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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Jason Mackenzie, The University of Melbourne, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Rushika Perera, Colorado State University, USA
 

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Flaviviruses are representative arboviruses carried by arthropods and/or vertebrates; these viruses can pose a public health concern in many countries. By contrast, it is known that a novel virus group called ...

    Authors: Tomo Daidoji, Ronald Enrique Morales Vargas, Katsuro Hagiwara, Yasuha Arai, Yohei Watanabe, Keisuke Nishioka, Fumi Murakoshi, Kotaro Garan, Hiroki Sadakane and Takaaki Nakaya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:187

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviru...

    Authors: Chuanxiong Nie, Jakob Trimpert, Sooyeon Moon, Rainer Haag, Kerry Gilmore, Benedikt B. Kaufer and Peter H. Seeberger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:182

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Covid-19 has the respiratory tract as the main target of infection, and patients present mainly dyspnea, pneumonia, dry cough, and fever. Nevertheless, organs outside the respiratory tract had been reported in...

    Authors: Natália Lima Pessoa, Aline Almeida Bentes, Andrea Lucchesi de Carvalho, Thaís Bárbara de Souza Silva, Pedro Augusto Alves, Erik Vinicius de Sousa Reis, Tayse Andrade Rodrigues, Erna Geessien Kroon and Marco Antônio Campos

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:180

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest i...

    Authors: Jalen Singh, Pranav Pandit, Andrew G. McArthur, Arinjay Banerjee and Karen Mossman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:166

    Content type: Review

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  5. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a highly infectious pathogen associated with hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, and various neurological complications, so it is important for the early detection and treatmen...

    Authors: Xinran Zou, Jing Wu, Jiaqi Gu, Li Shen and Lingxiang Mao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:164

    Content type: Research

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  6. As frequent viral outbreaks continue to pose threat to public health, the unavailability of antiviral drugs and challenges associated with vaccine development underscore the need for antiviral drugs discovery ...

    Authors: Omonike O. Ogbole, Toluwanimi E. Akinleye, Abraham O. Nkumah, Aminat O. Awogun, Alfred F. Attah, Moses O. Adewumi and Adekunle J. Adeniji

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:161

    Content type: Research

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  7. The numbers of confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 related deaths are still increasing, so it is very important to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Dyslipidemia is a comm...

    Authors: Yanli Liu, Yilong Pan, Yuyao Yin, Wenhao Chen and Xiaodong Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:157

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  8. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance was conducted as part of the World Health Organization’s strategy for completely eradicating poliomyelitis and leaving non-polio enteroviruses NPEVs as one of the mai...

    Authors: Napa Onvimala, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Pornpan Pumirat, Muthita Vanaporn, Suchitra Nimmanitya, Ratana Tacharoenmuang, Ratigorn Guntapong and Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:153

    Content type: Research

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  9. Zika virus is becoming one of the most widely transmitted arboviruses in the world. Development of antiviral inhibitor and vaccine requires an experimental system that allows rapid monitoring of the virus infe...

    Authors: Jing Gao, Jiayi Chen, Weizhi Lu, Jintai Cai, Linjuan Shi, Wei Zhao and Bao Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:151

    Content type: Research

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  10. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are prime pathogens and have been a major hazard to humans and animals. They comprise several arthropod-borne viruses, including dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephali...

    Authors: Shilpa Chatterjee, Choon-Mee Kim, Na Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Hyeon Je Song and Kyeoung A Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:150

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:172

  11. On the detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil: reply to Luchs, A. Comments on Detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in ch...

    Authors: Raiana Scerni Machado, Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr., Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, James Lima Ferreira, Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves and Fernando Neto Tavares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:148

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    The Short report to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

  12. The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro s...

    Authors: Kexin Yan, Daniel J. Rawle, Thuy T. Le and Andreas Suhrbier

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:123

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Although more than a year past since COVID-19 was defined, there is no specific treatment yet. Since COVID-19 management differs over time, it is hard to determine which therapy is more efficacious. In this st...

    Authors: Anıl Ucan, Pamir Cerci, Serdar Efe, Hakan Akgun, Ahmet Ozmen, Aysel Yagmuroglu, Muzaffer Bilgin and Deniz Avci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:102

    Content type: Research

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  14. Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagen...

    Authors: Joel D. Pearson, Daniel Trcka, Suying Lu, Sharon J. Hyduk, Mark Jen, Marie-Ming Aynaud, J. Javier Hernández, Philippos Peidis, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Kin Chan, Jim Woodgett, Tony Mazzulli, Liliana Attisano, Laurence Pelletier, Myron I. Cybulsky, Jeffrey L. Wrana…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:99

    Content type: Research

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  15. A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relatio...

    Authors: Yanjun Zhang, Lingxuan Su, Yin Chen, Sicong Yu, Dan Zhang, Haiyan Mao and Lei Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:89

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, f...

    Authors: Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr, Heloísa Ihle Giamberardino, Sonia Mara Raboni, Maria Carmo Debur, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy and Edson Elias da Silva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:88

    Content type: Case Report

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  17. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the neurotropic pathogen that has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. The limited ...

    Authors: Yanli Chen, Heng Li, Jinxi Yang, Huiwen Zheng, Lei Guo, Weiyu Li, Zening Yang, Jie Song and Longding Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Sacbrood is an infectious disease of the honey bee caused by Scbrood virus (SBV) which belongs to the family Iflaviridae and is especially lethal for Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a...

    Authors: Liping Sun, Xueqi Zhang, Shufa Xu, Chunsheng Hou, Jin Xu, Dongxiang Zhao and Yanping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Beginning in late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 111 mi...

    Authors: Zachary A. Krumm, Grace M. Lloyd, Connor P. Francis, Lith H. Nasif, Duane A. Mitchell, Todd E. Golde, Benoit I. Giasson and Yuxing Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:66

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  20. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a serious health problem in several tropical countries, is the causative agent of chikungunya fever. Approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of CHIKV...

    Authors: Poonam Patil, Megha Agrawal, Shahdab Almelkar, Manish Kumar Jeengar, Ashwini More, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Naveen V. Kumar, Prathama S. Mainkar, Deepti Parashar and Sarah Cherian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

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  21. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in millions of infections worldwide. While the search for an effective antiviral is still ongoing, experimental ...

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdi, János András Mótyán, Zsófia Ilona Szojka, Mária Golda, Márió Miczi and József Tőzsér

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:190

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes enteric infection in piglets, characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea and dehydration, and the mortality in suckling piglets is often high up to 100%. Vacci...

    Authors: Fujie Zhao, Lintao Liu, Menglong Xu, Xiangli Shu, Lanlan Zheng and Zhanyong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Although acute gastroenteritis (AGE) has been reported as a common infectious disease in children, there is scarce information about enterovirus (EV) circulating associated with AGE cases in Brazil. The purpos...

    Authors: Raiana Scerni Machado, Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr., Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, James Lima Ferreira, Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves and Fernando Neto Tavares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:148

  24. Human pegivirus (HPgV)—formerly known as GBV-C—is a member of the Flaviviridae family and belongs to the species Pegivirus C. It is a non-pathogenic virus and is transmitted among humans mainly through the exposu...

    Authors: Aniel de Sarom Negrão Silva, Clayton Pereira Silva, Rafael Ribeiro Barata, Pedro Victor Reis da Silva, Patrícia Danin Jordão Monteiro, Letícia Lamarão, Rommel Mário Rodríguez Burbano, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes and Patrícia Danielle Lima de Lima

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:153

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SA...

    Authors: Johanna Signer, Hulda R. Jonsdottir, Werner C. Albrich, Marc Strasser, Roland Züst, Sarah Ryter, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Nicole Lenz, Denise Siegrist, Andreas Suter, Roland Schoop and Olivier B. Engler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:136

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Author Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:172

  26. Recent study has shown that the C-terminal portion of 3A (amino acids (aa) 81–153) is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cell culture, however, the complete C-terminal portion (aa 77...

    Authors: Pinghua Li, Xueqing Ma, Xingwen Bai, Pu Sun, Hong Yuan, Yimei Cao, Kun Li, Huifang Bao, Yuanfang Fu, Jing Zhang, Yingli Chen, Dong Li, Zhiyong Li, Zengjun Lu and Zaixin Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:137

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Currently, one of the most reliable methods for viral infection detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays. This process is time and resource heavy, requiring multiple steps of lysis, extractio...

    Authors: Zachary P. Morehouse, Caleb M. Proctor, Gabriella L. Ryan and Rodney J. Nash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:129

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  28. The incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been dramatically reduced in China after sufficient vaccine coverage. The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine SA14–14-2 is believed to have...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Zheng, Xiaozheng Yu, Yan Wang, Lance Turtle, Min Cui, Ran Wang and Chenghong Yin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. The oxygen levels organ and tissue microenvironments vary depending on the distance of their vasculature from the left ventricle of the heart. For instance, the oxygen levels of lymph nodes and the spleen are ...

    Authors: Esther Shuyi Gan and Eng Eong Ooi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:115

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. Three different genotypes of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been classified: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Previously, a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Ralph Huits, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E. Nakayama, Riemsdijk van den Berg, Barbara Barbé, Lieselotte Cnops, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Marjan van Esbroeck, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) of the family Coronaviridae has caused substantial economic losses in the swine husbandry industry. There’s currently no specific drug available for treatment of coronavirus...

    Authors: Cui-Cui Li and Xiao-Jia Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:71

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Tembusu virus (TMUV), a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus, spreads rapidly between ducks, causing massive economic losses in the Chinese duck industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent TM...

    Authors: Yuting Pan, Renyong Jia, Juping Li, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Juan Huang, Shaqiu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Yunya Liu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encepha...

    Authors: Mayra Diosa-Toro, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Shelton S. Bradrick and Mariano A. Garcia Blanco

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  34. Prophylactic vaccines are critical in preventing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Children aged less than 5 years are especially susceptible to EV...

    Authors: Jiangning Liu, Binbin Zhao, Ling Xue, Jing Wu, Yanfeng Xu, Yongdong Liu and Chuan Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of thousands of people annually in Indonesia. However, DENV sequence data from the country are limited, as samples from outbreaks must be shipped across long-distances to s...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Barbara A. Blacklaws, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Rahma F. Hayati, Brian Schwem, Edsel M. Salvaña, Raul V. Destura, James S. Lester, Khin S. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Simon D. W. Frost

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. In a previous study, we showed that miR-876-5p upregulation was observed in the serum of patients wi...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Hwa Xu, Hsu Sheng Cheng, Han-Hsiang Chan and Robert Y. L. Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. In the 2017, a dengue epidemic occurred in Hanoi in a short time interval and many cases were serious with associated mortality. ...

    Authors: Thuy Thi Dang, My Ha Pham, Huy Vu Bui and Duyet Van Le

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...

    Authors: Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ming-hui Li, Ju-ju Qi, Rui-huan Wang, Qing-xia Duan, Rui-qing Zhang, Tao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Guo-hao Fan, Yao Xie and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV, genus Flaviviruses, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging flavivirus that can infect a wide range of cells and cell lines in vitro, though the initial step of virus invasion remains ob...

    Authors: Shaoxiong Wu, Zhen Wu, Yuanyuan Wu, Tao Wang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:134

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Dengue is an important mosquito-borne disease. There is currently only one licensed vaccine for dengue prevention. The vaccine provides higher efficacy in pre-vaccination dengue-seropositive persons but a high...

    Authors: Chukiat Sirivichayakul, Kriengsak Limkittikul, Pornthep Chanthavanich, Sutee Yoksan, Anuttarasakdi Ratchatatat, Jacqueline Kyungah Lim, Watcharee Arunsodsai and Arunee Sabchareon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Conventional assays to titrate polioviruses usually test serial dilutions inoculated into replicate cell cultures to determine a 50% cytopathic endpoint, a process that is both time-consuming and laborious. Su...

    Authors: Hasmik Manukyan, Elvira Rodionova, Tatiana Zagorodnyaya, Tsai-Lien Lin, Konstantin Chumakov and Majid Laassri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:122

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  42. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused enormous economic losses to the global pig industry. Currently available PEDV vaccine strains have limited protective effects against PEDV variant strains.

    Authors: Yu Wu, Wei Li, Qingfeng Zhou, Qunhui Li, Zhichao Xu, Hanqin Shen and Feng Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Dengue virus (DENV) infection is one of the biggest challenges for human health in the world. In addition, a secondary DENV infection sometimes causes dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which frequently leads to ...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Emi E. Nakayama, Akatsuki Saito, Akio Egawa, Tairyu Sato, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Coxsackievirus A10 (CA10) constitutes one of the four major pathogens causing hand, foot and mouth disease in infants. Infectious clones are of great importance for studying viral gene functions and pathogenic...

    Authors: Qiliang Liu, Hanliang Dan, Xiaoping Zhao, Huoying Chen, Yongbei Chen, Ning Zhang, Zhijing Mo and Hongbo Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:98

    Content type: Research

    Published on: