarissa Caetano de Castro, Silvia de Oliveira Hübner, Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite, Giseli Aparecida Ritterbusch, Paulo Augusto Esteves and Fabricio Rochedo Conceição

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:189

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV) is an important immunosuppressive virus which can suppresses infected cells proliferation. In this work, we examined PRRSV ability to manipulate cell ...

    Authors: Linlin Song, Ximeng Han, Cunyu Jia, Xin Zhang, Yunjie Jiao, Taofeng Du, Shuqi Xiao, Julian A. Hiscox, En-Min Zhou and Yang Mu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:169

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Methodology

    A serological method to simultaneously detect antibodies against infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is imperative for the differential diagnosis and evaluation of a...

    Authors: Huanan Wang, Feng Cong, Jianchi Guan, Li Xiao, Yujun Zhu, Yuexiao Lian, Ren Huang, Meili Chen and Pengju Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:146

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a pathogenic flavivirus, emerged in China since 2010 and causing huge economic loss in the Chinese poultry industry. Although several vaccines have been reported to control DTMUV di...

    Authors: Jingyu Tang, Zhuangli Bi, Mingyang Ding, Dongdong Yin, Jie Zhu, Li Zhang, Qiuhong Miao, Yingqi Zhu, Guijun Wang and Guangqing Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:140

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research

    Canine distemper (CD) is a highly contagious, systemic, viral disease of dogs seen worldwide. Despite intensive vaccination in developed countries, recent reports suggest both the re-emergence and increased ac...

    Authors: Eman Anis, Teresa K. Newell, Neil Dyer and Rebecca P. Wilkes

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:118

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Research

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes significant economic losses worldwide in the cattle industry through decrease in productive performance and immunosuppression of animals in herds. Recent studies condu...

    Authors: Kyung-Hyun Lee, Du-Gyeong Han, Suhee Kim, Eun-Jin Choi and Kyoung-Seong Choi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:115

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Research

    Reovirus type-3 infections cause severe pathologies in young mice and thus influence animal experiments in many ways. Therefore, the Federation of Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) recommends an ...

    Authors: Felix Fingas, Daniela Volke, Petra Bielefeldt, Rayk Hassert and Ralf Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:114

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Research

    Emergence and re-emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in North America, Asia and Europe has caused severe economic loss to the global swine industry. However, the virome of PEDV infected pigs an...

    Authors: Qi Chen, Leyi Wang, Ying Zheng, Jianqiang Zhang, Baoqing Guo, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Phillip C. Gauger, Karen M. Harmon, Rodger G. Main and Ganwu Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:95

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research

    Vesiviruses (family Caliciviridae) had been shown capable of invading a variety of host species, raising concern of their zoonotic potential. Since the 1980’s, several canine caliciviruses (CaCV) isolates have be...

    Authors: Leonard N. Binn, Erica A. Norby, Ruth H. Marchwicki, Richard G. Jarman, Paul B. Keiser and Jun Hang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:39

    Published on:

  20. Content type: Research

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a lethal infectious disease in suckling piglets with symptoms including watery diarrhea caused by PED virus (PEDV). Since the late 1990’s, live vaccines based on genogroup 1 ...

    Authors: Tetsuo Sato, Kazuki Oroku, Yoshiyuki Ohshima, Yoshiaki Furuya and Chihiro Sasakawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:28

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research

    Virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV, avian Avulavirus-1, APMV-1) induces a highly contagious and lethal systemic disease in gallinaceous poultry. APMV-1 antibody detection is used for surveillance and to con...

    Authors: Na Zhao, Christian Grund, Martin Beer and Timm C. Harder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:8

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Review

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been epidemic more than 30 years in America and 20 years in China. It is still one of the most important causative agents to the worldwide swine ...

    Authors: Zhenhua Guo, Xin-xin Chen, Rui Li, Songlin Qiao and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:2

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research

    DNA-launched infectious system is a useful tool with high rescue efficiency that allows the introduction of mutations in specific positions to investigate the function of an individual viral element. Rescued v...

    Authors: Junhao Chen, Ruihua Zhang, Shaoli Lin, Pengfei Li, Jingjing Lan, Zhijing Xie, Yu Wang and Shijin Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:212

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative pathogen of Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease of swine. Viperin is one of the hundreds of interferon-stimulat...

    Authors: Wenliang Li, Li Mao, Yongguo Cao, Bin Zhou, Leilei Yang, Linxiao Han, Fei Hao, Tao Lin, Wenwen Zhang and Jieyuan Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:202

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Short Report

    Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus ...

    Authors: Qiaoling Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yonglu Wang and Yongguang Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:194

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Research

    The Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein in canine distemper virus (CDV), playing an important role in CDV viral replication and assembly.

    Authors: Li Yi, Zhigang Cao, Mingwei Tong, Yuening Cheng, Yong Yang, Shuang Li, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Yaru Sun, Miao Zhang and Shipeng Cheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:187

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Research

    For many years, ND has been one of the most important infectious pigeon diseases in China. In recent years, a high mortality has been observed in ND-infected pigeons in China. Mortality is from 40% to 80% or 1...

    Authors: Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Shengqing Yu, Shichao Li, Tingting Ren, Weifeng Yuan, Shuqin Xu, Yingjie Sun, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu and Chan Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:186

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research

    Currently, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogens in swine in most countries, especially China. Two PRRSV attenuated live vaccine ...

    Authors: Chaoliang Leng, Wuchao Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Hongyue Zhai, Mingliang Li, Zhen Li, Chunxiao Liu, Tongqing An, Jinmei Peng, Qian Wang, Yumin Leng, Xuehui Cai, Zhijun Tian and Guangzhi Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:159

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Short Report

    Astroviruses (AstVs) have been reported to infect and cause gastroenteritis in most animal species. Human AstVs were regarded the causative agent of viral diarrhea in children. In dogs, little is known about t...

    Authors: Huabo Zhou, Lin Liu, Ruikai Li, Yifeng Qin, Qingli Fang, Vinod RMT Balasubramaniam, Guojun Wang, Zuzhang Wei, Kang Ouyang, Weijian Huang and Ying Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:156

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has leaded to an enormous loss per year to the swine industry, its etiology porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly mutated ...

    Authors: Linyang Yu, Pandeng Zhao, Jianguo Dong, Yanling Liu, Leyi Zhang, Pengshuai Liang, Lei Wang and Changxu Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:139

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failures in sows and respiratory diseases in growing pigs, resulting in huge economic loss for the pig production worldwide. The ...

    Authors: Xuexia Wen, Ting Bian, Zhibang Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang and Kangzhen Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:125

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research

    Canine distemper (CD) is a widespread infectious disease that can severely impact a variety of species in the order Carnivora, as well as non-carnivore species such as non-human primates. Despite large-scale v...

    Authors: Otávio Valério de Carvalho, Daniele Mendes Félix, Claudia de Camargo Tozato, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Lindomar José Pena and Abelardo Silva-Júnior

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:124

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of PRRS, has two distinct and highly diverse genotypes (genotype 1 and genotype 2) in the field. Accurate diagnosis and differen...

    Authors: Zhibang Zhang, Xuexia Wen, Jianguo Dong, Xinna Ge, Lei Zhou, Hanchun Yang and Xin Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:116

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research

    Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a respiratory pathogen of chickens that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Major advances in the study of the molecular biol...

    Authors: Steven J. van Beurden, Alinda J. Berends, Annika Krämer-Kühl, Dieuwertje Spekreijse, Gilles Chénard, Hans-Christian Philipp, Egbert Mundt, Peter J. M. Rottier and M. Hélène Verheije

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:109

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Research

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious fatal infectious disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). A better understanding of CSFV replication is important for the study of pathogenic mec...

    Authors: Qianyi Zhang, Lu Xu, Yujie Zhang, Tuanjie Wang, Xingqi Zou, Yuanyuan Zhu, Yan Zhao, Cui Li, Kai Chen, Yongfang Sun, Junxiang Sun, Qizu Zhao and Qin Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:81

    Published on:

  36. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows and acute respiratory disease in young pigs. It is a leading infectious agent of swine respiratory compl...

    Authors: Alexandria Van Noort, April Nelsen, Angela E. Pillatzki, Diego G. Diel, Feng Li, Eric Nelson and Xiuqing Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:76

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research

    Changes in the levels of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum of humans and animals have been detected as a result of infection with a variety of viruses. However, to date, such a miRNA profiling study ...

    Authors: Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt, George Smoliga, Michael LaRocco, Joseph Gutkoska and Paul Lawrence

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:71

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research

    We developed a new oligonucleotide microarray comprising 16 identical subarrays for simultaneous rapid detection of avian viruses: avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infection bronchit...

    Authors: Kulyaisan T. Sultankulova, Nurlan S. Kozhabergenov, Vitaliy M. Strochkov, Yerbol D. Burashev, Kamshat A. Shorayeva, Olga V. Chervyakova, Nurkuisa M. Rametov, Nurlan T. Sandybayev, Abylay R. Sansyzbay and Mukhit B. Orynbayev

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:69

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused several outbreaks in China since 2006. However, the genetic diversity of PRRSV in China has greatly increased by rapid evolution or recomb...

    Authors: Huajian Zhao, Qinggong Han, Lei Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yufeng Wu, Hong Shen and Ping Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:67

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Research

    Sapovirus (SaV), a member of the family Caliciviridae, is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in humans and pigs. To date, both intra- and inter-genogroup recombinant strains have been reported in many countrie...

    Authors: Jingjiao Li, Quan Shen, Wen Zhang, Tingting Zhao, Yi Li, Jing Jiang, Xiangqian Yu, Zhibo Guo, Li Cui and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:57

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research

    Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AI) are two of the most important diseases of poultry, causing severe economic losses in the global poultry industry. Vaccination is an effective w...

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Huiming Yang, Hongjun Xu, Zengbin Ma and Guozhong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:56

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research

    Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical pr...

    Authors: Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang and Hung-Jen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:53

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Short report

    Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) has been discovered on pig farms worldwide and can cause myocarditis in piglets and reproductive failure in sows. However, little is known about the host transcriptional respo...

    Authors: Jia Wei, Haixia Zhang, Xiangrong Li, Qiongyi Li, Zhongren Ma, Jialin Bai, Zilin Qiao and Ruofei Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:45

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research

    Avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) viruses are globally distributed, infect wild, peridomestic, and domestic birds, and sometimes lead to outbreaks of disease. Thus, the maintenance, evolution, and spread...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ramey, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Joseph T. Hicks, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Rebecca L. Poulson, David E. Stallknecht, Justin Bahl and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:43

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research

    Licensed antiviral therapeutics and vaccines to protect against eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in humans currently do not exist. Animal models that faithfully recapitulate the clinical characteristic...

    Authors: Aimee I. Porter, Rebecca A. Erwin-Cohen, Nancy Twenhafel, Taylor Chance, Steven B. Yee, Steven J. Kern, David Norwood, Laurie J. Hartman, Michael D. Parker, Pamela J. Glass and Luis DaSilva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:25

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:51

  46. Content type: Research

    The infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) causes significant economic losses in Chilean salmon farming. For effective sanitary management, the IPNV strains present in Chile need to be fully studied, char...

    Authors: René A. Manríquez, Tamara Vera, Melina V. Villalba, Alejandra Mancilla, Vikram N. Vakharia, Alejandro J. Yañez and Juan G. Cárcamo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:17

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious, immunosuppressive disease in chickens. The virus mainly infects immature B lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Chicken B cell line DT4...

    Authors: Rong Quan, Shanshan Zhu, Li Wei, Jing Wang, Xu Yan, Zixuan Li and Jue Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:7

    Published on:

  48. Content type: Research

    Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to preven...

    Authors: Leonardo Susta, Ying He, Jessica M. Hutcheson, Yangqing Lu, Franklin D. West, Steven L. Stice, Ping Yu, Zaid Abdo and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:205

    Published on: