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  1. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Dajun Zhang, Bo Yang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Chaochao Shen, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu and Keshan Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:128

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:69

  2. In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implica...

    Authors: Bandar Alosaimi, Asif Naeem, Maaweya E. Hamed, Haitham S. Alkadi, Thamer Alanazi, Sanaa Saad Al Rehily, Abdullah Z. Almutairi and Adnan Zafar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymph...

    Authors: Shi-Wei Yin, Zheng Zhou, Jun-Ling Wang, Yun-Feng Deng, Hui Jing and Yi Qiu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. Recent studies suggest that lncRNAs may play significant roles in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, as a special stage of HBV infection, the lncRNA expression in occult HBV infecti...

    Authors: Qingqin Hao, Zheng Wang, Qinghui Wang, Bo Chen, Huizhong Qian, Xiao Liu, Hong Cao, Wei Xia, Jian Jiang and Zhonghua Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:125

    Content type: Research

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  5. The vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, Guarani P1 virus (GP1V) and Passatempo virus (PSTV), were isolated during zoonotic outbreaks in Brazil. Each one of them belongs to two different VACV clades, defined by biolog...

    Authors: Karine Lima Lourenço, Leandro Andrade Chinália, Lethícia Ribeiro Henriques, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues and Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:124

    Content type: Research

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  6. The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro s...

    Authors: Kexin Yan, Daniel J. Rawle, Thuy T. Le and Andreas Suhrbier

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:123

    Content type: Short report

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  7. Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to hu...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Hao Wang, Jie Yang, Jian Zeng and Guang-Ming Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:122

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to many countries around the world. In addition to lung disease, severe cases also displayed varying degrees of liver injury. This articl...

    Authors: Dongdong Yu, Qingru Du, Shengguang Yan, Xu-Guang Guo, Yehao He, Guodong Zhu, Kewei Zhao and Shi Ouyang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:121

    Content type: Review

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  9. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reve...

    Authors: Baila Shakaib, Tanzeel Zohra, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Bin Shakaib, Amna Ali, Adnan Bashir, Muhammad Salman, Mumtaz Ali khan and Jamil Ansari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:120

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  10. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) which is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is an acute, contagious disease. In spite of the use of vaccines and elimination projects, BVDV still causes severe economic l...

    Authors: Yaxin Li, Tao Guo, Xiaokui Wang, Wei Ni, Ruirui Hu, Yuying Cui, Taotao Mi and Shengwei Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:119

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically descr...

    Authors: Jiajia Wang, Xinjing Yang, Yongsheng Li, Jian-an Huang, Junhong Jiang and Nan Su

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:117

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-ende...

    Authors: Raymond Tshepiso Makola, Joe Kgaladi, Garland Kgosi More, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz Tadeusz Paweska and Thabe Moses Matsebatlela

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. It is important to recognize the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in severe conditions from moderate ones, thus more effective predictors should be developed.

    Authors: Yingjie Qi, Jian-an Jia, Huiming Li, Nagen Wan, Shuqin Zhang and Xiaoling Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:115

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. The advent of whole genome sequencing has revealed that common laboratory strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have major genetic deficiencies resulting from serial passage in fibroblasts. In particular, tr...

    Authors: Ahmed Al Qaffas, Salvatore Camiolo, Mai Vo, Alexis Aguiar, Amine Ourahmane, Myrna Sorono, Andrew J. Davison, Michael A. McVoy and Laura Hertel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:112

    Content type: Short report

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  15. The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays h...

    Authors: Janine Michel, Markus Neumann, Eva Krause, Thomas Rinner, Therese Muzeniek, Marica Grossegesse, Georg Hille, Franziska Schwarz, Andreas Puyskens, Sophie Förster, Barbara Biere, Daniel Bourquain, Cristina Domingo, Annika Brinkmann, Lars Schaade, Livia Schrick…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection re...

    Authors: Janina Krambrich, Dario Akaberi, Jiaxin Ling, Tove Hoffman, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom and Åke Lundkvist

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chuanchuan He, Jianjun Tong, Xueping Zhang, Milikaimu Tuohetiniyazi, Yu Zhang and Youwen Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:108

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:133

  18. Reducing the pool of HIV-1 reservoirs in patients is a must to achieve functional cure. The most prominent HIV-1 cell reservoirs are resting CD4 + T cells and brain derived microglial cells. Infected microglia...

    Authors: Sepideh Saeb, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim, Fadoua Daouad, Kazem Baesi, Olivier Rohr, Clémentine Wallet and Christian Schwartz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:107

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  19. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that has limited tissue and species specificity. Due to the persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cell...

    Authors: Ruirui Xu, Pingping Hu, Yuwen Li, Anran Tian, Jun Li and Chuanlong Zhu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:105

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  20. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are leading causes of viral severe acute respiratory illnesses in childhood. Both the two viruses belong to the Pneumoviridae family and show ove...

    Authors: John W. Oketch, Everlyn Kamau, James R. Otieno, Anthony Mwema, Clement Lewa, Everlyne Isoe, D. James Nokes and Charles N. Agoti

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:104

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. The emergence of drug resistance and cross-resistance to existing drugs has warranted the development of new antivirals for Herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Hence, we have designed this study to evaluate the anti...

    Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Saikat De, Alok Kumar Moharana, Tapas Kumar Nayak, Tanuja Saswat, Ankita Datey, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Priyadarsee Mishra, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi and Soma Chattopadhyay

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:103

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Although more than a year past since COVID-19 was defined, there is no specific treatment yet. Since COVID-19 management differs over time, it is hard to determine which therapy is more efficacious. In this st...

    Authors: Anıl Ucan, Pamir Cerci, Serdar Efe, Hakan Akgun, Ahmet Ozmen, Aysel Yagmuroglu, Muzaffer Bilgin and Deniz Avci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major challenge facing the world. Certain guidelines issued by National Health Commission of the People's Repubilic of China recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...

    Authors: Xiao Hou, Li Tian, Lei Zhou, Xinhua Jia, Li Kong, Yitao Xue, Hao Hao, Xianqing Meng, Feihu Zhang and Xiaobin Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:101

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases for cassava production in Africa and Asia. Accurate yet affordable diagnostics are one of the fundamental tools supporting successful ...

    Authors: Saengsoon Charoenvilaisiri, Channarong Seepiban, Mallika Kumpoosiri, Sombat Rukpratanporn, Nuchnard Warin, Bencharong Phuangrat, Phakamat Chitchuea, Sirima Siripaitoon, Orawan Chatchawankanphanich and Oraprapai Gajanandana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:100

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagen...

    Authors: Joel D. Pearson, Daniel Trcka, Suying Lu, Sharon J. Hyduk, Mark Jen, Marie-Ming Aynaud, J. Javier Hernández, Philippos Peidis, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Kin Chan, Jim Woodgett, Tony Mazzulli, Liliana Attisano, Laurence Pelletier, Myron I. Cybulsky, Jeffrey L. Wrana…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:99

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers hav...

    Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Tehjeeb Noor, Ziaul Haque Munim, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:98

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  27. African swine fever (ASF), characterized by acute, severe, and fast-spreading, is a highly lethal swine infectious disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which has caused substantial economic ...

    Authors: Zhan Gao, Jun-Jun Shao, Guang-Lei Zhang, Su-Dan Ge, Yan-Yan Chang, Lei Xiao and Hui-Yun Chang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:97

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  28. Human parvovirus B19V is a DNA virus, and a member of the family Parvoviridae, that causes various clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to persistent infection that is associated with different autoimmune d...

    Authors: Dayakar Seetha, Heera R. Pillai, Sai Ravi Chandra Nori, Sanu Ghosh Kalpathodi, Vineetha P. Thulasi and Radhakrishnan R. Nair

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:96

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  29. The early identification of asymptomatic yet infectious cases is vital to curb the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to control the disease in the post-pandemic era. In this paper, we propose a fast, in...

    Authors: Eva Kriegova, Regina Fillerova, Milan Raska, Jirina Manakova, Martin Dihel, Ondrej Janca, Pavel Sauer, Martina Klimkova, Petra Strakova and Petr Kvapil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:95

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  30. Variations in human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 have been shown to be closely related to the persistence of the virus and the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Long control region (LCR) of HPV ...

    Authors: Zhilin Song, Yanru Cui, Qiufu Li, Junhang Deng, Xianping Ding, Jiaoyu He, Yiran Liu, Zhuang Ju and Liyuan Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:94

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do...

    Authors: Natalie C. Marshall, Ruwandi M. Kariyawasam, Nathan Zelyas, Jamil N. Kanji and Mathew A. Diggle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:93

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic poten...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska and Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relatio...

    Authors: Yanjun Zhang, Lingxuan Su, Yin Chen, Sicong Yu, Dan Zhang, Haiyan Mao and Lei Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:89

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, f...

    Authors: Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr, Heloísa Ihle Giamberardino, Sonia Mara Raboni, Maria Carmo Debur, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy and Edson Elias da Silva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:88

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  35. The emergence and rapid spread of the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC-202012/01) SARS-CoV-2 variant has aroused global concern. The N501Y substitution is the only mutation in the interface between the RBD of B.1.1.7 and ...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Xiangyang Ge, Jiazhen Yu, Mingxia Zhang, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:87

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  36. Newcastle disease is a devastating disease in poultry caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a paramyxovirus endemic in many regions of the world despite intensive vaccination. Phylogenetic analyses...

    Authors: Ibrahim Moharam, Olayinka Asala, Sven Reiche, Hafez Hafez, Martin Beer, Timm Harder and Christian Grund

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:86

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Gene delivery of antiviral therapeutics to anatomical sites where viruses accumulate and persist is a promising approach for the next generation of antiviral therapies. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AA...

    Authors: Rossana Colón-Thillet, Keith R. Jerome and Daniel Stone

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:85

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the neurotropic pathogen that has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. The limited ...

    Authors: Yanli Chen, Heng Li, Jinxi Yang, Huiwen Zheng, Lei Guo, Weiyu Li, Zening Yang, Jie Song and Longding Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Sacbrood is an infectious disease of the honey bee caused by Scbrood virus (SBV) which belongs to the family Iflaviridae and is especially lethal for Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a...

    Authors: Liping Sun, Xueqi Zhang, Shufa Xu, Chunsheng Hou, Jin Xu, Dongxiang Zhao and Yanping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:82

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:71

  41. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vp39 is conserved in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. In previous studies, VP39 has been identified as the major capsid structure protein of baculov...

    Authors: Sainan Li, Bingming Ou, Yina Lv, Tian Gan, Haizhou Zhao and Wenhua Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:81

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  42. Data about the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the Czech Republic is limited. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and concordance of genotype-specific HPV infection detected in semen...

    Authors: Hana Jaworek, Vladimira Koudelakova, Ivana Oborna, Blazena Zborilova, Jana Brezinova, Dagmar Ruzickova, Jana Vrbkova, Pavla Kourilova and Marian Hajduch

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:80

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) con...

    Authors: Ayokunle O. Olanrewaju, Benjamin P. Sullivan, Ashley R. Bardon, Tiffany J. Lo, Tim R. Cressey, Jonathan D. Posner and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:77

    Content type: Short report

    Published on: