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  1. Classical swine fever (CSF), African swine fever (ASF), and atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) are acute, virulent, and contagious viral diseases currently hampering the pig industry in China, which result in ...

    Authors: Ying-ju Xia, Lu Xu, Jun-jie Zhao, Yuan-xi Li, Rui-zhi Wu, Xiang-peng Song, Qi-zu Zhao, Ye-bing Liu, Qin Wang and Qian-yi Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:201
  2. Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a common virus that infects children early and is accompanied by lifelong latency in cells, which is easy to reactivate in immunodeficient adults, but the underlying pathological...

    Authors: Yi Li, Tianhao Qu, Dandan Li, Juanjuan Jing, Qiuming Deng and Xianyao Wan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:200
  3. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to major public health crises worldwide. Several studies have reported the comprehensive mRNA expression ana...

    Authors: Hiroshi Ito, Masakazu Ishikawa, Hisatake Matsumoto, Fuminori Sugihara, Daisuke Okuzaki, Haruhiko Hirata and Hiroshi Ogura
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:198
  4. Currently, the majority of the global population has been vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and characterization studies of antibodies in vivo from Omicron breakthrough infection and naive infection popula...

    Authors: Huan Zhang, Yushan Jiang, Hanqing Tan, Lirong Zou, Zhonghua Zheng, Yushi Huang, Shujian Lin, Lebin Su, Jianxiang Yu, Xiaoling Deng, Jianfeng He, Chang Liu, Chenguang Shen and Baisheng Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:197
  5. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a wide-spread human herpesvirus that is highly associated with infectious mononucleosis and several malignancies. Evaluation of EBV neutralizing antibody titers is important for ser...

    Authors: Ling Zhong, Claude Krummenacher, Wanlin Zhang, Junping Hong, Qisheng Feng, Qinjian Zhao, Yixin Chen, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Yi-Xin Zeng, Miao Xu and Xiao Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:196
  6. Foamy viruses (FVs) are retroviruses with unique replication strategies that cause lifelong latent infections in their hosts. FVs can also produce foam-like cytopathic effects in vitro. However, the effect of ...

    Authors: Zhaohuan Wang, Xiaopeng Tuo, Junshi Zhang, Keli Chai, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:195
  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is one of the prevalent oncogenic HPV genotypes in East Asia. Chinese women have the highest susceptibility to the HPV52 type, but research data on HPV52 genetic variability and i...

    Authors: Zhi Yang, Zhe-Hang He, Yang Zhang, Xing-Hong Di, Die-Fei Zheng and Hui-Hui Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:194
  8. A global pandemic is underway caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like its predecessor SARS-CoV, contains open reading frames that encode accessor...

    Authors: Wahyu Surya, Maria Queralt-Martin, Yuguang Mu, Vicente M. Aguilella and Jaume Torres
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:193
  9. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disorder caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which had rapidly spread all over the world and caused public health emerge...

    Authors: Wei Dai, Aifang Zhong, Qinghua Qiao, Jian Wu, Weiwei Li, Qiuyue Wu, Hongjian Zhou, Shijie Qin, Weijun Jiang, Jing Zhang and Xinyi Xia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:192
  10. The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the development of multiple detection kits by national manufacturers for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral nucleic acid...

    Authors: Yiting Wang, Xuewen Li, Yifei Wang, Zheyu Tu, Jiancheng Xu, Junqi Pan and Qi Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:191
  11. Aedes albopictus is a public health threat for its worldwide spread and ability to transmit arboviruses. Understanding mechanisms of mosquito immunity can provide new tools to control arbovirus spread. The genome...

    Authors: Umberto Palatini, Niccolò Alfano, Rebeca Lejarazu Carballar, Xiao-Guang Chen, Helene Delatte and Mariangela Bonizzoni
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:190
  12. The term, "aerosol-generating procedures” (AGPs), was proposed during the prior SARS-CoV-1 epidemic in order to maximise healthcare worker and patient protection. The concept of AGPs has since expanded to incl...

    Authors: Andrew Silvers, David J. Brewster, Alister Ford, Ana Licina, Cassandra Andrews and Mark Adams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:189
  13. We investigated the performance of the cobas® 6800 system and cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B, a fully automated molecular testing system for influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviru...

    Authors: Kosuke Kosai, Norihito Kaku, Michiko Horie, Hina Kodama, Norihiko Akamatsu, Yusuke Narita, Yasushi Matsumoto, Tetsuro Matsushita, Yohei Mizuta, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae and Katsunori Yanagihara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:188
  14. Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging virus and has been found associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome in pigs. Compared with PCV2, research into PCV3 cap gene sequencing is defic...

    Authors: Xugang Ku, Chengjun Zhang, Panpan Li, Xuexiang Yu, Qi Sun, Fengqin Xu, Ping Qian and Qigai He
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:187
  15. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is currently a worldwide pandemic. There are limited available treatments for severe ...

    Authors: Gang Wang, Zebao He, Fengtian Wu, Zhengming Ge, Jiansheng Zhu and Zhi Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:186
  16. Equine influenza is an important cause of respiratory disease in equids. The causative virus; EIV, is highly variable and can evolve by accumulation of mutations, particularly in the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. ...

    Authors: Basem Mohamed Ahmed, Mahmoud Mohamed Bayoumi, Mohamed Ali Farrag, Mahmoud Aly Elgamal, Janet Mary Daly and Haitham Mohamed Amer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:185
  17. Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is mainly caused by the rabies virus (RABV). Although effective vaccines have long existed, current vaccines take both time and cost to produce. Messenger RNA (mRNA) te...

    Authors: Jianglong Li, Qi Liu, Jun Liu, Xiaohong Wu, Yixin Lei, Shuang Li, Danhua Zhao, Zhi Li, Liping Luo, Sophia Peng, Yingrao Ou, Hong Yang, Jing Jin, Yuhua Li and Yucai Peng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:184
  18. CMV gastroenteritis is common in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it is difficult to distinguish from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), which has very similar sy...

    Authors: Jia Gu, Hongyan Ji, Tongyuan Liu, Caixia Chen, Siye Zhao, Yang Cao, Na Wang, Min Xiao, Liting Chen and Haodong Cai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:183
  19. Chrysanthemum virus B (CVB), a key member of the genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae, causes severe viral diseases in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants worldwide. However, information on the m...

    Authors: Xueting Zhong, Lianlian Yang, Jiapeng Li, Zhaoyang Tang, Choufei Wu, Liqin Zhang, Xueping Zhou, Yaqin Wang and Zhanqi Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:182
  20. Among hospitalized children suffering from community-acquired pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is one of the most common pathogens. MP often exists as a co-infection with bacteria or viruses, which can exace...

    Authors: Qiong Guo, Lili Li, Chao Wang, Yiman Huang, Fenlian Ma, Shanshan Cong, Jingjing Tan, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen and Lishu Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:181
  21. The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been linked to new waves of COVID-19 epidemics occurring in different regions of the world. The VOC have acquired adaptive mutations ...

    Authors: Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Silvanos Opanda, Samwel Lifumo Symekher, Samson Konongoi Limbaso, Solomon Langat, Josyline Kaburi Cirindi, Milkah Mwangi, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Seth Okeyo, Edith Koskei, James Mutisya, Samwel Owaka, Albert Nyunja, Hellen Koka, Meshack Wadegu, Esther Chitechi…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:178
  22. Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test was applied in cervical cancer screening as an effective cancer prevention strategy. The viral load of HPV generated by different assays attracted increasing attention on i...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Guibin Li, Zhengyu Zeng, Baowen Zheng, Yuyue Xia, Chen Li, Minyu Li, Hairong Wang, Yuelong Song and Shihui Yu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:177
  23. Avian influenza A H7N9 emerged in 2013, threatening public health and causing acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death, in the human population. However, the underlying mechanism by which H7N9 virus...

    Authors: Wei Su, Xian-Tian Lin, Shuai Zhao, Xiao-Qin Zheng, Yu-Qing Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Hui Chen, Zheng-Yu Zhang, Li-Jun Zhang and Xiao-Xin Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:176
  24. Theiler’s disease, a.k.a. equine serum hepatitis, is a devastating, highly fatal disease of horses. Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been identified as the likely cause of this disease. While the incid...

    Authors: Mason C. Jager, Joy E. Tomlinson, Caitlin E. Henry, Megan J. Fahey and Gerlinde R. Van de Walle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:175
  25. Since its discovery in the 1990s, the DNA vaccine has been of great interest because of its ability to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses while showing relative advantages regarding producibilit...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Xian Tang, Yun He, Bin Ju and Hui Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:174
  26. Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a heterogeneous entity with an increasing number of late diagnoses. Besides infections, inflammatory manifestations are a growing part of the clinical landscape of IEI. Thes...

    Authors: Grégoire Martin de Frémont, Maud Salmona, François Maillet, Margaux Garzaro, Rémi Bertinchamp, Arthur Simonnet, Linda Feghoul, Guitta Maki, Marie Roelens, Emilie Chotard, Capucine Picard, Eric Oksenhendler, Jérôme LeGoff and David Boutboul
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:172
  27. Several studies have demonstrated neutralizing antibodies to be highly effective against alphavirus infection in animal models, both prophylactically and remedially. In most studies, neutralizing antibodies ha...

    Authors: Anushka Ramjag, Sergej Cutrone, Kai Lu, Christine Crasto, Jing Jin, Sonia Bakkour, Christine V. F. Carrington and Graham Simmons
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:170
  28. Dengue is an arboviral disease that has a large effect on public health in subtropical and tropical countries. Rapid and accurate detection of dengue infection is necessary for diagnosis and disease management...

    Authors: Kanaporn Poltep, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Witthawat Wiriyarat, Sarin Suwanpakdee, Phirom Prompiram, Emi E. Nakayama, Keita Suzuki, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Tatsuo Shioda and Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:169
  29. SARS-CoV-2 variant tracking is key to the genomic surveillance of the COVID-19 pandemic. While next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used for variant determination, it is expensive and time-consuming. V...

    Authors: Carlos Daviña-Nuñez, Sonia Pérez-Castro, Lucía Martínez-Lamas, Jorge Julio Cabrera-Alvargonzález, Sonia Rey-Cao, Raquel Carballo-Fernandez, Montse Godoy-Diz, Leticia López-Bóveda, Victor del Campo-Pérez, Silvia Suárez-Luque and Benito Regueiro-García
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:168
  30. The rise of the highly lethal severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 (SARS-2) as corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) reminded us of the history of other pandemics that happened in the last century (Spanish flu) and stay...

    Authors: Walid F. Elkhatib, Shereen S. Abdelkareem, Wafaa S. Khalaf, Mona I. Shahin, Dounia Elfadil, Alaa Alhazmi, Ahmed I. El-Batal and Gharieb S. El-Sayyad
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:167
  31. Rotavirus is the leading global pathogen of diarrhea-associated mortality and poses a great threat to public health in all age groups. This study aimed to explore the global burden and 30-year change patterns ...

    Authors: Yuxia Du, Can Chen, Xiaobao Zhang, Danying Yan, Daixi Jiang, Xiaoxiao Liu, Mengya Yang, Cheng Ding, Lei Lan, Robert Hecht, Changtai Zhu and Shigui Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:166
  32. A subset of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the cause of virtually every cervical cancer. These so-called “high-risk” HPVs encode two major oncogenes (HPV E6 and E7) that are necessary for transformation. Am...

    Authors: Sebastian O. Wendel, Avanelle Stoltz, Xuan Xu, Jazmine A. Snow and Nicholas Wallace
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:165
  33. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, new variants of significance to public health have emerged. Consequently, early detection of new mutations and variants through whole-genome sequencing remains cru...

    Authors: Steinar Mannsverk, Julia Bergholm, Navaneethan Palanisamy, Patrik Ellström, René Kaden, Johan Lindh and Johan Lennerstrand
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:164
  34. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV), a satellite virus of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a small, defective RNA virus strongly associated with the most severe form of hepatitis and progressive chronic liver disease and c...

    Authors: Wei-Chung Chiou, Hsu-Feng Lu, Jui-Chieh Chen, Yu-Heng Lai, Ming-Fu Chang, Yuan-Li Huang, Ni Tien and Cheng Huang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:163
  35. Influenza A virus causes respiratory disease in many animal species as well as in humans. Due to the high human-animal interface, the monitoring of canine influenza in dogs and the study of the transmission an...

    Authors: Ratanaporn Tangwangvivat, Supassama Chaiyawong, Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan, Kamonpan Charoenkul, Taveesak Janethanakit, Kitikhun Udom, Sawang Kesdangsakonwut, Rachod Tantilertcharoen, Aunyaratana Thontiravong and Alongkorn Amonsin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:162
  36. Most COVID-19 patients recovered with low mortality; however, some patients experienced long-term symptoms described as “long-COVID” or “Post-COVID syndrome” (PCS). Patients may have persisting symptoms for we...

    Authors: Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Hayder M. Al-kuraishy, Ali I. Al-Gareeb and Nermeen N. Welson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:158
  37. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 67 is phylogenetically classified into Alphapapillomavirus species 9 (alpha-9) together with other carcinogenic types (HPV16, 31, 33, 35, 52 and 58), but is the only alpha-9 type d...

    Authors: Gota Kogure, Mamiko Onuki, Yusuke Hirose, Mayuko Yamaguchi-Naka, Seiichiro Mori, Takashi Iwata, Kazunari Kondo, Akihiko Sekizawa, Koji Matsumoto and Iwao Kukimoto
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:157
  38. Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is an impressive regulator of the epigenetic control of the antiviral immune response. This study evaluated if the differential expression of TRIM28 correlates with the ...

    Authors: Rezvan Tavakoli, Pooneh Rahimi, Mojtaba Hamidi-Fard, Sana Eybpoosh, Delaram Doroud, Iraj Ahmadi, Enayat Anvari, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi and Abolfazl Fateh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:156

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:171

  39. Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) is not considered tumorigenic, there is evidence for its oncomodulatory effects and association with hematological neoplasms. Conversely, a number of experimental and clinical st...

    Authors: Marko Janković, Aleksandra Knežević, Milena Todorović, Irena Đunić, Biljana Mihaljević, Ivan Soldatović, Jelena Protić, Nevenka Miković, Vera Stoiljković and Tanja Jovanović
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:155
  40. Adenoviruses are highly prevalent pathogens responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases, including respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis. However, adenovirus infection is...

    Authors: Hongwei Zhao, Yingchao Liu, Ziheng Feng, Qianyu Feng, Kechun Li, Hengmiao Gao, Suyun Qian, Lili Xu and Zhengde Xie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:154
  41. JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) is known to induce solid tumors such as astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and neuroblastomas in experimental animals, and recent studies have shown that the virus may be correlated with carc...

    Authors: Amir Ali Karimi, Rahil Tarharoudi, Zahra Kianmehr, Fatemeh Sakhaee, Fatemeh Rahimi Jamnani, Seyed Davar Siadat and Abolfazl Fateh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:153
  42. The coronavirus pandemic is a worldwide hazard that poses a threat to millions of individuals throughout the world. This pandemic is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), ...

    Authors: Alaa Bedair, Kamal Okasha and Fotouh R. Mansour
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:152