Skip to main content


Negative-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Bert Rima, Queen’s University Belfast, UK
Deputy Section Editor: John Barr, University of Leeds, UK ​​​​​​​

The Negative-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal aims to publish research articles and reviews covering all aspects of segmented and non-segmented negative strand RNA viruses from all eukaryotes. Basic research topics of interest include aspects of the viral life cycle: viral entry, intracellular capsid transport and disassembly, viral gene expression/regulation, protein processing/regulation, viral genome replication, particle assembly and egress as wells as virus-host interactions. Medical research topics of interest include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, immunology, therapies and emergence of drug-resistant variants. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Interdisciplinary research on these viruses using multiple approaches is particularly welcome.

Page 1 of 2

  1. Content type: Research

    Rabies virus (RABV), a member of Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae family, is a kind of negative-strand RNA virus. The zoonosis caused by RABV leads to high mortality in animals and humans. Though with the extensive...

    Authors: Jie Gao, Xinyu Wang, Mingxin Zhao, Enhua Liu, Ming Duan, Zhenhong Guan, Yidi Guo and Maolin Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:80

    Published on:

  2. Content type: Short report

    Cellular protein eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) is an actin binding protein that plays a role in the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) bundles. F-Actin regulates multiple stages of ...

    Authors: Natale Snape, Dongsheng Li, Ting Wei, Hongping Jin, Mary Lor, Daniel J. Rawle, Kirsten M. Spann and David Harrich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:182

    Published on:

  3. Content type: Research

    Newcastle disease (ND) outbreaks are global challenges to the poultry industry. Effective management requires rapid identification and virulence prediction of the circulating Newcastle disease viruses (NDV), t...

    Authors: Salman L. Butt, Tonya L. Taylor, Jeremy D. Volkening, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Dawn Williams-Coplin, Kevin K. Lahmers, Patti J. Miller, Asif M. Rana, David L. Suarez, Claudio L. Afonso and James B. Stanton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:179

    Published on:

  4. Content type: Research

    Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis. To detect RVF virus (RVFV) infection, indirect immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) which ut...

    Authors: Fuxun Yu, Ferdinard Adungo, Samson Limbaso Konongoi, Shingo Inoue, Rosemary Sang, Salame Ashur, Allan ole Kwallah, Leo Uchida, Corazon C Buerano, Matilu Mwau, Yan Zha, Yingjie Nie and Kouichi Morita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:178

    Published on:

  5. Content type: Research

    Rabies is a fatal disease that is preventable when post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is administered in a timely fashion. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) can trigger cells that express Toll-like receptor 9, and...

    Authors: Pengcheng Yu, Jianghong Yan, Weicheng Wu, Xiaoyan Tao, Xuexin Lu, Shuqing Liu and Wuyang Zhu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:174

    Published on:

  6. Content type: Research

    Measles (MEV) and mumps virus (MUV) are enveloped, non-segmented, negative single stranded RNA viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae, and are the cause of measles and mumps, respectively, both preventable by vacc...

    Authors: Dora Sviben, Dubravko Forcic, Beata Halassy, Günter Allmaier, Martina Marchetti-Deschmann and Marija Brgles

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:160

    Published on:

  7. Content type: Research

    Lokern virus (LOKV) is a poorly characterized arthropod-borne virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus (family Peribunyaviridae). All viruses in this genus have tripartite, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA...

    Authors: Chandra S. Tangudu, Jermilia Charles and Bradley J. Blitvich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:122

    Published on:

  8. Content type: Research

    Small hydrophobic (SH) gene is one of the mostly diverse genomic regions of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). Its coding region constitutes less than 50% of the complete gene length, enabling SH gene t...

    Authors: Jelena Ivancic-Jelecki, Anamarija Slovic, Sunčanica Ljubin-Sternak, Gordana Mlinarić Galinović and Dubravko Forcic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:109

    Published on:

  9. Content type: Research

    In September 2009, a mumps outbreak originated in New York and spread to Northeastern USA and Canada. This study compares the performance of different diagnostic testing methods used in Ontario and describes m...

    Authors: Arnaud G. L’Huillier, Alireza Eshaghi, C. Sarai Racey, Katherene Ogbulafor, Ernesto Lombos, Rachel R. Higgins, David C. Alexander, Erik Kristjanson, Jocelyn Maregmen, Jonathan B. Gubbay and Tony Mazzulli

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:98

    Published on:

  10. Content type: Research

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on di...

    Authors: Xiang Yong Oong, Jack Bee Chook, Kim Tien Ng, Wei Zhen Chow, Kok Gan Chan, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Yong Kek Pang, Yoke Fun Chan, Adeeba Kamarulzaman and Kok Keng Tee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:91

    Published on:

  11. Content type: Research

    Hendra virus and Nipah virus are zoonotic viruses that have caused severe to fatal disease in livestock and human populations. The isolation of Cedar virus, a non-pathogenic virus species in the genus Henipavirus

    Authors: Eric D. Laing, Moushimi Amaya, Chanakha K. Navaratnarajah, Yan-Ru Feng, Roberto Cattaneo, Lin-Fa Wang and Christopher C. Broder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:56

    Published on:

  12. Content type: Research

    Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus (DENV) infection has been identified as the main risk factor for severe dengue disease, although the underlying mechanisms leading to severe dengue fever re...

    Authors: Liming Jiang and Qiangming Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:50

    Published on:

  13. Content type: Research

    The specific and dynamic interaction between the hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) proteins of morbilliviruses is a prerequisite for the conformational rearrangements and membrane fusion during infection proces...

    Authors: Xuelian Meng, Ruixue Deng, Xueliang Zhu and Zhidong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:21

    Published on:

  14. Content type: Research

    Rodent borne viruses of the Orthohantavirus genus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome among people in Eurasia, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. At present, there are no specific tr...

    Authors: Julia Wigren Byström, Jonas Näslund, Fredrik Trulsson, Magnus Evander, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Clas Ahlm and Göran Bucht

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:18

    Published on:

  15. Content type: Research

    Newcastle disease viruses (NDV) are highly contagious and cause disease in both wild birds and poultry. A pigeon-adapted variant of genotype VI NDV, often termed pigeon paramyxovirus 1, is commonly isolated fr...

    Authors: Ying He, Tonya L. Taylor, Kiril M. Dimitrov, Salman L. Butt, James B. Stanton, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Heather Fenton, Rebecca Poulson, Jian Zhang, Corrie C. Brown, Hon S. Ip, Marcos Isidoro-Ayza and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:9

    Published on:

  16. Content type: Methodology

    Newcastle disease is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This virus is distributed worldwide and it can cause severe economic losses in the poultr...

    Authors: Ana Chumbe, Ray Izquierdo-Lara, Katherine Calderón, Manolo Fernández-Díaz and Vikram N. Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:232

    Published on:

  17. Content type: Methodology

    Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cos...

    Authors: Lina S. Franco, Susan A. Holechek, Michael R. Caplan and Joseph N. Blattman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:197

    Published on:

  18. Content type: Short Report

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from...

    Authors: Yanhong Wang, Youkun Bi, Wanqi Yu, Ning Wei, Wenbin Wang, Qiaolin Wei, Xinglong Wang, Shuxia Zhang, Zengqi Yang and Sa Xiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:185

    Published on:

  19. Content type: Research

    As rabies still represents a major public threat with tens of thousands of deaths per year, particularly in developing countries, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both hum...

    Authors: Kore Schlottau, Conrad M. Freuling, Thomas Müller, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:184

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:225

  20. Content type: Research

    Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative target...

    Authors: Winke Van der Gucht, Annelies Leemans, Marjorie De Schryver, Annick Heykers, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Paul Cos and Peter L. Delputte

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:157

    Published on:

  21. Content type: Research

    Hantaan and Seoul viruses, in the Hantavirus genus, are known to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), as conventional neutralization test for han...

    Authors: Weihong Li, Shouchun Cao, Quanfu Zhang, Jiandong Li, Shuo Zhang, Wei Wu, Jing Qu, Chuan Li, Mifang Liang and Dexin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:133

    Published on:

  22. Content type: Short Paper

    Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of...

    Authors: Mako Yanai, Madoka Sakai, Akiko Makino and Keizo Tomonaga

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:126

    Published on:

  23. Content type: Research

    Rabies is an important viral zoonosis that causes acute encephalitis and death in mammals. To date, several recombinant vaccines have been developed based on G protein, which is considered to be the main antig...

    Authors: Ha-Hyun Kim, Dong-Kun Yang, Jin-Ju Nah, Jae-Young Song and In-Soo Cho

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:122

    Published on:

  24. Content type: Research

    Rabies is an important but underestimated threat to public health, with most cases reported in Asia. Since 2000, a new epidemic wave of rabies has emerged in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which borders ...

    Authors: Yuzhen Zhang, Bram Vrancken, Yun Feng, Simon Dellicour, Qiqi Yang, Weihong Yang, Yunzhi Zhang, Lu Dong, Oliver G. Pybus, Hailin Zhang and Huaiyu Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:102

    Published on:

  25. Content type: Methodology

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows ultra-deep sequencing of nucleic acids. The use of sequence-independent amplification of viral nucleic acids without utilization of target-specific primers provides adva...

    Authors: Kiril M. Dimitrov, Poonam Sharma, Jeremy D. Volkening, Iryna V. Goraichuk, Abdul Wajid, Shafqat Fatima Rehmani, Asma Basharat, Ismaila Shittu, Tony M. Joannis, Patti J. Miller and Claudio L. Afonso

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:72

    Published on:

  26. Content type: Short report

    Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important fish pathogen that causes high mortality in farmed Atlantic salmon. The ISAV genome consists of eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments. The six la...

    Authors: Wenting Zhang, Chengzhi Cai, Li Lin, Yizhi Jane Tao and Meilin Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:30

    Published on:

  27. Content type: Methodology

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important, Office International des Epizooties (OIE) notifiable, transboundary viral disease of small ruminants such as sheep and goat. PPR virus (PPRV), a n...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Xiaodong Qin, Yiming Song, Wei Zhang, Gaowei Hu, Yongxi Dou, Yanmin Li and Zhidong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:24

    Published on:

  28. Content type: Research

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by hantavirus infection is characterized by fever, renal dysfunction and hemorrhage. An animal model mimicking symptoms of HFRS remains to be established. In...

    Authors: Kenta Shimizu, Takaaki Koma, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Yoshimi Tsuda, Yuji Isegawa and Jiro Arikawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:13

    Published on:

  29. Content type: Research

    The viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is one of the most serious fish pathogens. In 2003, a novel sublineage (genotype IVb) of this deadly virus emerged in the Great Lakes basin causing serious fish ki...

    Authors: Isaac F. Standish, Elena V. Millard, Travis O. Brenden and Mohamed Faisal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:203

    Published on:

  30. Content type: Research

    The canonical genome organization of measles virus (MV) is characterized by total size of 15 894 nucleotides (nts) and defined length of every genomic region, both coding and non-coding. Only rarely have repor...

    Authors: Jelena Ivancic-Jelecki, Anamarija Slovic, Maja Šantak, Goran Tešović and Dubravko Forcic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:134

    Published on:

  31. Content type: Short report

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain...

    Authors: Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Michiko Okamoto, Yuki Furuse, Raita Tamaki, Akira Suzuki, Irene Lirio, Clyde Dapat, Rungnapa Malasao, Mariko Saito, Gay Anne Granada Pedrera-Rico, Veronica Tallo, Socorro Lupisan, Mayuko Saito and Hitoshi Oshitani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:113

    Published on:

  32. Content type: Research

    Research with high biocontainment pathogens such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) and Lassa virus (LASV) is expensive, potentially hazardous, and limited to select institutions. Surrogate pathogens such as Pu...

    Authors: Christopher P. Stefan, Kitty Chase, Susan Coyne, David A. Kulesh, Timothy D. Minogue and Jeffrey W. Koehler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:54

    Published on:

  33. Content type: Research

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause recurrent and severe respiratory tract infections. Cytoskeletal proteins are often involved during viral infections, either for cell entry or the initiation of the i...

    Authors: Jop Jans, Hicham elMoussaoui, Ronald de Groot, Marien I. de Jonge and Gerben Ferwerda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:52

    Published on:

  34. Content type: Research

    Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) causes severe losses to the animal husbandry industry. In this study, a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) of VSV (rL-VSV-G) was construc...

    Authors: Minmin Zhang, Jinying Ge, Xiaofang Li, Weiye Chen, Xijun Wang, Zhiyuan Wen and Zhigao Bu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:31

    Published on:

  35. Content type: Short report

    Rodents are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses, which cause two disease types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Hantaviruses related human ca...

    Authors: Xing-Yi Ge, Wei-Hong Yang, Hong Pan, Ji-Hua Zhou, Xi Han, Guang-Jian Zhu, James S. Desmond, Peter Daszak, Zheng-Li Shi and Yun-Zhi Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:27

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2016 13:75

  36. Content type: Research

    During respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection filamentous virus particles are formed on the cell surface. Although the virus infectivity remains cell-associated, low levels of cell-free virus is detected ...

    Authors: Tra Nguyen Huong, Laxmi Iyer Ravi, Boon Huan Tan and Richard J. Sugrue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:12

    Published on:

  37. Content type: Research

    Mumps virus is a negative-sense, single stranded RNA virus consisting of a ribonucleocapsid core enveloped by a lipid membrane derived from host cell, which causes mumps disease preventable by vaccination. Sin...

    Authors: Marija Brgles, Maximilian Bonta, Maja Šantak, Maja Jagušić, Dubravko Forčić, Beata Halassy, Günter Allmaier and Martina Marchetti-Deschmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:9

    Published on:

  38. Content type: Research

    The strains of the genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) induce more severe tissue damage in lymphoid organs than other virulent strains. The underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood.

    Authors: Yan Kai, Zenglei Hu, Haixu Xu, Shunlin Hu, Jie Zhu, Jiao Hu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiaowen Liu and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:133

    Published on:

  39. Content type: Research

    The strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can be divided into two distinct clades: class I and class II. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available for the class I virus at live bird m...

    Authors: Jie Zhu, Haixu Xu, Jingjing Liu, Zhenzhen Zhao, Shunlin Hu, Xiaoquan Wang and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:211

    Published on:

  40. Content type: Short report

    In the frame of active lyssavirus surveillance in bats, oropharyngeal swabs from German (N = 2297) and Danish (N = 134) insectivorous bats were investigated using a newly developed generic pan-lyssavirus real-...

    Authors: Melina Fischer, Conrad M Freuling, Thomas Müller, Juliane Schatz, Thomas Bruun Rasmussen, Mariann Chriel, Anne Balkema-Buschmann, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:196

    Published on:

  41. Content type: Research

    Avian bornaviruses (ABV) are a recently described group of intranuclear negative-stranded RNA viruses (Order Mononegavirales, Family Bornaviridae). At least 13 different ABV genotypes have been described. One gen...

    Authors: Jianhua Guo, H L Shivaprasad, Raquel R Rech, Jill J Heatley, Ian Tizard and Susan Payne

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:197

    Published on:

  42. Content type: Research

    There are no approved small molecule drug therapies for human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), a cause of morbidity and mortality in at-risk newborns, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. We have investi...

    Authors: Adam B Shapiro, Ning Gao, Nichole O’Connell, Jun Hu, Jason Thresher, Rong-Fang Gu, Ross Overman, Ian M Hardern and Graham G Sproat

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:191

    Published on:

  43. Content type: Short report

    Protection against infection by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also designated as avian paramyxovirus subtype-1 (APMV-1), is mediated by immune responses to the two surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin-neurami...

    Authors: Christian Grund, Constanze Steglich, Eva Huthmann, Martin Beer, Thomas C Mettenleiter and Angela Römer-Oberdörfer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:179

    Published on:

  44. Content type: Research

    Rabies virus is the main etiologic agent of the widespread neurological disease rabies. Recently, the China rabies virus vaccine strain CTN-1 adapted to chicken embryo cells, which has been designated as CTNCE...

    Authors: Shimao Zhu, Chunhua Wang, Pei Zhang, Hui Li, Shan Luo and Caiping Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:176

    Published on:

  45. Content type: Research

    The influenza RNA dependent RNA polymerase synthesizes viral RNA in the nucleus as functional viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes with RNA and nucleoprotein (NP). The N-terminus of NP contains an unconven...

    Authors: Abel Sanchez, Christian F Guerrero-Juarez, Jose Ramirez and Laura L Newcomb

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:155

    Published on:

  46. Content type: Research

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genoty...

    Authors: Yinfeng Kang, Yanling Li, Runyu Yuan, Xianwei Li, Minhua Sun, Zhaoxiong Wang, Minsha Feng, Peirong Jiao and Tao Ren

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:147

    Published on:

  47. Content type: Research

    The use of sequence independent methods combined with next generation sequencing for identification purposes in clinical samples appears promising and exciting results have been achieved to understand unexplai...

    Authors: Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Maarten F Jebbink, Martin Deijs, Marta Canuti, Salmaan Sharif, Michel de Vries, Adnan Khurshid, Tariq Mahmood, Lia van der Hoek and SyedSohail Zahoor Zaidi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:146

    Published on: