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  1. Content type: Short report

    A tenuivirus, referred to here as JKI 29327, was isolated from a black medic (Medicago lupulina) plant collected in Austria. The virus was mechanically transmitted to Nicotiana benthamiana, M. lupulina, M. sativa

    Authors: Yahya Z. A. Gaafar, Katja R. Richert-Pöggeler, Angelika Sieg-Müller, Petra Lüddecke, Kerstin Herz, Jonas Hartrick, Yvonne Seide, Heinrich-Josef Vetten and Heiko Ziebell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:89

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  2. Content type: Research

    Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several p...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Jing Zhang, Jianfang Zhou, Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Shumei Zou, Hejiang Wei, Li Xin, Weijuan Huang, Xiyan Li, Yanhui Cheng and Dayan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:87

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Human adenoviruses are a common group of viruses that cause acute infectious diseases. Human adenovirus (HAdV) 3 and HAdV 7 cause major outbreaks of severe pneumonia. A reliable and practical method for HAdV t...

    Authors: Rui-huan Wang, Hong Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ju-ju Qi, Guo-hao Fan, Xing-yu Xiang, Zhi-fei Zhan, Zi-wei Chen and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:86

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  4. Content type: Research

    Type A influenza viruses (IAVs) cause significant infections in humans and multiple species of animals including pigs, horses, birds, dogs and some marine animals. They are of complicated phylogenetic diversit...

    Authors: Qingye Zhuang, Suchun Wang, Shuo Liu, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Wenming Jiang, Kaicheng Wang, Cheng Peng, Dong Liu, Aizhen Guo and Jiming Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:85

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  5. Content type: Research

    Advances in molecular laboratory techniques are changing the prospects for the diagnosis of viral infectious diseases. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (multiplex-PCR) can detect dozens of pathogens s...

    Authors: Le Wang, Shuo Yang, Xiaotong Yan, Teng Liu, Zhishan Feng and Guixia Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:84

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  6. Content type: Research

    Shenzhen City is a rapidly growing area with a large number of floating populations, thus making it difficult to control HIV. Serial cross-sectional studies are helpful for the prediction of epidemiological te...

    Authors: Dijing Jia, Jin Zhao, Yongjian Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Lei Jia, Tao Gui, Lin Chen, Chenli Zheng, Jingwan Han, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Hanping Li and Lin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:83

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  7. Content type: Short report

    Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) is a bipartite cucurbit-infecting crinivirus within the family Closteroviridae. The crinivirus genome varies among genera. P4.9 is the first protein encoded by CCYV RNA2. P...

    Authors: Ying Wei, Yajuan Shi, Xaioyu Han, Siyu Chen, Honglian Li, Linlin Chen, Bingjian Sun and Yan Shi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:82

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  8. Content type: Research

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) protein UL56 (pUL56) has been implicated in viral dissemination and virulence in vivo. However, the properties of PRV pUL56 remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to inve...

    Authors: Chuang Lyu and Xuehui Cai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:81

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  9. Content type: Research

    Rabies virus (RABV), a member of Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae family, is a kind of negative-strand RNA virus. The zoonosis caused by RABV leads to high mortality in animals and humans. Though with the extensive...

    Authors: Jie Gao, Xinyu Wang, Mingxin Zhao, Enhua Liu, Ming Duan, Zhenhong Guan, Yidi Guo and Maolin Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:80

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  10. Content type: Research

    The increased levels of blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A, influenza B and people with influenza-like illness (ILI)...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Haideh Namdari, Mohammad Farahmand, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Talat Mokhtari-Azad and Farhad Rezaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:79

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  11. Content type: Research

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) cause a wide range of diseases. However, the genotype diversity and epidemiological information relating to HAdVs among hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections (RTIs)...

    Authors: Li-hong Yao, Chao Wang, Tian-li Wei, Hao Wang, Fen-lian Ma and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:78

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  12. Content type: Research

    Influenza B virus is a main causative pathogen of annual influenza epidemics, however, research on influenza B virus in general lags behind that on influenza A viruses, one of the important reasons is studies ...

    Authors: Bing Yuan, Chunguang Yang, Xueshan Xia, Mark Zanin, Sook-san Wong, Fan Yang, Jixiang Chang, Zhitong Mai, Jin Zhao, Yunhui Zhang, Runfeng Li, Nanshan Zhong and Zifeng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:77

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  13. Content type: Case Report

    Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is a rare precursor lesion in the uterine cervix that is considered a variant of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Although human papillomavirus (HPV) is t...

    Authors: Shiho Fukui, Kazunori Nagasaka, Naoko Iimura, Ranka Kanda, Takayuki Ichinose, Takeru Sugihara, Haruko Hiraike, Shunsuke Nakagawa, Yuko Sasajima and Takuya Ayabe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:76

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  14. Content type: Research

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a DNA virus that causes reproductive failure in gilts and sows, resulting in embryonic and fetal losses worldwide. Epitope mapping of PPV is important for developing new vaccines. I...

    Authors: Ancelmo Rabelo de Souza, Marriam Yamin, Danielle Gava, Janice Reis Ciacci Zanella, Maria Sílvia Viccari Gatti, Carlos Francisco Sampaio Bonafe and Daniel Ferreira de Lima Neto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:75

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  15. Content type: Research

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection remain a difficult-to-cure population. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of sofosbuvir-based regimen in genotype 3 patients in a real-world...

    Authors: Qunying Han, Xiude Fan, Xiaoyun Wang, Ye Wang, Huan Deng, Xiaoge Zhang, Kun Zhang, Na Li and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:74

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  16. Content type: Review

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellul...

    Authors: Fanyun Kong, Hongjuan You, Delong Kong, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:73

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  17. Content type: Research

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Yasi Yang, Zuyi Chen, Yang Liu, Shanfei Bao, Yun Zhao and Xianping Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:72

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  18. Content type: Research

    Lates calcarifer, known as seabass in Asia and barramundi in Australia, is a widely farmed species internationally and in Southeast Asia and any disease outbreak will have a great economic impact on the aquacultu...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Xinyu Toh, Jasmine Ong, Yahui Wang, Xuan-Hui Teo, Bernett Lee, Pui-San Wong, Denyse Khor, Shin-Min Chong, Diana Chee, Alvin Wee, Yifan Wang, Mee-Keun Ng, Boon-Huan Tan and Taoqi Huangfu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:71

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  19. Content type: Short report

    A novel nepovirus was identified and characterised from caraway, and tentatively named caraway yellows virus (CawYV). Tubular structures with isomeric virus particles typical for nepoviruses were observed in i...

    Authors: Yahya Z. A. Gaafar, Katja R. Richert-Pöggeler, Angelika Sieg-Müller, Petra Lüddecke, Kerstin Herz, Jonas Hartrick, Christina Maaß, Roswitha Ulrich and Heiko Ziebell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:70

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  20. Content type: Review

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals but, in the last few decades, have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Dewald Schoeman and Burtram C. Fielding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:69

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  21. Content type: Case Report

    Shingles (localized zoster) and disseminated zoster are caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). Reactivation of VZV is related to impaired cell-mediated immunity. Extensive burns aff...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Kubota, Kentaro Kosaka, Toshinori Hokazono, Yoshihisa Yamaji, Takafumi Tezuka, Shinsuke Akita, Motone Kuriyama and Nobuyuki Mitsukawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:68

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  22. Content type: Short report

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may lead to a series of lesions in the cervix. Distributions of HPV genotypes reveal that an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) is positively correlated with th...

    Authors: C. Zhang, Wj Cheng, Q. Liu, Q. Guan and Qw Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:67

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  23. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Previously, we reported the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA), an assay for BLV infectivi...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Yuma Hachiya, Hiroshi Sentsui and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:66

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  24. Content type: Research

    Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya...

    Authors: E. Chepkorir, D. P. Tchouassi, S. L. Konongoi, J. Lutomiah, C. Tigoi, Z. Irura, F. Eyase, M. Venter and R. Sang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:65

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  25. Content type: Case Report

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) agent is one of the major causes of hospitalization in paediatric age. The G3P[8] RVA genotype has been usually considered as one of the major human g...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Barbara Camilloni, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Ianiro, Ilaria Polinori, Edoardo Farinelli, Marina Monini and Nicola Principi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:64

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  26. Content type: Research

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease, which is usually caused by enterovirus A (EV-A) serotypes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the main etiologic ag...

    Authors: Jie Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiansheng Liu and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:63

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  27. Content type: Short report

    Dengue is hyperendemic in Colombia, where a cyclic behavior of serotype replacement leading to periodic epidemics has been observed for decades. This level of endemicity favors accumulation of dengue virus gen...

    Authors: Katherine Laiton-Donato, Diego A. Alvarez, Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal, Marcela Mercado, Nadim J. Ajami, Irene Bosch and José A. Usme-Ciro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:62

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  28. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication of the article [1], as the quotation below was included without specific permission from Dr. Gary Marty, which is against the Virology Journal guidelines for the citation of unpublishe...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:60

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2019 16:41

  29. Content type: Research

    Much evidence has demonstrated the influence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations on the clinical course of HBV infection. As large (L) protein plays a crucial role for viral entry, we hypothesized that mutati...

    Authors: Suguru Ogura, Masahiko Tameda, Kazushi Sugimoto, Makoto Ikejiri, Masanobu Usui, Masaaki Ito and Yoshiyuki Takei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:59

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  30. Content type: Research

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gained much attention as cellular factors regulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. miR-27b has been shown to regulate HCV infection in the hepatocytes via various mechanisms that h...

    Authors: Fuminori Sakurai, Rina Hashimoto, Chieko Inoue, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Tomohito Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Taracena Gandara Marcos Andres, Eiko Sakai, Kanae Itsuki, Naoya Sakamoto, Takaji Wakita and Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:58

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  31. Content type: Research

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important viral pathogen for swine industry worldwide. However, current PCV2 vaccines provide incomplete protection against the PCV2d, which has recently eme...

    Authors: Zhumei Hou, Honghua Wang, Yanni Feng, Qingwang Li and Junwei Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:57

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  32. Content type: Short report

    Tetraparvovirus, formerly known as Partetravirus, is a newly discovered genus in the family Parvoviridae that is considered phylogenetically distinct from other parvoviruses. However, nothing is known about the p...

    Authors: Yangyang Pan, Yun Wang, Meng Wang, Qian Zhang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Jun Zhou, Jing Ma, Jam Kashif, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Jiangfeng Fan, Yan Cui and Sijiu Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:56

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  33. Content type: Research

    Nucleorhabdoviruses possess bacilliform particles which contain a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome. They replicate and mature in the nucleus of infected cells. Together with viruses of three other gen...

    Authors: Yahya Z. A. Gaafar, Katja R. Richert-Pöggeler, Christina Maaß, Heinrich-Josef Vetten and Heiko Ziebell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:55

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  34. Content type: Research

    The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target d...

    Authors: Di Sun, Mingshu Wang, Xingjian Wen, Sai Mao, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Xiaoyue Chen, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:54

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  35. Content type: Research

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) seriously interfered in the production of rice and maize in China. These two viruses are members of the genus Fijiviru...

    Authors: Zenghui Wang, Chengming Yu, Yuanhao Peng, Chengshi Ding, Qingliang Li, Deya Wang and Xuefeng Yuan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:53

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  36. Content type: Research

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in the late 1970s; it causes intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Since its emergence, CPV-2 has been r...

    Authors: Minh Hoang, Wei-Hao Lin, Van Phan Le, Bui Thi To Nga, Ming-Tang Chiou and Chao-Nan Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:52

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  37. Content type: Research

    Heterosexual transmission has contributed greatly to the current HIV-1 epidemic in China. However, the HIV-1 genetic characteristics in the heterosexually transmitted population in Jiangsu province remained un...

    Authors: Peipei Xiao, Ying Zhou, Jing Lu, Li Yan, Xiaoqin Xu, Haiyang Hu, Jianjun Li, Ping Ding, Tao Qiu, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan and Haitao Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:51

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  38. Content type: Research

    Human pegivirus (HPgV), formally called GB virus C (GBV-C), is a member of the pegivirus genus in Flaviviridae family. High prevalence of HPgV infection is seen among sex workers, blood transfusion recipients ...

    Authors: Wubet Taklual, Shixing Tang and Wu Yue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:50

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  39. Content type: Research

    Equine rotavirus A (ERVA) is the leading cause of diarrhea in neonatal foals and has a negative impact on equine breeding enterprises worldwide. Among ERVA strains infecting foals, the genotypes G3P[12] and G1...

    Authors: Mariano Carossino, Maria E. Barrandeguy, Erdal Erol, Yanqiu Li and Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:49

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  40. Content type: Research

    Interleukin (IL)-35 regulates imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, leading to an important modulator in autoimmune disorder, cancer, and infectious diseases. Our previous st...

    Authors: Lanlan Yang, Shengnan Jia, Xue Shao, Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Jie Song, Wudong Wang and Zhenjing Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:48

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  41. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cancer, creating enormous economic and social burdens. The Chinese government recommends routine screening of inpatients for HCV before i...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Hongqin Xu, Yue Hu, Jia Shang, Jianning Jiang, Lei Yu, Caiyan Zhao, Dazhi Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Junfeng Li, Wei Li, Yanan Wu, Diefei Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Qian Zhao, Qiongfang Zhang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:47

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  42. Content type: Research

    Compared with chickens, ducks are normally resistant to avian influenza virus without clinical signs while they habor almost all subtypes of influenza A viruses. To date, however the mechanism for duck anti-in...

    Authors: Jianmei Yang, Hongrui Cui, Qiaoyang Teng, Wenjun Ma, Xuesong Li, Binbin Wang, Dawei Yan, Hongjun Chen, Qinfang Liu and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:46

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  43. Content type: Research

    VP1 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a structural protein that is required for virus encapsulation. VP1 proteins are present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, the functional nuclear localization ...

    Authors: Jai-Hong Cheng, Guan-Hua Lai, Yi-Yang Lien, Fang-Chun Sun, Shan-Ling Hsu, Pei-Chin Chuang and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:45

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  44. Content type: Research

    Since H7N9 influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in 2013, five waves of outbreaks have occurred, posing a huge threat to human health. In preparation for a potential H7N9 epidemic, it is essential to eva...

    Authors: Ai-jun Chen, Jie Dong, Xin-hui Yuan, Hong Bo, Shu-zhen Li, Chao Wang, Zhao-jun Duan and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:44

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  45. Content type: Research

    Although vaccines for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly effective, HBV infections in vaccinees occur. Index samples of breakthrough infections are typically anti-HBc negative but HBV DNA positive with protect...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Anne L. McNamara, Vera Holzmayer and Gavin A. Cloherty

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:43

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  46. Content type: Research

    HIV integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors, including lens-epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), Ku70, p300, and Rad52, are subject to small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification. In addition ...

    Authors: Yingfeng Zheng, Kallesh Danappa Jayappa, Zhujun Ao, Xiangguo Qiu, Ruey-Chyi Su and Xiaojian Yao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:42

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  47. Content type: Research

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emergent virus in salmon aquaculture belonging to the family Reoviridae. PRV is associated with a growing list of pathological conditions including heart and skeletal inflammatio...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:41

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:60

  48. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus C96 (EV-C96) is a newly named type of enterovirus belonging to species C, and the prototype strain (BAN00–10488) was firstly isolated in 2000 from a stool specimen of a patient with acute flaccid p...

    Authors: Lan Hu, Yong Zhang, Mei Hong, Qin Fan, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:40

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