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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Alexander A Khromykh, University of Queensland, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Michael Beard, University of Adelaide, Australia

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes enteric infection in piglets, characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea and dehydration, and the mortality in suckling piglets is often high up to 100%. Vacci...

    Authors: Fujie Zhao, Lintao Liu, Menglong Xu, Xiangli Shu, Lanlan Zheng and Zhanyong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:163

    Content type: Research

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  2. Although acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has been reported as a common infectious disease in children, there is scarce information about enterovirus (EV) circulating associated with AGE cases in Brazil. The purpos...

    Authors: Raiana Scerni Machado, Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr., Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, James Lima Ferreira, Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves and Fernando Neto Tavares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Human pegivirus (HPgV)—formerly known as GBV-C—is a member of the Flaviviridae family and belongs to the species Pegivirus C. It is a non-pathogenic virus and is transmitted among humans mainly through the exposu...

    Authors: Aniel de Sarom Negrão Silva, Clayton Pereira Silva, Rafael Ribeiro Barata, Pedro Victor Reis da Silva, Patrícia Danin Jordão Monteiro, Letícia Lamarão, Rommel Mário Rodríguez Burbano, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes and Patrícia Danielle Lima de Lima

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:153

    Content type: Research

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  4. Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SA...

    Authors: Johanna Signer, Hulda R. Jonsdottir, Werner C. Albrich, Marc Strasser, Roland Züst, Sarah Ryter, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Nicole Lenz, Denise Siegrist, Andreas Suter, Roland Schoop and Olivier B. Engler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:136

    Content type: Research

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  5. Recent study has shown that the C-terminal portion of 3A (amino acids (aa) 81–153) is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cell culture, however, the complete C-terminal portion (aa 77...

    Authors: Pinghua Li, Xueqing Ma, Xingwen Bai, Pu Sun, Hong Yuan, Yimei Cao, Kun Li, Huifang Bao, Yuanfang Fu, Jing Zhang, Yingli Chen, Dong Li, Zhiyong Li, Zengjun Lu and Zaixin Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:137

    Content type: Research

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  6. Currently, one of the most reliable methods for viral infection detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays. This process is time and resource heavy, requiring multiple steps of lysis, extractio...

    Authors: Zachary P. Morehouse, Caleb M. Proctor, Gabriella L. Ryan and Rodney J. Nash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:129

    Content type: Short report

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  7. The incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been dramatically reduced in China after sufficient vaccine coverage. The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine SA14–14-2 is believed to have...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Zheng, Xiaozheng Yu, Yan Wang, Lance Turtle, Min Cui, Ran Wang and Chenghong Yin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:126

    Content type: Research

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  8. The oxygen levels organ and tissue microenvironments vary depending on the distance of their vasculature from the left ventricle of the heart. For instance, the oxygen levels of lymph nodes and the spleen are ...

    Authors: Esther Shuyi Gan and Eng Eong Ooi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:115

    Content type: Review

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  9. Three different genotypes of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been classified: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Previously, a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Ralph Huits, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E. Nakayama, Riemsdijk van den Berg, Barbara Barbé, Lieselotte Cnops, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Marjan van Esbroeck, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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  10. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) of the family Coronaviridae has caused substantial economic losses in the swine husbandry industry. There’s currently no specific drug available for treatment of coronavirus...

    Authors: Cui-Cui Li and Xiao-Jia Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:71

    Content type: Research

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  11. Tembusu virus (TMUV), a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus, spreads rapidly between ducks, causing massive economic losses in the Chinese duck industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent TM...

    Authors: Yuting Pan, Renyong Jia, Juping Li, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Juan Huang, Shaqiu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Yunya Liu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  12. The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encepha...

    Authors: Mayra Diosa-Toro, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Shelton S. Bradrick and Mariano A. Garcia Blanco

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Review

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  13. Prophylactic vaccines are critical in preventing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Children aged less than 5 years are especially susceptible to EV...

    Authors: Jiangning Liu, Binbin Zhao, Ling Xue, Jing Wu, Yanfeng Xu, Yongdong Liu and Chuan Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

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  14. Dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of thousands of people annually in Indonesia. However, DENV sequence data from the country are limited, as samples from outbreaks must be shipped across long-distances to s...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Barbara A. Blacklaws, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Rahma F. Hayati, Brian Schwem, Edsel M. Salvaña, Raul V. Destura, James S. Lester, Khin S. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Simon D. W. Frost

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  15. Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. In a previous study, we showed that miR-876-5p upregulation was observed in the serum of patients wi...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Hwa Xu, Hsu Sheng Cheng, Han-Hsiang Chan and Robert Y. L. Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  16. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. In the 2017, a dengue epidemic occurred in Hanoi in a short time interval and many cases were serious with associated mortality. ...

    Authors: Thuy Thi Dang, My Ha Pham, Huy Vu Bui and Duyet Van Le

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  17. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...

    Authors: Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ming-hui Li, Ju-ju Qi, Rui-huan Wang, Qing-xia Duan, Rui-qing Zhang, Tao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Guo-hao Fan, Yao Xie and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

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  18. Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV, genus Flaviviruses, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging flavivirus that can infect a wide range of cells and cell lines in vitro, though the initial step of virus invasion remains ob...

    Authors: Shaoxiong Wu, Zhen Wu, Yuanyuan Wu, Tao Wang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:134

    Content type: Research

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  19. Dengue is an important mosquito-borne disease. There is currently only one licensed vaccine for dengue prevention. The vaccine provides higher efficacy in pre-vaccination dengue-seropositive persons but a high...

    Authors: Chukiat Sirivichayakul, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Sutee Yoksan, Anuttarasakdi Ratchatatat, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Watcharee Arunsodsai and Arunee Sabchareon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:125

    Content type: Research

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  20. Conventional assays to titrate polioviruses usually test serial dilutions inoculated into replicate cell cultures to determine a 50% cytopathic endpoint, a process that is both time-consuming and laborious. Su...

    Authors: Hasmik Manukyan, Elvira Rodionova, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Tsai-Lien Lin, Konstantin Chumakov and Majid Laassri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:122

    Content type: Methodology

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  21. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused enormous economic losses to the global pig industry. Currently available PEDV vaccine strains have limited protective effects against PEDV variant strains.

    Authors: Yu Wu, Wei Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Qunhui Li, Zhichao Xu, Hanqin Shen and Feng Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:121

    Content type: Research

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  22. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the biggest challenges for human health in the world. In addition, a secondary DENV infection sometimes causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which frequently leads to ...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Emi E. Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Akio Egawa, Tairyu Sato, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:102

    Content type: Research

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  23. Coxsackievirus A10 (CA10) constitutes one of the four major pathogens causing hand, foot and mouth disease in infants. Infectious clones are of great importance for studying viral gene functions and pathogenic...

    Authors: Qiliang Liu, Hanliang Dan, Xiaoping Zhao, Huoying Chen, Yongbei Chen, Ning Zhang, Zhijing Mo and Hongbo Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:98

    Content type: Research

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  24. Dengue fever is a febrile disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), which affects people throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Indonesia. East Kalimantan (Borneo) province suffer...

    Authors: R. Tedjo Sasmono, Lily Pertiwi Kalalo, Suryani Trismiasih, Dionisius Denis, Benediktus Yohan, Rahma F. Hayati and Sotianingsih Haryanto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:93

    Content type: Research

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  25. Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals but, in the last few decades, have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Dewald Schoeman and Burtram C. Fielding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:69

    Content type: Review

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  26. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease, which is usually caused by enterovirus A (EV-A) serotypes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the main etiologic ag...

    Authors: Jie Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiansheng Liu and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:63

    Content type: Research

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  27. Dengue is hyperendemic in Colombia, where a cyclic behavior of serotype replacement leading to periodic epidemics has been observed for decades. This level of endemicity favors accumulation of dengue virus gen...

    Authors: Katherine Laiton-Donato, Diego A. Alvarez, Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal, Marcela Mercado, Nadim J. Ajami, Irene Bosch and José A. Usme-Ciro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:62

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Enterovirus C96 (EV-C96) is a newly named type of enterovirus belonging to species C, and the prototype strain (BAN00–10488) was firstly isolated in 2000 from a stool specimen of a patient with acute flaccid p...

    Authors: Lan Hu, Yong Zhang, Mei Hong, Qin Fan, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  29. Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted fr...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Joon Joon Khoo, Amreeta Dhanoa and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:26

    Content type: Research

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  30. Yokose virus was first isolated from bats (Miniopterus fuliginosus) collected in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1971, and is a new member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. In this study, we isolated a Yokose vir...

    Authors: Yun Feng, Xiaojie Ren, Ziqian Xu, Shihong Fu, Xiaolong Li, Hailin Zhang, Weihong Yang, Yuzhen Zhang and Guodong Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:8

    Content type: Research

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  31. Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes...

    Authors: Amanda L. Phelps, Lyn M. O’Brien, Lin S. Eastaugh, Carwyn Davies, Mark S. Lever, Jane Ennis, Larry Zeitlin, Alejandro Nunez and David O. Ulaeto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:2

    Content type: Research

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  32. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease caused by PED virus (PEDV), characterized by vomitting, watery diarrhea and fatal dehydration with high mortality in sucking pi...

    Authors: Yifeng Chen, Zhibang Zhang, Jie Li, Yueyi Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo and Hanchun Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:170

    Content type: Research

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  33. Zika virus (ZIKV) became a global human health concern owing to its rapid spread worldwide and its association with congenital and neurological disorders. The current epidemiological profile of arboviruses in ...

    Authors: Lívia Sacchetto, Danielle Alves Gomes Zauli, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Luige Biciati Alvim, Feliciana Lage de Oliveira Marinho, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Erna Geessien Kroon, Elvis Cristian Cueva Mateo and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:155

    Content type: Short report

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  34. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is emerging as a pathogenic coronavirus that causes a huge economic burden to the swine industry. Interaction of the viral spike (S) surface glycoprotein with the host ce...

    Authors: Lang Gong, Ying Lin, Jianru Qin, Qianniu Li, Chunyi Xue and Yongchang Cao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:133

    Content type: Research

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  35. Viral infection activates innate immune pathways and interferons (IFNs) play a pivotal role in the outcome of a viral infection. Ubiquitin modifications of host and viral proteins significantly influence the p...

    Authors: Tingting Feng, Lei Deng, Xiaochuan Lu, Wen Pan, Qihan Wu and Jianfeng Dai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:132

    Content type: Research

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  36. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne infection worldwide and a serious threat to global public health. Sporadic dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) imported cases from Myanmar have been documented almost ever...

    Authors: Zhaoping Zeng, Jiandong Shi, Xiaofang Guo, Ling Mo, Ningzhu Hu, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Hongning Zhou and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:131

    Content type: Research

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  37. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus within the family Togaviridae, which has attracted global attention due to its recent re-emergence. In one of our previous studies, we successfully i...

    Authors: Xiaomin Zhang, Yalan Huang, Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Chunli Wu, Dana Huang, Linghong Xiong, Chengsong Wan, Jinquan Cheng and Renli Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:130

    Content type: Research

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  38. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primarily known for their innate immune defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested their modulatory activity in imm...

    Authors: Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Sun-Hee Jang and Yong-Suk Jang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:124

    Content type: Research

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  39. Previous work indicated that an ultrashort pulse (USP) 425 nm laser is capable of inactivating murine norovirus (MNV: Virol. J. 11:20), perhaps via an impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) mechanism, an...

    Authors: David Kingsley, Robinson Kuis, Rafael Perez, Isaac Basaldua, Paul Burkins, Aristides Marcano and Anthony Johnson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:117

    Content type: Research

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  40. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system disease in children. There is currently no s...

    Authors: Chenguang Yao, Caili Xi, Kanghong Hu, Wa Gao, Xiaofeng Cai, Jinlan Qin, Shiyun Lv, Canghao Du and Yanhong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:116

    Content type: Research

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  41. Dengue virus (DENV) infection caused by international visitors has become a public health concern in China. Although sporadic imported cases of DENV have been documented in Yunnan, China since 2000, a complete...

    Authors: Ling Mo, Jiandong Shi, Xiaofang Guo, Zhaoping Zeng, Ningzhu Hu, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Hongning Zhou and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:113

    Content type: Research

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  42. Echoviruses, a serotype of enteroviruses, infect millions of people globally and there is no specific drug treatment or vaccine available for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for ...

    Authors: Omonike O. Ogbole, Toluwanimi E. Akinleye, Peter A. Segun, Temitope C. Faleye and Adekunle J. Adeniji

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:110

    Content type: Research

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  43. Astroviruses (AstVs) are responsible for infection of a large diversity of mammalian and avian species, including bats, aquatic birds, livestock and humans. We investigated AstVs circulation in bats in Mozambi...

    Authors: Flora Hoarau, Gildas Le Minter, Léa Joffrin, M. Corrie Schoeman, Erwan Lagadec, Beza Ramasindrazana, Andréa Dos Santos, Steven M. Goodman, Eduardo S. Gudo, Patrick Mavingui and Camille Lebarbenchon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:104

    Content type: Short report

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  44. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vector, and there is much overlap in endemic areas. In India, co-infection with both viruses is often reported....

    Authors: Jaspreet Jain, Tamaki Okabayashi, Navjot Kaur, Emi Nakayama, Tatsuo Shioda, Rajni Gaind, Takeshi Kurosu and Sujatha Sunil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:84

    Content type: Research

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  45. Zika virus infection in new born is linked to congenital syndromes, especially microcephaly. Studies have shown that these neuropathies are the result of significant death of neuronal progenitor cells in the c...

    Authors: Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N. Paradkar and Jean-Bernard Duchemin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:79

    Content type: Research

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  46. The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs).

    Authors: Mary Bridget Nanteza, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Annet Kisakye, Prossy Namuwulya, Henry Bukenya, Edson Katushabe, Josephine Bwogi, Charles Rutebarika Byabamazima, Raffaella Williams and Nicksy Gumede

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:77

    Content type: Research

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  47. Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies globally. Although progress has been made in surgical and other adjuvant therapies, there is still a great need to develop new appro...

    Authors: Yanzhen Lin, Wei Wang, Junkai Wan, Ying Yang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Tong Cheng, Xiumin Huang and Yifeng Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:65

    Content type: Research

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