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Clinical Virology

Section Editor: Fred Kibenge, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada
Deputy Section Editor: Kin On Kwok, The Chinese University of Hong Kong 

The Clinical Virology section of the Virology Journal covers the clinical aspects of pathogenic viruses in individual hosts and populations of humans, animals, or plants. This includes the study of viral diseases, laboratory diagnosis, treatment (antiviral therapies), and control (biocontainment and vaccines) using classical, molecular, or immunological methods. Studies, including the virome, virus-host interactions, and epidemiology of viral infections, are encouraged.

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  1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation but have been associated with complications in community-acquired pneumonia. Observations shortly after ...

    Authors: Justin T. Reese, Ben Coleman, Lauren Chan, Hannah Blau, Tiffany J. Callahan, Luca Cappelletti, Tommaso Fontana, Katie R. Bradwell, Nomi L. Harris, Elena Casiraghi, Giorgio Valentini, Guy Karlebach, Rachel Deer, Julie A. McMurry, Melissa A. Haendel, Christopher G. Chute…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:84
  2. To retain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, fast, sensitive and cost-effective testing is essential, particularly in resource limited settings (RLS). Current standard nucleic acid-based RT-PCR assays, although highly ...

    Authors: Kathleen Gärtner, Harry Meleke, Mercy Kamdolozi, David Chaima, Lyson Samikwa, Mary Paynter, Maggie Nyirenda Nyang’Wa, Elaine Cloutman-Green, Eleni Nastouli, Nigel Klein, Tonney Nyirenda, Chisomo Msefula and Dagmar G. Alber
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:77
  3. Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are prone to complicate viral infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement caused by the viruses is rare but with poor progno...

    Authors: Enyi Liu, Shuhe Lv, Panpan Yi, Li Feng, Xiaolu Deng, Han Xia and Yajing Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:75
  4. Rhinovirus is a common viral aetiology of upper respiratory infection and is mostly associated with common cold or flu-like illness. Although rhinovirus has been recognized as a pathogen for lower respiratory ...

    Authors: Jun Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Ziheng Feng, Yingchao Liu, Qianyu Feng, Suyun Qian, Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao and Zhengde Xie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:72
  5. Enterovirus (EV), parechovirus (HPeV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1/2) are common viruses leading to viral central nervous system (CNS) infections which are increasingly predominant but exhibit deficienc...

    Authors: Xunhua Zhu, Pengcheng Liu, Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Ran Jia, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Yameng Sun, Meijun Guo, Jianyue Sun and Jin Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:70
  6. Early and accurate identification of infection viruses among children can benefit the personalized medical treatment and management, and reduce the future occurrence of serious symptoms. Thus, it is critical t...

    Authors: Wei Li, Weiwei Li, Lin Li, Yajun Guo, Jie Chen, Shiqiang Shang and Jianhua Mao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:61
  7. Abnormalities of lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profiles have been observed in most patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we explore the role of lymphocyte subsets and cytokines on hospital admi...

    Authors: Pengfei Pan, Xinxin Du, Qilong Zhou, Yong Cui, Xiaochun Deng, Chao Liu, Zongjun Hu, Jianguo Chen, Xiangyou Yu and Weihua Shi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:57
  8. Despite multiple attempts, there is still no effective HIV-1 vaccine available. The HIV-1 polymerase (pol) gene is highly conserved and encodes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. The aim of the study was to c...

    Authors: Paballo Nkone, Shayne Loubser, Thomas C. Quinn, Andrew D. Redd, Arshad Ismail, Caroline T. Tiemessen and Simnikiwe H. Mayaphi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:56

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:78

  9. Persistent high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes infection has been implicated as a causative of cervical cancer. Distribution and genotypes of HPV infection among females and their variations would as...

    Authors: Xiuli Wang, Shuizhong Han, Xingwei Li, Xiaochuan Wang, Shan Wang and Li Ma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:37
  10. SARS-CoV-2, a novel corona virus, has caused clusters of fatal pneumonia worldwide. Immune compromised patients are among the high risk groups with poor prognosis of the disease. The presence of bacterial or f...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Zahra Shekari, Arash Boorboor, Zahra Zare, Sara Arabsheybani and Nazanin Azadeh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:35
  11. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) can infect human cells and pose a risk for xenotransplantation when pig cells, tissues or organs are transplanted to human recipients. Xenotransplantation holds great pr...

    Authors: Sabrina Halecker, Ludwig Krabben, Yannick Kristiansen, Luise Krüger, Lars Möller, Dietmar Becher, Michael Laue, Benedikt Kaufer, Christian Reimer and Joachim Denner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:30
  12. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading pathogens causing acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under five years old. We aimed to investigate the distribution of HRSV subtypes and expl...

    Authors: Zheng Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Huamei Li and Lizhong Du
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:15
  13. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), which develops after a past covid-19 infection. MIS can be described in different tissue inflammation, including the heart, lung, kidney, brain, skin, eye, and or gastr...

    Authors: Yeter Eylul Bayram, Dilek Yildiz-Sevgi, Ayse Yavuz, Merve Cancetin and Mehmet Yavuz Gurler
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:9
  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xingxiang Liu, Jianguo Shao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Renfei Lu, Hong Xue, Yunfang Xu, Lijuan Wang, Hui Zhou, Lugang Yu, Ming Yue and Chen Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:244
  15. HIV and HBV infections remain responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality in many African Countries, affecting women and newborns. This study aims to analyze the spatial pattern of HIV and HBV infecti...

    Authors: Amélia Nkutxi Vueba, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Clarissa Faria and Maria do Céu Sousa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:239
  16. To evaluate viral loads in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia at different stages of disease and compare the viral load between upper and lower respiratory tract samples.

    Authors: Le-Yun Xie, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Tian Yu, Xian Hu, Tao Wang, Le Yang, Li-Li Zhong, Jin-Song Li, Zhao-Jun Duan and Bing Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:238
  17. HAdV is one of the common pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We aim to describe the clinical and laboratory features, epidemiological characteristics, and HAdV species...

    Authors: Caiyun Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yumei Mi, Jing Chen, Jing Bi and Yinghu Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:234
  18. Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a pr...

    Authors: Ji Heui Kim, Jung Yeon Jang and Yong Ju Jang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:232
  19. The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regim...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Farbod Shahabinezhad, Tahmoores Niknam, Seyed Ahmad Tara, Elham Haem, Parviz Mardani, Zahra Zare, Sedigheh Jafarian, Khatereh Mirzad Jahromi, Sara Arabsheybani, Yalda Sadat Moeini, Jalile Alavi, Seyed Soroush Jalali, Maryam Salimi, Reza Shahriarirad and Seyed Ali Malekhosseini
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:228
  20. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in utero is very common during pregnancy, which can lead to adverse outcomes in both pregnancy and progeny, but its pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. The decreas...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Kong, Jing Li, Li Zhao, Peng Shi, Xiaobei Liu, Cailing Bian, Jing Liu and Tao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:214
  21. Pneumonia has a high incidence rate and is a major cause of mortality in children, mostly community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Human bocavirus (HBoV), since it first identified in 2005, has been repeatedly asso...

    Authors: Kai Ji, Jinhan Sun, Yan Yan, Lei Han, Jianhui Guo, Anwen Ma, Xueqi Hao, Fang Li and Yuning Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:212
  22. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized ch...

    Authors: Li Li, Heping Wang, Ailiang Liu, Rongjun Wang, Tingting Zhi, Yuejie Zheng, Yanming Bao, Yunsheng Chen and Wenjian Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:202
  23. Human adenovirus (HAdV) had been recognized as one of the most common enteric viruses associated with acute diarrhea in children. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the molecular and epidemiologi...

    Authors: Deyu Huang, Zheng Wang, Guanyou Zhang and Lintao Sai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:195
  24. Human adenoviruse (HAdV) is a major pathogen of paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Mutation or recombination of HAdV genes may cause changes in its pathogenicity and transmission. We described the...

    Authors: Yiman Huang, Chao Wang, Fenlian Ma, Qiong Guo, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen, Xiaoyi Luo and Lishu Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:191
  25. The importance of clinicolaboratory characteristics of COVID-19 made us report our findings in the Alborz province according to the latest National Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in outp...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Mahshid Saleh, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani and Foroogh Alborzi Avanaki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:189
  26. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, has infected more than 179 million people worldwide. Testing of infected individuals is crucial for ident...

    Authors: Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Natish Kumar, Rahul Bhat, Piyush Singh Jamwal, Kaurab Singh, Sandeep Dogra, Abhishek Kulkarni, Bhaskar Bhadra, Manish R. Shukla, Saurabh Saran, Santanu Dasgupta, Ram A. Vishwakarma and Sumit G. Gandhi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:178
  27. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the major viruses of acute respiratory tract disease among infants and young children. This work aimed to understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic features of HRV in Gua...

    Authors: Wanwei Li, Bo Yu, Jijian Zhou, Yanlan Wang, Bao Xue, Jialong Pan, Yanhong Ran, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaoping Wang, Fang Yang and Hongjian Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:174
  28. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related neurologic complications have a diverse presentation in transplant recipients, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In this case series, we report uni...

    Authors: Mohamed Ridha, Dylan G. Jones, David P. Lerner, Michal Vytopil, Barbara Voetsch, Joseph D. Burns, Anil Ramineni and Pooja Raibagkar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:162
  29. The multifaceted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) taken during the COVID-19 pandemic not only decrease the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2, but have impact on the prevalence of other viruses. This study aim...

    Authors: Pengcheng Liu, Menghua Xu, Lingfeng Cao, Liyun Su, Lijuan Lu, Niuniu Dong, Ran Jia, Xunhua Zhu and Jin Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:159
  30. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown prospects in advanced and metastatic cancer, and many clinical trials have been carried out. To compare OV therapies comprehensively and provide a categorized profile and ran...

    Authors: Ruiyang Xie, Xingang Bi, Bingqing Shang, Aiping Zhou, Hongzhe Shi and Jianzhong Shou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:158
  31. The clinical and virological course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of COVID-19 patients from 10 designated h...

    Authors: Rui Huang, Li Zhu, Leyang Xue, Xuebing Yan, Jian Wang, Songping Huang, Biao Zhang, Tianmin Xu, Fang Ji, Chunyang Li, Fang Ming, Yun Zhao, Yang Li, Juan Cheng, Yinling Wang, Huaping Shao…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:147
  32. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis caused by HEV infection are usually higher in developing countries. This study demonstrated the HEV seroprevalence and incidence of HEV infection in patients with clinical...

    Authors: Atiporn Boonyai, Anchalee Thongput, Thidarat Sisaeng, Parisut Phumchan, Navin Horthongkham, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Chutikarn Chaimayo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:145
  33. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antiviral drugs in reducing the risk of developing severe illness in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.

    Authors: Peng Yin, Juan Meng, Jincheng Chen, Junxiao Gao, Dongqi Wang, Shuyan Liu, Qinglong Guo, Muchun Zhu, Gengwei Zhang, Yingxia Liu, Ye Li and Guoliang Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:142
  34. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic global phenomenon, affecting human life in a way unseen since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Effective management of this threat requires halting transmission, a strategy ...

    Authors: Majid Mahmood, Noor-ul-ain Ilyas, Muhammad Faraz Khan, Muhammad Naseem Hasrat and Nicholas Richwagen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:138
  35. The persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the body fluids of patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the potential risk of viral tr...

    Authors: Farahnaz Joukar, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Mahmoud Khoshsorour, Sonbol Taramian, Lida Mahfoozi, Heydar Ali Balou, Alireza Jafarinezhad, Aydin Pourkazemi, Ezat Hesni, Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Mohammad Shenagari, Issa Jahanzad, Mohammadreza Naghipour, Saman Maroufizadeh and Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:134
  36. Investigation of human enterovirus (EV) in diarrheic fecal specimens is valuable to address EV diversity circulating worldwide. However, the detection of EV strains exclusively in fecal specimens must be inter...

    Authors: Adriana Luchs
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:148

  37. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) gene and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xia Wang, Hong Liu, Ying Li, Rui Su, Yamin Liu and Kunyan Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:132
  38. Since last year, COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel Sars-Cov-2 virus, has been globally spread to all the world. COVID-19 infection among pregnant women has been described. However, transplacental trans...

    Authors: Maria Chiara De Nardo, Anna Rita Bellomo, Francesca Perfetti, Francesco Antonino Battaglia, Miriam Lichtner and Riccardo Lubrano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:130
  39. In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implica...

    Authors: Bandar Alosaimi, Asif Naeem, Maaweya E. Hamed, Haitham S. Alkadi, Thamer Alanazi, Sanaa Saad Al Rehily, Abdullah Z. Almutairi and Adnan Zafar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:127
  40. Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymph...

    Authors: Shi-Wei Yin, Zheng Zhou, Jun-Ling Wang, Yun-Feng Deng, Hui Jing and Yi Qiu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:126
  41. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reve...

    Authors: Baila Shakaib, Tanzeel Zohra, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Bin Shakaib, Amna Ali, Adnan Bashir, Muhammad Salman, Mumtaz Ali khan and Jamil Ansari
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:120
  42. To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically descr...

    Authors: Jiajia Wang, Xinjing Yang, Yongsheng Li, Jian-an Huang, Junhong Jiang and Nan Su
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:117
  43. It is important to recognize the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in severe conditions from moderate ones, thus more effective predictors should be developed.

    Authors: Yingjie Qi, Jian-an Jia, Huiming Li, Nagen Wan, Shuqin Zhang and Xiaoling Ma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:115
  44. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major challenge facing the world. Certain guidelines issued by National Health Commission of the People's Repubilic of China recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...

    Authors: Xiao Hou, Li Tian, Lei Zhou, Xinhua Jia, Li Kong, Yitao Xue, Hao Hao, Xianqing Meng, Feihu Zhang and Xiaobin Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:101
  45. In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers hav...

    Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Tehjeeb Noor, Ziaul Haque Munim, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:98
  46. The early identification of asymptomatic yet infectious cases is vital to curb the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to control the disease in the post-pandemic era. In this paper, we propose a fast, in...

    Authors: Eva Kriegova, Regina Fillerova, Milan Raska, Jirina Manakova, Martin Dihel, Ondrej Janca, Pavel Sauer, Martina Klimkova, Petra Strakova and Petr Kvapil
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:95
  47. Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) con...

    Authors: Ayokunle O. Olanrewaju, Benjamin P. Sullivan, Ashley R. Bardon, Tiffany J. Lo, Tim R. Cressey, Jonathan D. Posner and Paul K. Drain
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:77