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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Alexander A Khromykh, University of Queensland, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Michael Beard, University of Adelaide, Australia

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV, genus Flaviviruses, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging flavivirus that can infect a wide range of cells and cell lines in vitro, though the initial step of virus invasion remains ob...

    Authors: Shaoxiong Wu, Zhen Wu, Yuanyuan Wu, Tao Wang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:134

    Content type: Research

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  2. Dengue is an important mosquito-borne disease. There is currently only one licensed vaccine for dengue prevention. The vaccine provides higher efficacy in pre-vaccination dengue-seropositive persons but a high...

    Authors: Chukiat Sirivichayakul, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Sutee Yoksan, Anuttarasakdi Ratchatatat, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Watcharee Arunsodsai and Arunee Sabchareon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:125

    Content type: Research

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  3. Conventional assays to titrate polioviruses usually test serial dilutions inoculated into replicate cell cultures to determine a 50% cytopathic endpoint, a process that is both time-consuming and laborious. Su...

    Authors: Hasmik Manukyan, Elvira Rodionova, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Tsai-Lien Lin, Konstantin Chumakov and Majid Laassri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:122

    Content type: Methodology

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  4. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused enormous economic losses to the global pig industry. Currently available PEDV vaccine strains have limited protective effects against PEDV variant strains.

    Authors: Yu Wu, Wei Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Qunhui Li, Zhichao Xu, Hanqin Shen and Feng Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:121

    Content type: Research

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  5. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the biggest challenges for human health in the world. In addition, a secondary DENV infection sometimes causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which frequently leads to ...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Emi E. Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Akio Egawa, Tairyu Sato, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:102

    Content type: Research

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  6. Coxsackievirus A10 (CA10) constitutes one of the four major pathogens causing hand, foot and mouth disease in infants. Infectious clones are of great importance for studying viral gene functions and pathogenic...

    Authors: Qiliang Liu, Hanliang Dan, Xiaoping Zhao, Huoying Chen, Yongbei Chen, Ning Zhang, Zhijing Mo and Hongbo Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:98

    Content type: Research

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  7. Dengue fever is a febrile disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), which affects people throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Indonesia. East Kalimantan (Borneo) province suffer...

    Authors: R. Tedjo Sasmono, Lily Pertiwi Kalalo, Suryani Trismiasih, Dionisius Denis, Benediktus Yohan, Rahma F. Hayati and Sotianingsih Haryanto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:93

    Content type: Research

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  8. Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals but, in the last few decades, have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Dewald Schoeman and Burtram C. Fielding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:69

    Content type: Review

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  9. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease, which is usually caused by enterovirus A (EV-A) serotypes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the main etiologic ag...

    Authors: Jie Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiansheng Liu and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:63

    Content type: Research

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  10. Dengue is hyperendemic in Colombia, where a cyclic behavior of serotype replacement leading to periodic epidemics has been observed for decades. This level of endemicity favors accumulation of dengue virus gen...

    Authors: Katherine Laiton-Donato, Diego A. Alvarez, Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal, Marcela Mercado, Nadim J. Ajami, Irene Bosch and José A. Usme-Ciro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:62

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Enterovirus C96 (EV-C96) is a newly named type of enterovirus belonging to species C, and the prototype strain (BAN00–10488) was firstly isolated in 2000 from a stool specimen of a patient with acute flaccid p...

    Authors: Lan Hu, Yong Zhang, Mei Hong, Qin Fan, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  12. Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted fr...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Joon Joon Khoo, Amreeta Dhanoa and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:26

    Content type: Research

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  13. Yokose virus was first isolated from bats (Miniopterus fuliginosus) collected in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1971, and is a new member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. In this study, we isolated a Yokose vir...

    Authors: Yun Feng, Xiaojie Ren, Ziqian Xu, Shihong Fu, Xiaolong Li, Hailin Zhang, Weihong Yang, Yuzhen Zhang and Guodong Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:8

    Content type: Research

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  14. Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes...

    Authors: Amanda L. Phelps, Lyn M. O’Brien, Lin S. Eastaugh, Carwyn Davies, Mark S. Lever, Jane Ennis, Larry Zeitlin, Alejandro Nunez and David O. Ulaeto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:2

    Content type: Research

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  15. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease caused by PED virus (PEDV), characterized by vomitting, watery diarrhea and fatal dehydration with high mortality in sucking pi...

    Authors: Yifeng Chen, Zhibang Zhang, Jie Li, Yueyi Gao, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo and Hanchun Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:170

    Content type: Research

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  16. Zika virus (ZIKV) became a global human health concern owing to its rapid spread worldwide and its association with congenital and neurological disorders. The current epidemiological profile of arboviruses in ...

    Authors: Lívia Sacchetto, Danielle Alves Gomes Zauli, Galileu Barbosa Costa, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Luige Biciati Alvim, Feliciana Lage de Oliveira Marinho, Jônatas Santos Abrahão, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Erna Geessien Kroon, Elvis Cristian Cueva Mateo and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:155

    Content type: Short report

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  17. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is emerging as a pathogenic coronavirus that causes a huge economic burden to the swine industry. Interaction of the viral spike (S) surface glycoprotein with the host ce...

    Authors: Lang Gong, Ying Lin, Jianru Qin, Qianniu Li, Chunyi Xue and Yongchang Cao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:133

    Content type: Research

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  18. Viral infection activates innate immune pathways and interferons (IFNs) play a pivotal role in the outcome of a viral infection. Ubiquitin modifications of host and viral proteins significantly influence the p...

    Authors: Tingting Feng, Lei Deng, Xiaochuan Lu, Wen Pan, Qihan Wu and Jianfeng Dai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:132

    Content type: Research

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  19. Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne infection worldwide and a serious threat to global public health. Sporadic dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) imported cases from Myanmar have been documented almost ever...

    Authors: Zhaoping Zeng, Jiandong Shi, Xiaofang Guo, Ling Mo, Ningzhu Hu, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Hongning Zhou and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:131

    Content type: Research

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  20. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus within the family Togaviridae, which has attracted global attention due to its recent re-emergence. In one of our previous studies, we successfully i...

    Authors: Xiaomin Zhang, Yalan Huang, Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Chunli Wu, Dana Huang, Linghong Xiong, Chengsong Wan, Jinquan Cheng and Renli Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:130

    Content type: Research

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  21. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are primarily known for their innate immune defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. In addition, recent research has suggested their modulatory activity in imm...

    Authors: Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Sun-Hee Jang and Yong-Suk Jang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:124

    Content type: Research

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  22. Previous work indicated that an ultrashort pulse (USP) 425 nm laser is capable of inactivating murine norovirus (MNV: Virol. J. 11:20), perhaps via an impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) mechanism, an...

    Authors: David Kingsley, Robinson Kuis, Rafael Perez, Isaac Basaldua, Paul Burkins, Aristides Marcano and Anthony Johnson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:117

    Content type: Research

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  23. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is sometimes associated with severe central nervous system disease in children. There is currently no s...

    Authors: Chenguang Yao, Caili Xi, Kanghong Hu, Wa Gao, Xiaofeng Cai, Jinlan Qin, Shiyun Lv, Canghao Du and Yanhong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:116

    Content type: Research

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  24. Dengue virus (DENV) infection caused by international visitors has become a public health concern in China. Although sporadic imported cases of DENV have been documented in Yunnan, China since 2000, a complete...

    Authors: Ling Mo, Jiandong Shi, Xiaofang Guo, Zhaoping Zeng, Ningzhu Hu, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Hongning Zhou and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:113

    Content type: Research

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  25. Echoviruses, a serotype of enteroviruses, infect millions of people globally and there is no specific drug treatment or vaccine available for its management. The screening of medicinal plants used locally for ...

    Authors: Omonike O. Ogbole, Toluwanimi E. Akinleye, Peter A. Segun, Temitope C. Faleye and Adekunle J. Adeniji

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:110

    Content type: Research

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  26. Astroviruses (AstVs) are responsible for infection of a large diversity of mammalian and avian species, including bats, aquatic birds, livestock and humans. We investigated AstVs circulation in bats in Mozambi...

    Authors: Flora Hoarau, Gildas Le Minter, Léa Joffrin, M. Corrie Schoeman, Erwan Lagadec, Beza Ramasindrazana, Andréa Dos Santos, Steven M. Goodman, Eduardo S. Gudo, Patrick Mavingui and Camille Lebarbenchon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:104

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are arboviruses that share the same Aedes mosquito vector, and there is much overlap in endemic areas. In India, co-infection with both viruses is often reported....

    Authors: Jaspreet Jain, Tamaki Okabayashi, Navjot Kaur, Emi Nakayama, Tatsuo Shioda, Rajni Gaind, Takeshi Kurosu and Sujatha Sunil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:84

    Content type: Research

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  28. Zika virus infection in new born is linked to congenital syndromes, especially microcephaly. Studies have shown that these neuropathies are the result of significant death of neuronal progenitor cells in the c...

    Authors: Julie Gaburro, Asim Bhatti, Vinod Sundaramoorthy, Megan Dearnley, Diane Green, Saeid Nahavandi, Prasad N. Paradkar and Jean-Bernard Duchemin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:79

    Content type: Research

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  29. The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs).

    Authors: Mary Bridget Nanteza, Barnabas Bakamutumaho, Annet Kisakye, Prossy Namuwulya, Henry Bukenya, Edson Katushabe, Josephine Bwogi, Charles Rutebarika Byabamazima, Raffaella Williams and Nicksy Gumede

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:77

    Content type: Research

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  30. Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies globally. Although progress has been made in surgical and other adjuvant therapies, there is still a great need to develop new appro...

    Authors: Yanzhen Lin, Wei Wang, Junkai Wan, Ying Yang, Wenkun Fu, Dequan Pan, Linli Cai, Tong Cheng, Xiumin Huang and Yifeng Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:65

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Cardioviruses cause severe illnesses in rodents and humans. In recent years, novel cardioviruses have been frequently found, which promoted further studies of the genetic diversity of cardioviruses. Using vira...

    Authors: Yan Wang, Jing Zhao, Min Zheng, Zhijian Liu, Wang Li, Xingli Fu, Yuan Lin, Jiaqi Yuan, Jieji Zhao, Quan Shen, Xiaochun Wang, Hua Wang and Shixing Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:58

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is generally associated with mild disease. However, recently eight genotype 3 HEV isolates were identified from patients with severe hepatitis. Importantly, three m...

    Authors: Dianjun Cao, Yan-Yan Ni and Xiang-Jin Meng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:32

    Content type: Research

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  33. Dengue, caused by one of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1 to − 4), is a mosquito-borne disease of serious global health significance. Reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tests, along w...

    Authors: Tesfaye Gelanew and Elizabeth Hunsperger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:30

    Content type: Methodology

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  34. Recreational water contaminated with fecal pollution poses a great public health concern, as fecal waste may cause serious waterborne illnesses. Current recreational water standards using fecal indicator bacte...

    Authors: Hui Zhu, Fang Yuan, Zhaokang Yuan, Rong Liu, Fei Xie, Ling Huang, Xiaojun Liu, Xiaoqing Jiang, Jian Wang, Qunying Xu, Zhiqiang Shen, Donghan Liu, Ronghao Zhang and Yuanan Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:3

    Content type: Research

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  35. Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was previously known to enter cells through clathrin or caveolar mediated endocytic pathways. However, we observed chlorpromazine (CPZ) or dynasore (DNS), which inhibit clathrin and...

    Authors: Meichun Yuan, Jingjing Yan, Jingna Xun, Chong Chen, Yuling Zhang, Min Wang, Wenqi Chu, Zhigang Song, Yunwen Hu, Shuye Zhang and Xiaoyan Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:1

    Content type: Research

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  36. Enterovirus (EV) infection has been a serious health issue in Asia-Pacific region. It has been indicated that the occurrence of fatal hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases following EV71 infection is mainly...

    Authors: Yuefei Jin, Chao Zhang, Rongguang Zhang, Jingchao Ren, Shuaiyin Chen, Meili Sui, Guangyuan Zhou, Dejian Dang, Jiehui Zhu, Huifen Feng, Yuanlin Xi, Haiyan Yang and Guangcai Duan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:243

    Content type: Research

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  37. This review summarized the molecular determinants of the acid stability of FMDV in order to explore the uncoating mechanism of FMDV and improve the acid stability of vaccines.

    Authors: Hong Yuan, Pinghua Li, Xueqing Ma, Zengjun Lu, Pu Sun, Xingwen Bai, Jing Zhang, Huifang Bao, Yimei Cao, Dong Li, Yuanfang Fu, Yingli Chen, Qifeng Bai, Jie Zhang and Zaixin Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:233

    Content type: Review

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  38. More than a decade after the outbreak of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) SARS in Guangdong province and Hong Kong SAR of China in 2002, there is still no reoccurrence, but the evolution and recombination of the co...

    Authors: Peilin Liu, Lei Shi, Wei Zhang, Jianan He, Chunxiao Liu, Chunzhong Zhao, Siu Kai Kong, Jacky Fong Chuen Loo, Dayong Gu and Longfei Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:230

    Content type: Research

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  39. The rapid rise and spread in dengue cases, together with the unavailability of safe vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, warrant the need to discover and develop novel anti-dengue treatments. In this study ...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Bimo A. Tejo, Miaw Fang Chew, Hong Wai Tham and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:229

    Content type: Research

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  40. Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Afri...

    Authors: Khalil Kreidieh, Rana Charide, Ghassan Dbaibo and Nada M. Melhem

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:220

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  41. The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in infected individuals. To obtain insights into the mechanism of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis, we a...

    Authors: Benxia Hu, Yongxia Huo, Liping Yang, Guijun Chen, Minhua Luo, Jinlong Yang and Jumin Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:217

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:17

  42. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease, which mostly affects infants and children and leads to severe neurological diseases. Vaccination offers the best option for...

    Authors: Ting Yang, Hua Li, Lei Yue, Xia Song, Tianhong Xie, Shaohui Ma, Huaqing Meng, Ye Zhang, Xin He, Runxiang Long, Rong Yang, Fangyu Luo, Zhongping Xie and Qihan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:206

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. The need to investigate the contribution of non-polio enteroviruses to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cannot be over emphasized as we move towards a poliovirus free world. Hence, we aim to identify non-polio en...

    Authors: T. O. C. Faleye, M. O. Adewumi, M. O. Japhet, O. M. David, A. O. Oluyege, J. A. Adeniji and O. Famurewa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:175

    Content type: Research

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  44. Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) is a member of the Flaviviridae family whose genomic organization and mode of cellular entry is similar to that of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The E2 glycoprotein of HPgV-1 is the principl...

    Authors: Yakov Vitrenko, Iryna Kostenko, Kateryna Kulebyakina and Khrystyna Sorochynska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:167

    Content type: Research

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  45. Echovirus 30 (E30) causes acute aseptic meningitis. Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. The effect of viral infection within a h...

    Authors: Sarika Tiwari and Tapan N. Dhole

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:144

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:182

  46. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeut...

    Authors: Chris M. Cirimotich, Eric M. Vela, Jennifer Garver, Roy E. Barnewall, Brian D. Miller, Gabriel T. Meister and James V. Rogers

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:135

    Content type: Research

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  47. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important econo...

    Authors: Matías Castells, Matías Victoria, Rodney Colina, Héctor Musto and Juan Cristina

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:115

    Content type: Research

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  48. We previously reported the discovery of a novel, putative flavivirus designated T’Ho virus in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. A 1358-nt region of the NS5 gene was amplified a...

    Authors: Thomas Briese, Maria A. Loroño-Pino, Julian E. Garcia-Rejon, Jose A. Farfan-Ale, Carlos Machain-Williams, Karin S. Dorman, W. Ian Lipkin and Bradley J. Blitvich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on: