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  1. The Alphapapillomavirus 9 (α-9 HPV) is a member of the Alphapapillomavirus genus and Papillomaviridae family. These viruses are almost all carcinogenic HPV, which is closely related to 75% of invasive cervical...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Qiufu Li, Shiyu Ma, Tianjun Li, Yuning Chen, Yiran Liu, Yanru Cui, Jianying Peng, Yunfan Shi, Xia Wei and Xianping Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:14

    Content type: Research

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  2. Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs). It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Ethiopia and globally. To develop efficient vaccination and H...

    Authors: Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Endalkachew Nibret, Melanie Maier, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel and Tamrat Abebe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:13

    Content type: Review

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  3. In 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically relate...

    Authors: Joachim R. de Miranda, Laura E. Brettell, Nor Chejanovsky, Anna K. Childers, Anne Dalmon, Ward Deboutte, Dirk C. de Graaf, Vincent Doublet, Haftom Gebremedhn, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Fredrik Granberg, Nizar J. Haddad, Rene Kaden, Robyn Manley, Jelle Matthijnssens…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:12

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during inf...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Huan Mai, YuanYuan Chen, Baiyi Liu, YiSi Liu, Ying Ji, Xu Cong and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:11

    Content type: Research

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  5. Equine herpesvirus-8 (EHV-8) is one of the most economically significant viruses that infect mammals of the genus Equus worldwide, which cause severe respiratory diseases and abortion in horses. However, there...

    Authors: Tongtong Wang, Leyu Hu, Yonghui Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Guiqin Liu, Mingxia Zhu, Wei Zhang, Changfa Wang, Huiying Ren and Liangliang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:10

    Content type: Case Report

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  6. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), which develops after a past covid-19 infection. MIS can be described in different tissue inflammation, including the heart, lung, kidney, brain, skin, eye, and or gastr...

    Authors: Yeter Eylul Bayram, Dilek Yildiz-Sevgi, Ayse Yavuz, Merve Cancetin and Mehmet Yavuz Gurler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:9

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 play a central role in the etiology of the most common neoplasm in horses, the equine sarcoid. The unknown mechanism behind the unique variety in clinical presentation...

    Authors: Lien Gysens, Bert Vanmechelen, Maarten Haspeslagh, Piet Maes and Ann Martens

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:8

    Content type: Research

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  8. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogenic gammaherpesvirus with carcinogenic potential. The EBV transcriptome has previously been analyzed using both Illumina-based short read-sequencing and Pa...

    Authors: Ádám Fülöp, Gábor Torma, Norbert Moldován, Kálmán Szenthe, Ferenc Bánáti, Islam A. A. Almsarrhad, Zsolt Csabai, Dóra Tombácz, János Minárovits and Zsolt Boldogkői

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:7

    Content type: Research

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  9. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause cervical and other cancers, including vulva, vagina, penis, anus, or oropharynx. However, in China's northern Henan Province, data on the prevalence and genotype ...

    Authors: Xiangpeng Wang, Yuan Song, Xiaofei Wei, Guanyu Wang, Ruili Sun, Mingyong Wang and Lijun Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:6

    Content type: Research

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  10. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) prevalence and risk factors exhibit considerable variations across populations in different geographic regions. Determinants and the transmission routes of KSHV ...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Yiyun Xu, Yi Li, Huangbo Yuan, Zhenqiu Liu and Tiejun Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:5

    Content type: Research

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  11. Transplantation among HIV positive patients may be a valuable therapeutic intervention. This study involves an HIV D+/R+ kidney–liver transplantation, where PBMC-associated HIV quasispecies were analyzed in do...

    Authors: Gabriella Rozera, Ubaldo Visco-Comandini, Emanuela Giombini, Francesco Santini, Federica Forbici, Giulia Berno, Cesare Gruber, Paolo De Paolis, Roberto Colonnelli, Gianpiero D’Offizi, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Paolo Grossi, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito and Isabella Abbate

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:4

    Content type: Short report

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  12. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. I...

    Authors: Munam Raza Jafri, Anna Zaheer, Sahar Fatima, Taiba Saleem and Atif Sohail

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:3

    Content type: Research

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  13. The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants still poses a threat to public health worldwide. Effective next-generation vaccines and optimized booster vaccination strategies ...

    Authors: Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Lin Cheng, Weilong Liu, Qing Fan, Xiangyang Ge, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:2

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Surveillance for circulating emerging diseases of economic importance has a major role in the rapid response to major pathogen outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the significant endemic v...

    Authors: Ayah M. Hassan, Mostafa R. Zaher, Rabab T. Hassanien, Mervat I. Abd-El-Moniem, Ahmed R. Habashi, Essam M. Ibraheem, Momtaz A. Shahein, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty and Naglaa M. Hagag

    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:1

    Content type: Research

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  15. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein determines virus entry and the palmitoylation of S protein affects virus infection. An acyltransferase complex ZDHHC5/GOGAL7 that ...

    Authors: Xiao-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Ti Yu and Wei Cheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:257

    Content type: Research

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  16. Although interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was reported to stimulate virus replication by suppressing the type I interferon signaling pathway, because cell cycle arrest was found to promote viral replicati...

    Authors: Kai Ren, Ya Zhu, Honggang Sun, Shilin Li, Xiaoqiong Duan, Shuang Li, Yujia Li, Bin Li and Limin Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:256

    Content type: Research

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  17. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) usually infects infants causing hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), even fatal neurological disease like aseptic meningitis. Effective drug for preventing and treating EV71 infection is unava...

    Authors: Zhuoran Li, Ya’ni Wu, Hui Li, Wenqian Li, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:255

    Content type: Research

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  18. Rotavirus (RV) is a principal cause of diarrhea. However, there is a limited understanding regarding alteration of the gut microbial community structure and abundance during RV infection. This study was to cha...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Mei Ling Yu, XiaoLi Tao, Mei Hui Cheng, Chang Cheng Liu, Yang Liu and Yong Gang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:254

    Content type: Research

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  19. The uncontrollable spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas during 2015–2017, and its causal link to microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, led the World Health Organisation to decl...

    Authors: Julio Carrera, Alice M. Trenerry, Cameron P. Simmons and Jason M. Mackenzie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:251

    Content type: Research

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  20. Daphnis nerii cypovirus-23 (DnCPV-23) is a new type of cypovirus and has a lethal effect on the oleander hawk moth, Daphnis nerii which feeds on leave of Oleander and Catharanthus et al. After DnCPV-23 infection,...

    Authors: Wendong Kuang, Chenghua Yan, Zhigao Zhan, Limei Guan, Jinchang Wang, Junhui Chen, Jianghuai Li, Guangqiang Ma, Xi Zhou and Liang Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:250

    Content type: Research

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  21. Vaccination against HCV is an effective measure in reduction of virus-related public health burden and mortality. However, no prophylactic vaccine is available as of yet. DNA-based immunization is a promising ...

    Authors: Ali Shayeghpour, Roya Kianfar, Parastoo Hosseini, Mehdi Ajorloo, Sepehr Aghajanian, Mojtaba Hedayat Yaghoobi, Tayebeh Hashempour and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:248

    Content type: Research

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  22. Despite the five decades having passed since discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), together with development of an effective anti-HBV vaccine, infection with the virus remains a serious public health probl...

    Authors: Njabulo Mnyandu, Shonisani Wendy Limani, Patrick Arbuthnot and Mohube Betty Maepa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:247

    Content type: Review

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  23. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been described as a causing factor for acute-on-chronic-liver-failure (ACLF) in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), such as chronic hepatitis or cirr...

    Authors: Anabella Fantilli, Sarah Daniela López Villa, Alina Zerega, Guadalupe Di Cola, Luis López, Maribel Wassaf Martínez, María Belén Pisano and Viviana Elizabeth Ré

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:245

    Content type: Case Report

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  24. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xingxiang Liu, Jianguo Shao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Renfei Lu, Hong Xue, Yunfang Xu, Lijuan Wang, Hui Zhou, Lugang Yu, Ming Yue and Chen Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:244

    Content type: Research

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  25. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are a f...

    Authors: Ali Monfared, Leila Akhondzadeh, Mahsa Mousazadeh, Atefeh Jafari, Masoud Khosravi, Mohammadkazem Lebadi, Pegah Aghajanzadeh, Yalda Haghdar-Saheli, Ali Movassaghi, Elham Ramezanzadeh, Farzaneh Shobeirian, Ehsan Kazemnezhad and Samaneh Esmaeili

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:243

    Content type: Research

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  26. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is a significant public health problem that could benefit from treatment with immunomodulators. Here we describe a set of therapeutic HBV vaccines that target th...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi, Mikhail Novikov, Dakota Newman, ZhiQuan Xiang, Xiang Yang Zhou, Colin Magowan and Hildegund C. J. Ertl

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:242

    Content type: Research

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  27. Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:241

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:225

  28. Members of the family Inoviridae (inoviruses) are characterized by their unique filamentous morphology and infection cycle. The viral genome of inovirus is able to integrate into the host genome and continuously ...

    Authors: Jian Zeng, Yan Wang, Ju Zhang, Shixing Yang and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:240

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  29. HIV and HBV infections remain responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality in many African Countries, affecting women and newborns. This study aims to analyze the spatial pattern of HIV and HBV infecti...

    Authors: Amélia Nkutxi Vueba, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Clarissa Faria and Maria do Céu Sousa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:239

    Content type: Research

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  30. To evaluate viral loads in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia at different stages of disease and compare the viral load between upper and lower respiratory tract samples.

    Authors: Le-Yun Xie, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Tian Yu, Xian Hu, Tao Wang, Le Yang, Li-Li Zhong, Jin-Song Li, Zhao-Jun Duan and Bing Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:238

    Content type: Research

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  31. The highly pathogenic Influenza H7N9 virus is believed to cause multiple organ infections. However, there have been few systematic animal experiments demonstrating the virus distribution after H7N9 virus infec...

    Authors: Xiao-Xin Wu, Song-Jia Tang, Shu-Hao Yao, Yu-Qin Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Lin-Fang Cheng, Fu-Ming Liu, Nan-Ping Wu, Hang-Ping Yao and Lan-Juan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:237

    Content type: Research

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  32. Previous works have observed that younger infants with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are more responsive to antiviral treatment. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, th...

    Authors: Yi Li, Yiwei Xiao, Lili Li, Yarong Song, Xiangjun Zhai, Jianxun Liu, Zhongping Duan, Ling Yan, Feng Ding, Jia Liu, Liguo Zhu, Jie Jiang, Huaibin Zou, Lingxiang Li, Caihong Liang, Jie Wang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:236

    Content type: Research

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  33. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serum markers during typical acute self-limited infection are usually depicted as a composite of traditional HBV markers. The current study updates and expands our knowledge of acute he...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Vera Holzmayer, Anne L. McNamara, Mark Anderson and Gavin A. Cloherty

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:235

    Content type: Research

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  34. HAdV is one of the common pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We aim to describe the clinical and laboratory features, epidemiological characteristics, and HAdV species...

    Authors: Caiyun Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yumei Mi, Jing Chen, Jing Bi and Yinghu Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:234

    Content type: Research

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  35. Dabieshan tick virus (DTV) was first identified in Haemaphysalis longicornis from Hubei Province, China in 2015. However, its pathogenic potential to animals and human remains to be further explored. In this stud...

    Authors: Lijun Shao, Ruiheng Chang, Lin Liu, Yongjin Wang, Yun Gao, Shaoqing Wang, Hengyi Sun and Guoyu Niu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:233

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  36. Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a pr...

    Authors: Ji Heui Kim, Jung Yeon Jang and Yong Ju Jang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:232

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus haemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) is the leading cause of death in captive Asian elephant calves in Asia, North America, and Europe with a mortality rate of ~ 65% in calves t...

    Authors: Mei-Ho Lee, Senthilvel K. S. S. Nathan, Laura Benedict, Pakeeyaraj Nagalingam, Erin Latimer, Tom Hughes, Diana Ramirez and Jum Rafiah Abd Sukor

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:231

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  38. In 2011, a new influenza virus, named Influenza D Virus (IDV), was isolated from pigs, and then cattle, presenting influenza-like symptoms. IDV is one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD...

    Authors: Yutian Wang, Weiyang Sun, Zhenfei Wang, Menglin Zhao, Xinghai Zhang, Yunyi Kong, Xuefeng Wang, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Yongkun Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Songtao Yang and Yuwei Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:230

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets, dogs, and giant pandas causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervou...

    Authors: Jingjian Dong, Yan Chen, Lili Shi, Bing Shen, Xianliang Sun, Kaiyi Ruan, Xianzhu Xia, Hao Feng and Na Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:229

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regim...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Farbod Shahabinezhad, Tahmoores Niknam, Seyed Ahmad Tara, Elham Haem, Parviz Mardani, Zahra Zare, Sedigheh Jafarian, Khatereh Mirzad Jahromi, Sara Arabsheybani, Yalda Sadat Moeini, Jalile Alavi, Seyed Soroush Jalali, Maryam Salimi, Reza Shahriarirad and Seyed Ali Malekhosseini

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:228

    Content type: Research

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  41. Parechoviruses (PeV-As), which constitute a new genus within the family Picornaviridae, have been associated with numerous localized outbreaks of serious diseases, such as coryza, pneumonia, maculopapular exanthe...

    Authors: Huanhuan Lu, Jinbo Xiao, Keyi Zhang, Zhenzhi Han, Yang Song, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Wenbo Xu and Yong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:227

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  42. Given that many pregnant women have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes, we looked into the relationship betw...

    Authors: Wanchang Yin, Bingjun Chen, Yilin Yang, Xiuzi Li, Ruirui Li, Jiangnan Xie, Guixian Chen, Fang He and Dunjin Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:226

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, pulmonary involvement was one of the most significant concerns in assessing patients. In the current study, we evaluated patient’s signs, symptoms, and laboratory data on the first...

    Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:225

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:241

  44. B-cell proliferative disorders, such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), are increased among persons afflicted by T-cell compromise. Most are Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) + and can first present...

    Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Jun Xie, Rajesh Panigrahi, Sandeep S. Jubbal, Santosh Kumar Guru, Gao Guangping, Mazyar Ziyaeyan and Joyce Fingeroth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:223

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. We report a genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Paraná, southern Brazil, from March 2020 to April 2021. Our analysis, based on 333 genomes, revealed that the first variants detected in t...

    Authors: Mauro M. Oliveira, Michelle O. Schemberger, Andreia A. Suzukawa, Irina N. Riediger, Maria do Carmo Debur, Guilherme Becker, Paola Cristina Resende, Tiago Gräf, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antônio de Baura, Emanuel M. de Souza, Fábio O. Pedrosa, Lysangela R. Alves, Lucas Blanes, Sheila Cristina Nardelli, Alessandra M. Aguiar…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:222

    Content type: Research

    Published on: