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  1. Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) is an important ssDNA virus which causes yellowing, stunting and leaf rolling symptoms on legumes. In China, the virus causes great economic losses and has recently been found to i...

    Authors: Yuhao Cao, Dankan Yan, Xinyang Wu, Ziqiang Chen, Yuchao Lai, Lanqing Lv, Fei Yan, Jianping Chen, Hongying Zheng and Xuemei Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:102

    Content type: Methodology

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  2. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause encephalitis. Its infected cell polypeptide 47 (ICP47), encoded by immediate-early gene US12, promotes immune escape. ICP47 was modified in the clinically approved oncolytic H...

    Authors: Jun-Ting Cheng, Ying-Ying Wang, Lin-Zhong Zhu, Ying Zhang, Wen-Qi Cai, Zi-Wen Han, Yang Zhou, Xian-Wang Wang, Xiao-Chun Peng, Ying Xiang, Hui-Yu Yang, Shu-Zhong Cui, Zhaowu Ma, Bing-Rong Liu and Hong-Wu Xin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:101

    Content type: Research

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  3. HPV persistent infection is a strong carcinogenic factor that can induce cervical cancer. Investigation of HPV epidemiology and genotype distribution is of great meaning for the development of cervical cancer ...

    Authors: Qing Luo, Ni Jiang, Qiaoyuan Wu, Jiaqiang Wang and Jialing Zhong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

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  4. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), a group of non-enveloped small viruses with double-stranded circular DNA which lead to multiple skin diseases such as benign warts, are commonly seen in clinics. The current HPV ...

    Authors: Yining Wang, Ge Ge, Rui Mao, Zhuo Wang, Yu-Zhe Sun, Yu-Guang Du, Xing-Hua Gao, Rui-Qun Qi and Hong-Duo Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

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  5. Enteric infections caused by Salmonella spp. remain a major public health burden worldwide. Chickens are known to be a major reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Salmonella in poultry farms and a...

    Authors: Robert Joseph Atterbury, Adriano Marcelo Gigante, María de la Salud Rubio Lozano, Ruben Danilo Méndez Medina, Gareth Robinson, Habib Alloush, Paul Andrew Barrow and Vivien Mary Allen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

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  6. Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of pa...

    Authors: Dongyu Guo, Jianhua Xia, Yang Wang, Xuhong Zhang, Ye Shen and Jian-Ping Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Coronaviruses are large family-RNA viruses that belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae. The novel COVID-19 infection, caused by a beta coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, is a n...

    Authors: Endeshaw Chekol Abebe, Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie, Mestet Yibeltal Shiferaw and Tabarak Malik

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Review

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  8. Following acute infection, Herpes Simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency and recurrent reactivation in the sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG). Infected tree shrew differs from mouse and s...

    Authors: Erlin Wang, Yunshuang Ye, Ke Zhang, Jinlong Yang, Daohua Gong, Jianhua Zhang, Renjun Hong, Huan Zhang, Lihong Li, Guijun Chen, Liping Yang, Jianmei Liu, Hanyu Cao, Ting Du, Nigel W. Fraser, Le Cheng…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

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  9. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

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  10. More than 3 years since the last Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil, researchers are still deciphering the molecular mechanisms of neurovirulence and vertical transmission, as well as the best way to control...

    Authors: Paula A. Faria Waziry, Aarti Raja, Chloe Salmon, Nathalia Aldana, Sruthi Damodar, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima and Bindu S. Mayi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:93

    Content type: Research

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  11. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  12. SLC10A1 gene codes NTCP, a receptor through which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) gets access into hepatocytes - a stage of the viral cycle necessary for replication. Polymorphism variants of SLC10A1 play roles in...

    Authors: Eric Nyarko, Christian Obirikorang, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Acheampong, Freeman Aidoo, Emmanuel Ofori, Bright Selorm Addy and Henry Asare-Anane

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Research

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  13. Three different genotypes of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been classified: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Previously, a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Ralph Huits, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E. Nakayama, Riemsdijk van den Berg, Barbara Barbé, Lieselotte Cnops, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Marjan van Esbroeck, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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  14. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus is a common complication that occurs in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who have received cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy. This clinical ph...

    Authors: Jie Ruan, Shuo Sun, Xin Cheng, Pengyu Han, Yinge Zhang and Dianxing Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

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  15. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a cause of substantial economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, and there are currently no effective treatment or preventive measures. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) has ...

    Authors: Xiao Ren, Shan Zhang, Xintao Gao, Xiaoyu Guo, Ting Xin, Hongfei Zhu, Hong Jia and Shaohua Hou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:88

    Content type: Research

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  16. This study was designed to investigate the invasion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive human cervical carcinoma cell lines in human leiomyoma-based extracellular matrices in vitro, and to test the suitability...

    Authors: Heidi Tuominen, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Tuula Salo and Jaana Rautava

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:87

    Content type: Research

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  17. The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (...

    Authors: Alvaro Mesoraca, Katia Margiotti, Antonella Viola, Antonella Cima, Davide Sparacino and Claudio Giorlandino

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV2 or JCPyV) is persistent in the environment due to its excretion in urine and feces; it is detected in samples of wastewater, surface water and drinking water. A lack of basic sanita...

    Authors: Isabella Nogueira Abreu, Jacqueline Monteiro Cortinhas, Mike Barbosa dos Santos, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andréa Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:85

    Content type: Research

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  19. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of genital diseases. It can cause a series of cervical lesions. The distribution of HPV genotypes indicates that the increased prevalence of high-risk ...

    Authors: Huaping Li, Peiqun Li, Luyi Huang, Liping Sun, He Ren and Ping Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:84

    Content type: Short report

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  20. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lili Xu, Linlin Bao, Wei Deng, Hua Zhu, Ting Chen, Qi Lv, Fengdi Li, Jing Yuan, Zhiguang Xiang, Kai Gao, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yanhong Li, Jiangning Liu, Yanfeng Yao, Pin Yu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:83

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2013 10:253

  21. Reverse genetics is used in many laboratories around the world and enables the creation of tailor-made influenza viruses with a desired genotype or phenotype. However, the process is not flawless, and difficul...

    Authors: Sushant Bhat, Dagmara Bialy, Joshua E. Sealy, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang and Munir Iqbal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:82

    Content type: Methodology

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  22. LIN28B is involved in multiple cellular developmental processes, tissue inflammatory response and tumourigenesis. The association of LIN28B polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown.

    Authors: Qunying Han, Jiao Sang, Xiude Fan, Xiaoyun Wang, Lu Zeng, Xiaoge Zhang, Kun Zhang, Na Li, Yi Lv and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:81

    Content type: Research

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  23. Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Herein, we reported a cas...

    Authors: Tian-min Xu, Bin Lin, Cong Chen, Long-gen Liu and Yuan Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Case Report

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  24. A prevalent PEDV strain, designated FJLY06, was isolated from Fujian, China. The four of structural genes sequences of PEDV obtained were analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationships and homology res...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Ailing Dai, Xiaohua Li and Xiaoyan Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:79

    Content type: Short report

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  25. The low pathogenic H9N2 AIV caused the serious impact on the poultry industry and public safety. Our purpose was to investigate the molecular evolutionary characteristics of the new isolated H9N2 virus and inv...

    Authors: Yuan Nan Yu, Yang Zheng, Shan Shan Hao, Ze Zhang, Jia Xi Cai, Man Man Zong, Xiu Li Feng and Qing Tao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-h...

    Authors: Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Osman H. Ibrahim, Ali Alhafufi, Samy Kasem, Ali Aldowerij, Raed Albrahim, Ali Abu-obaidah, Ali Alkarar, Faisal Altaib Bayoumi, Ali Mohammed Almansour, Musaad Aldubaib, Hail M. Al-Abdely, Hanan H. Balkhy and Ibrahim Qasim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:77

    Content type: Research

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  27. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a major global health issue around the world. There are approximately 15–20 million individuals infected with HDV worldwide. HDV infection usually causes increased mortalit...

    Authors: Guan-Yu Lin, Yi-Le Wu, Cheng-Si Wang, Chia-Yun Ko, Chien-Hung Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Po-Hsin Peng and Chao-Wei Hsu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:76

    Content type: Research

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  28. The genetic variation and origin of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were poorly studied. The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs has been described as a puzzle and has never been reported in the...

    Authors: He Liu, Liping Shen, Shuang Zhang, Feng Wang, Guomin Zhang, Zundong Yin, Feng Qiu, Xiaofeng Liang, Fuzhen Wang and Shengli Bi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

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  29. Although influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to evade IFN responses by inhibiting the synthesis of IFN, how IAV regulates signaling downstream of IFN is incompletely understood.

    Authors: Yinping Du, Fan Yang, Qiuxia Wang, Nuo Xu, Yizhang Xie, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin and Daxin Peng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

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  30. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) generally causes self-limiting viral hepatitis. However, in pregnant women, HEV infection can be severe and has been associated with up to 30% mortality in the third trimester. Addition...

    Authors: Chunchen Wu, Xiaoxue Wu and Jianbo Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:73

    Content type: Review

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  31. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important pathogen affecting swine industry worldwide. The production of current PCV2 vaccines is time-consuming and expensive. Elastin-like polypeptides (EL...

    Authors: Yangyang Li, Yajie Wang, Jian Cheng, Xiaohui Zhou, Huipeng Lu, Xinyu Zhang, Xiaoli Xia and Huaichang Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:72

    Content type: Research

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  32. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) of the family Coronaviridae has caused substantial economic losses in the swine husbandry industry. There’s currently no specific drug available for treatment of coronavirus...

    Authors: Cui-Cui Li and Xiao-Jia Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:71

    Content type: Research

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  33. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an essential factor for the development of cervical cancer. HPV18 is the second most common carcinogenic HPV type following HPV16, but the lineages of HPV18 ha...

    Authors: Namhee Kim, Jeong Su Park, Ji Eun Kim, Jae Hyeon Park, Hyunwoong Park, Eun Youn Roh, Jong Hyun Yoon and Sue Shin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:70

    Content type: Short report

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  34. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of cervical cancers, causing 270.000 deaths annually worldwide of which 85% occur in developing countries with an increasing risk associated to HIV infection. Th...

    Authors: Samuel Martin Sosso, Michel Carlos Tommo Tchouaket, Joseph Fokam, Rachel Kamgaing Simo, Judith Torimiro, Aline Tiga, Elise Elong Lobe, Georgia Ambada, Achille Nange, Ezechiel Ngoufack Jagni Semengue, Alex Durand Nka, Valère Tala, Collins Chenwi, Aissatou Abba, Aude Christelle Ka’e, Bouba Yagai…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:69

    Content type: Research

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  35. Host shutoff refers to the widespread downregulation of host gene expression and has emerged as a key process that facilitates the reallocation of cellular resources for viral replication and evasion of host a...

    Authors: Tianqiong He, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Shaqiu Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhao, Juan Huang, Di Sun, Sai Mao, Xuming Ou, Yin Wang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:68

    Content type: Review

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  36. Tembusu virus (TMUV), a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus, spreads rapidly between ducks, causing massive economic losses in the Chinese duck industry. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent TM...

    Authors: Yuting Pan, Renyong Jia, Juping Li, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Zhongqiong Yin, Bo Jing, Juan Huang, Shaqiu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Yunya Liu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:67

    Content type: Research

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  37. Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommende...

    Authors: Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Anna Fogtman, Róża Sawicka, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  38. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancy remain a main cause of cancer in men and women. Cancer immunotherapy has represented great potential as a new promising cancer therapeutic approach. Here, we re...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Hassan Dianat-Moghadam, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Hossein Keyvani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:64

    Content type: Research

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  39. H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild bir...

    Authors: Chuanxia Hu, Xiaofang Li, Caihui Zhu, Feng Zhou, Wangjun Tang, Di Wu, Zhihui Li, Lichen Zhou, Jing Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui, Tianhou Wang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:62

    Content type: Research

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  40. Musk deer can produce musk which has high medicinal value and is closely related to human health. Viruses in forest musk deer both threaten the health of forest musk deer and human beings.

    Authors: Qi Liu, Hao Wang, Yu Ling, Shi-Xing Yang, Xiao-Chun Wang, Rui Zhou, Yu-Qing Xiao, Xu Chen, Jie Yang, Wei-Guo Fu, Wen Zhang and Gui-Lan Qi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:61

    Content type: Research

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  41. The genus Flavivirus encompasses several worldwide-distributed arthropod-borne viruses including, dengue virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, Zika virus, and tick-borne encepha...

    Authors: Mayra Diosa-Toro, K. Reddisiva Prasanth, Shelton S. Bradrick and Mariano A. Garcia Blanco

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:60

    Content type: Review

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  42. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and the pestivius virus group. BVDV is responsible for significant economic loss in cattle industry worldwide because of reducing reproductive...

    Authors: Xiaowei Gong, Qiwei Chen and Fuying Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:59

    Content type: Research

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  43. Prophylactic vaccines are critical in preventing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) primarily caused by human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. Children aged less than 5 years are especially susceptible to EV...

    Authors: Jiangning Liu, Binbin Zhao, Ling Xue, Jing Wu, Yanfeng Xu, Yongdong Liu and Chuan Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:58

    Content type: Research

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  44. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. We previously reported the development and protocol of the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuS...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:57

    Content type: Short report

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  45. The host cell protease TMPRSS2 cleaves the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). Several reports have described resistance of Tmprss2−/− knock-out (KO) mice to IAV infection but IAV of the H2 subtype have n...

    Authors: Ruth Lydia Olga Lambertz, Ingo Gerhauser, Inga Nehlmeier, Sabine Gärtner, Michael Winkler, Sarah Rebecca Leist, Heike Kollmus, Stefan Pöhlmann and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short report

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  46. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the surface immunogenic protein, is the most important component of influenza viruses. Previous studies showed that the stability of HA was significant for HA’s immunogenicity, and many ...

    Authors: Jialing Wu, Yang Wang, Ying Wei, Zhichao Xu, Xin Tan, Zhihui Wu, Jing Zheng, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao and Chunyi Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

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  47. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is a human polyomavirus that establishes a life-long harmless infection in most individuals, with dermal fibroblasts believed to be the natural host cell. However, this virus i...

    Authors: Ibrahim Abdulsalam, Kashif Rasheed, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson, Bernhard Ehlers and Ugo Moens

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:54

    Content type: Research

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