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  1. Dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of thousands of people annually in Indonesia. However, DENV sequence data from the country are limited, as samples from outbreaks must be shipped across long-distances to s...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Barbara A. Blacklaws, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Rahma F. Hayati, Brian Schwem, Edsel M. Salvaña, Raul V. Destura, James S. Lester, Khin S. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Simon D. W. Frost

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  2. During severe immunosuppression or treatment with specific biological drugs, human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) may establish a lytic infection in oligodendrocytes, leading to progressive multifocal leukoencephalop...

    Authors: Maria Rosa Ciardi, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Carla Prezioso, Valentina Perri, Patrizia Pasculli, Miriam Lichtner, Gabriella d’Ettorre, Marta Altieri, Antonella Conte, Valeria Pietropaolo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni and Vincenzo Vullo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:23

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Transfection, the process of introducing purified nucleic acids into cells, and viral transduction, viral-mediated nucleic acid transfer, are two commonly utilized techniques for gene delivery in the research ...

    Authors: Jeffrey Sebrow, Stephen P. Goff and Daniel O. Griffin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:22

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. In a previous study, we showed that miR-876-5p upregulation was observed in the serum of patients wi...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Hwa Xu, Hsu Sheng Cheng, Han-Hsiang Chan and Robert Y. L. Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  5. Standardized and sensitive assays for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) are needed to define universal cutoff for treatment initiation in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. In a context of accre...

    Authors: Maud Salmona, Karl Stefic, Nadia Mahjoub, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Sarah Maylin, François Simon, Catherine Scieux, Gérard Socié, Marie-Christine Mazeron and Jérôme LeGoff

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:20

    Content type: Research

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  6. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are the important etiological agents of swine infectious diseases, resulting in huge economic losses to the Chinese swine industry. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) ha...

    Authors: Hui-Hua Zheng, Lin-Qing Wang, Peng-Fei Fu, Lan-Lan Zheng, Hong-Ying Chen and Fang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  7. Porcine β-defensin 2 (PBD-2), produced by host cells, is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich cationic peptide with multi-functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that PBD-2 can kill various bacteria, regulate ...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Yanhua Qi, Antian Wang, Chao Huang, Xiao Liu, Xi Yang, Lu Li and Rui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  8. Anhui Province in China is facing a severe HIV epidemic with an increasing number of newly diagnosed cases.

    Authors: Dong Zhang, Jianjun Wu, Yu Zhang, Yuelan Shen, Sheying Dai, Xiaolin Wang, Hui Xing, Jin Lin, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Yizu Qin, Yongjian Liu, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Hanping Li and Lin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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  9. Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) has been associated with neurological diseases in wild waterfowls. In Canada, presence of ABBV-1 was demonstrated by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in tissues of waterfowls...

    Authors: Phuc H. Pham, Alexander Leacy, Li Deng, Éva Nagy and Leonardo Susta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:16

    Content type: Research

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  10. Hantaan virus (HTNV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans with severe morbidity and high mortality. Although inactivated HFRS vaccines are given annually for prevention in populatio...

    Authors: Yan Ma, Kang Tang, Yusi Zhang, Chunmei Zhang, Yun Zhang, Boquan Jin and Ying Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:15

    Content type: Research

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  11. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue for which an effective universal screening method is urgently needed. An oral anti-HCV test could provide a noninvasive and rapid screening strategy f...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Mingyuan Zhang, Lei Hang, Fei Kong, Hongqing Yan, Yumei Zhang, Xiangwei Feng, Yuanda Gao, Chang Wang, Heming Ma, Xu Liu, Mengru Zhan, Yu Pan, Hongqin Xu and Junqi Niu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  12. Viruses are the most numerous entities on Earth and have also been central to many episodes in the history of humankind. As the study of viruses progresses further and further, there are several limitations in...

    Authors: Gabriel Augusto Pires de Souza, Victória Fulgêncio Queiroz, Maurício Teixeira Lima, Erik Vinicius de Sousa Reis, Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho and Jônatas Santos Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:13

    Content type: Research

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  13. Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and ant...

    Authors: Huan Cui, Chunmao Zhang, Zongzheng Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Guanxi Chen, Mengxi Lai, Zhixiang Li, Shishan Dong, Ligong Chen, Zhaoyang Li, Chengyu Wang, Juxiang Liu, Yuwei Gao and Zhendong Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:12

    Content type: Research

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  14. Current molecular target-dependent methods are used to detect only known viruses. However, metagenomics based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique is a target-independent assay that enables simultaneo...

    Authors: Hawraa Adel Mohammad, Nada Mohammed Madi and Widad Al-Nakib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:10

    Content type: Research

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  15. Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease, affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP), caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the existence of a safe vaccine, YF continues to cause morbidity and ...

    Authors: Natalia Ingrid Oliveira Silva, Lívia Sacchetto, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Benoit de Thoisy and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:9

    Content type: Review

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  16. The separation of exfoliated cells from the brushes used during cervico-vaginal smears is difficult, a problem which may affect the quality of ribonucleic acid (RNA) extracted. We compared the results of RNA e...

    Authors: Gun Oh. Chong, Hyung Soo Han, Seon Duk Lee and Yoon Hee Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:8

    Content type: Short report

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  17. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. In the 2017, a dengue epidemic occurred in Hanoi in a short time interval and many cases were serious with associated mortality. ...

    Authors: Thuy Thi Dang, My Ha Pham, Huy Vu Bui and Duyet Van Le

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  18. Pneumonia and stomatitis represent severe and often fatal diseases in different captive snakes. Apart from bacterial infections, paramyxo-, adeno-, reo- and arenaviruses cause these diseases. In 2014, new viru...

    Authors: Silvia Blahak, Maria Jenckel, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann and Kore Schlottau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  19. BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes premature graft failure in 1 to 15% of kidney transplant (KT) recipients. High-level BKPyV-viruria and BKPyV-DNAemia precede polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), and guid...

    Authors: Elias Myrvoll Lorentzen, Stian Henriksen, Amandeep Kaur, Grete Birkeland Kro, Clara Hammarström, Hans H. Hirsch, Karsten Midtvedt and Christine Hanssen Rinaldo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:5

    Content type: Case Report

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  20. A previously isolated a bacteriophage, vB_EcoS_AKFV33 of T5virus, demonstrated great potential in biocontrol of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157. This study further evaluated its potential as a biocon...

    Authors: Yan D. Niu, Hui Liu, Roger P. Johnson, Tim A. McAllister and Kim Stanford

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

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  21. Bufavirus is a newly discovered zoonotic virus reported in numerous mammals and humans. However, the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of porcine bufaviruses (PBuVs) in China remain unclear.

    Authors: Yan-Kuo Sun, Yong-Jie Chen, Yu Cai, Di-Hua Zhu, Hao-Ming Pan, Ying-Fang Wei, Xiao-Liang Han, Chi-Hai Ji, Gang Lu, Heng Wang, Chun-Quan Ma and Gui-Hong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:2

    Content type: Research

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  22. Sanitary quality of recreational waters worldwide is assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as Escherichia coli and enterococci. However, fate and transport characteristics of FIB in aquatic habitats...

    Authors: Brian R. McMinn, Eric R. Rhodes, Emma M. Huff and Asja Korajkic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:1

    Content type: Research

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  23. Developing African countries face health problems that they struggle to solve. The major causes of this situation are high therapeutic and logistical costs. Plant-made therapeutics are easy to produce due to t...

    Authors: Pingdwende Kader Aziz Bamogo, Christophe Brugidou, Drissa Sérémé, Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore and Séverine Lacombe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:167

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  24. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...

    Authors: Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ming-hui Li, Ju-ju Qi, Rui-huan Wang, Qing-xia Duan, Rui-qing Zhang, Tao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Guo-hao Fan, Yao Xie and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

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  25. The paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a multifunctional protein that is responsible for attachment to receptors, removal of receptors from infected cells to prevent viral self-aggregation (neu...

    Authors: Yaqing Liu, Miaomiao Chi, Ying Liu, Hongling Wen, Li Zhao, Yanyan Song, Na Liu and Zhiyu Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:164

    Content type: Research

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  26. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  28. Adenovirus (AdV) infection is ubiquitous in the human population and causes acute infection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In addition to lytic infections in epithelial cells, AdV can persist ...

    Authors: Megan L. Dickherber and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:161

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. EOS plays an important role in maintaining the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induces a regulated transformation of Tregs into T helper-like cells, which are capable of secreting proin...

    Authors: Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:160

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool for visualization of the spatio-temporal dynamics of moving signals in living cells. Although this technique can be utilized to visualize nucleocapsid transport in Marburg ...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Olga Dolnik, Takeshi Noda and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

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  31. After the isolation of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the study and search for new giant viruses has been intensified. Most giant viruses are associated with free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeb...

    Authors: Fernanda Souza, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Erik Reis, Maurício Lima, Bernard La Scola and Jônatas Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:158

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus, is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly prolonged course involving persis...

    Authors: Lanlan Bai, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Masaaki Sato, William C. Davis, Satoshi Wada, Junko Kohara and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:157

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  33. The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is classified into seven serotypes, of which the South African types have South African Territories (SAT)1, SAT2, and SAT3 that are prevalent in Africa. Especially SAT2 h...

    Authors: Hye-Eun Jo, Su-Hwa You, Joo-Hyung Choi, Mi-Kyeong Ko, Sung Ho Shin, Jisoo Song, Hyundong Jo, Min Ja Lee, Su-Mi Kim, Byounghan Kim and Jong-Hyeon Park

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:156

    Content type: Research

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  34. Porcine circovirus (PCV) disease caused by PCV type 2 (PCV2) is mainly attributed to immunosuppression and immune damage. PCV2 can infect vascular endothelial cells and induce high expression of endothelial IL...

    Authors: Shiyu Liu, Qiuming Li, Jinzeng Qiao, Jianfang Wang, Defeng Cui, Kewei Gu, Shuanghai Zhou and Huanrong Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:154

    Content type: Research

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  35. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

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  36. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an emerging insect vector mediated pathogen affecting both wild ruminants and livestock, has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded RNA genome segments. BTV has a severe econo...

    Authors: Qingyuan Xu, Jinying Ge, Maolin Li, Encheng Sun, Yawei Zhou, Yunze Guo, Donglai Wu and Zhigao Bu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:151

    Content type: Methodology

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  37. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

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  38. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

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  39. About 23% of patients develop CIN2+ after LEEP treatment due to residual or recurrent lesions. The majority of patients with HPV infection were HPV negative before treatment, but 16,4% were still HPV 16 positi...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Nazzario Cassaro, Salvatore Garofalo and Sara Boemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:148

    Content type: Research

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  40. Adenoviruses play an important role as human pathogens, though most infections are believed to be asymptomatic. The over 100 human adenovirus types are classified into seven species (A-G), some of which includ...

    Authors: Christian E. Lange, Fabien R. Niama, Kenneth Cameron, Sarah H. Olson, Rock Aime Nina, Alain Ondzie, Gerard Bounga, Brett R. Smith, Jasmine Pante, Patricia Reed, Ubald Tamufe, Anne Laudisoit, Tracey Goldstein, Romain Bagamboula MPassi and Damien O. Joly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:147

    Content type: Research

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  41. This study was performed to evaluate the use of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) viral load in screening tests for cervical cancer to predict persistent infection and presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ...

    Authors: Malin Berggrund, Inger Gustavsson, Riina Aarnio, Julia Hedlund-Lindberg, Karin Sanner, Ingrid Wikström, Stefan Enroth, Matts Olovsson and Ulf Gyllensten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:146

    Content type: Research

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  42. Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV) is a tentative new Cytorhabdovirus species in family Rhabdoviridae transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis. Although the virus was first detected in southern China in 2015, ...

    Authors: Siping Chen, Weilin Li, Xiuqin Huang, Biao Chen, Tong Zhang and Guohui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck ente...

    Authors: Xianglong Wu, Renyong Jia, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Zhongqiong Yin, Shaqiu Zhang, Juan Huang, Ling Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:144

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. We evaluated the prognostic and diagnostic ability of p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing and HPV DNA assay in triaging ASCUS to find a way to manage cervical lesions more effectively.

    Authors: Chenchen Ren, Yuanhang Zhu, Li Yang, Xiaoan Zhang, Ling Liu, Zhaoxin Wang and Dongyuan Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:143

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes one of the most important rice virus diseases of plants in East Asia. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling rice resistance to RSV infection are largely unknown. Recently, s...

    Authors: Rongfei Lu, Zhiyang Liu, Yudong Shao, Feng Sun, Yali Zhang, Jin Cui, Yijun Zhou, Wenbiao Shen and Tong Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:141

    Content type: Short report

    Published on: