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Clinical Virology

Section Editor: Fred Kibenge, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada
Deputy Section Editor: Kin On Kwok, The Chinese University of Hong Kong 

The Clinical Virology section of the Virology Journal covers the clinical aspects of pathogenic viruses in individual hosts and populations of humans, animals, or plants. This includes the study of viral diseases, laboratory diagnosis, treatment (antiviral therapies), and control (biocontainment and vaccines) using classical, molecular, or immunological methods. Studies, including the virome, virus-host interactions, and epidemiology of viral infections, are encouraged.

  1. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized ch...

    Authors: Li Li, Heping Wang, Ailiang Liu, Rongjun Wang, Tingting Zhi, Yuejie Zheng, Yanming Bao, Yunsheng Chen and Wenjian Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:202

    Content type: Research

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  2. Human adenovirus (HAdV) had been recognized as one of the most common enteric viruses associated with acute diarrhea in children. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the molecular and epidemiologi...

    Authors: Deyu Huang, Zheng Wang, Guanyou Zhang and Lintao Sai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:195

    Content type: Research

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  3. Human adenoviruse (HAdV) is a major pathogen of paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Mutation or recombination of HAdV genes may cause changes in its pathogenicity and transmission. We described the...

    Authors: Yiman Huang, Chao Wang, Fenlian Ma, Qiong Guo, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen, Xiaoyi Luo and Lishu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:191

    Content type: Research

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  4. The importance of clinicolaboratory characteristics of COVID-19 made us report our findings in the Alborz province according to the latest National Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in outp...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Mahshid Saleh, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani and Foroogh Alborzi Avanaki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:189

    Content type: Research

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  5. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, has infected more than 179 million people worldwide. Testing of infected individuals is crucial for ident...

    Authors: Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Natish Kumar, Rahul Bhat, Piyush Singh Jamwal, Kaurab Singh, Sandeep Dogra, Abhishek Kulkarni, Bhaskar Bhadra, Manish R. Shukla, Saurabh Saran, Santanu Dasgupta, Ram A. Vishwakarma and Sumit G. Gandhi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:178

    Content type: Research

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  6. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the major viruses of acute respiratory tract disease among infants and young children. This work aimed to understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic features of HRV in Gua...

    Authors: Wanwei Li, Bo Yu, Jijian Zhou, Yanlan Wang, Bao Xue, Jialong Pan, Yanhong Ran, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaoping Wang, Fang Yang and Hongjian Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:174

    Content type: Research

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  7. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related neurologic complications have a diverse presentation in transplant recipients, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. In this case series, we report uni...

    Authors: Mohamed Ridha, Dylan G. Jones, David P. Lerner, Michal Vytopil, Barbara Voetsch, Joseph D. Burns, Anil Ramineni and Pooja Raibagkar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:162

    Content type: Case Report

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  8. The multifaceted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) taken during the COVID-19 pandemic not only decrease the spreading of the SARS-CoV-2, but have impact on the prevalence of other viruses. This study aim...

    Authors: Pengcheng Liu, Menghua Xu, Lingfeng Cao, Liyun Su, Lijuan Lu, Niuniu Dong, Ran Jia, Xunhua Zhu and Jin Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:159

    Content type: Research

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  9. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have shown prospects in advanced and metastatic cancer, and many clinical trials have been carried out. To compare OV therapies comprehensively and provide a categorized profile and ran...

    Authors: Ruiyang Xie, Xingang Bi, Bingqing Shang, Aiping Zhou, Hongzhe Shi and Jianzhong Shou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:158

    Content type: Research

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  10. The clinical and virological course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of COVID-19 patients from 10 designated h...

    Authors: Rui Huang, Li Zhu, Leyang Xue, Xuebing Yan, Jian Wang, Songping Huang, Biao Zhang, Tianmin Xu, Fang Ji, Chunyang Li, Fang Ming, Yun Zhao, Yang Li, Juan Cheng, Yinling Wang, Huaping Shao…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:147

    Content type: Research

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  11. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis caused by HEV infection are usually higher in developing countries. This study demonstrated the HEV seroprevalence and incidence of HEV infection in patients with clinical...

    Authors: Atiporn Boonyai, Anchalee Thongput, Thidarat Sisaeng, Parisut Phumchan, Navin Horthongkham, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Chutikarn Chaimayo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:145

    Content type: Research

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  12. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antiviral drugs in reducing the risk of developing severe illness in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.

    Authors: Peng Yin, Juan Meng, Jincheng Chen, Junxiao Gao, Dongqi Wang, Shuyan Liu, Qinglong Guo, Muchun Zhu, Gengwei Zhang, Yingxia Liu, Ye Li and Guoliang Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:142

    Content type: Research

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  13. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic global phenomenon, affecting human life in a way unseen since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Effective management of this threat requires halting transmission, a strategy ...

    Authors: Majid Mahmood, Noor-ul-ain Ilyas, Muhammad Faraz Khan, Muhammad Naseem Hasrat and Nicholas Richwagen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:138

    Content type: Research

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  14. The persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the body fluids of patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the potential risk of viral tr...

    Authors: Farahnaz Joukar, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Mahmoud Khoshsorour, Sonbol Taramian, Lida Mahfoozi, Heydar Ali Balou, Alireza Jafarinezhad, Aydin Pourkazemi, Ezat Hesni, Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Mohammad Shenagari, Issa Jahanzad, Mohammadreza Naghipour, Saman Maroufizadeh and Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:134

    Content type: Research

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  15. Investigation of human enterovirus (EV) in diarrheic fecal specimens is valuable to address EV diversity circulating worldwide. However, the detection of EV strains exclusively in fecal specimens must be inter...

    Authors: Adriana Luchs

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    Content type: Commentary

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:148

  16. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) gene and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xia Wang, Hong Liu, Ying Li, Rui Su, Yamin Liu and Kunyan Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:132

    Content type: Research

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  17. Since last year, COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel Sars-Cov-2 virus, has been globally spread to all the world. COVID-19 infection among pregnant women has been described. However, transplacental trans...

    Authors: Maria Chiara De Nardo, Anna Rita Bellomo, Francesca Perfetti, Francesco Antonino Battaglia, Miriam Lichtner and Riccardo Lubrano

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:130

    Content type: Case Report

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  18. In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implica...

    Authors: Bandar Alosaimi, Asif Naeem, Maaweya E. Hamed, Haitham S. Alkadi, Thamer Alanazi, Sanaa Saad Al Rehily, Abdullah Z. Almutairi and Adnan Zafar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:127

    Content type: Research

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  19. Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymph...

    Authors: Shi-Wei Yin, Zheng Zhou, Jun-Ling Wang, Yun-Feng Deng, Hui Jing and Yi Qiu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:126

    Content type: Research

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  20. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reve...

    Authors: Baila Shakaib, Tanzeel Zohra, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Bin Shakaib, Amna Ali, Adnan Bashir, Muhammad Salman, Mumtaz Ali khan and Jamil Ansari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:120

    Content type: Review

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  21. To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically descr...

    Authors: Jiajia Wang, Xinjing Yang, Yongsheng Li, Jian-an Huang, Junhong Jiang and Nan Su

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:117

    Content type: Research

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  22. It is important to recognize the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in severe conditions from moderate ones, thus more effective predictors should be developed.

    Authors: Yingjie Qi, Jian-an Jia, Huiming Li, Nagen Wan, Shuqin Zhang and Xiaoling Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:115

    Content type: Research

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  23. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major challenge facing the world. Certain guidelines issued by National Health Commission of the People's Repubilic of China recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...

    Authors: Xiao Hou, Li Tian, Lei Zhou, Xinhua Jia, Li Kong, Yitao Xue, Hao Hao, Xianqing Meng, Feihu Zhang and Xiaobin Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:101

    Content type: Research

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  24. In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers hav...

    Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Tehjeeb Noor, Ziaul Haque Munim, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:98

    Content type: Review

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  25. The early identification of asymptomatic yet infectious cases is vital to curb the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to control the disease in the post-pandemic era. In this paper, we propose a fast, in...

    Authors: Eva Kriegova, Regina Fillerova, Milan Raska, Jirina Manakova, Martin Dihel, Ondrej Janca, Pavel Sauer, Martina Klimkova, Petra Strakova and Petr Kvapil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:95

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) con...

    Authors: Ayokunle O. Olanrewaju, Benjamin P. Sullivan, Ashley R. Bardon, Tiffany J. Lo, Tim R. Cressey, Jonathan D. Posner and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:77

    Content type: Short report

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  27. We stratified post-COVID patients into four newly established clinical groups based on the presence or absence of at least one subjective respiratory symptom and at least one objective sign of pulmonary involv...

    Authors: Mikulas Skala, Michal Svoboda, Michal Kopecky, Eva Kocova, Martin Hyrsl, Michal Homolac, Viktor Chrobok, Pavel Bostik, Miroslav Fajfr, Petr Prasil, Stanislav Plisek, Radek Sleha and Vladimir Koblizek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:73

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Risk scores are needed to predict the risk of death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the context of rapid disease progression.

    Authors: Xiude Fan, Bin Zhu, Masoud Nouri-Vaskeh, Chunguo Jiang, Xiaokai Feng, Kyle Poulsen, Behzad Baradaran, Jiansong Fang, Erfan Ahmadi Ade, Akbar Sharifi, Zhigang Zhao, Qunying Han, Yong Zhang, Liming Zhang and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research

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  29. The sample collection procedure for SARS-CoV-2 has a strong impact on diagnostic capability, contact tracing approach, ultimately affecting the infection containment performance. This study demonstrates that s...

    Authors: Silvia Ricci, Lorenzo Lodi, Francesco Citera, Francesco Nieddu, Maria Moriondo, Valentina Guarnieri, Mattia Giovannini, Giuseppe Indolfi, Massimo Resti, Alberto Zanobini and Chiara Azzari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:59

    Content type: Short report

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  30. With the novel coronavirus pandemic, the impact on the healthcare system and workers cannot be overlooked. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnel are still lacking. It is imperative to e...

    Authors: Golnar Sabetian, Mohsen Moghadami, Leila Hashemizadeh Fard Haghighi, Reza Shahriarirad, Mohammad Javad Fallahi, Naeimehossadat Asmarian and Yalda Sadat Moeini

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  31. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains ongoing around the world, including in areas where dengue is endemic. Dengue and COVID-19, to some extent, have similar clinical and laboratory features...

    Authors: Marsha S. Santoso, Sri Masyeni, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Benediktus Yohan, Martin L. Hibberd and R. Tedjo Sasmono

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:54

    Content type: Short report

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  32. The sudden arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic placed significant stresses on supply chains including viral transport medium (VTM). The VTM that was urgently required needed to support viral replication, as well ...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Claire Fraser, Elena Paraskeva, Elizabeth Trajcevska, Michelle Sait, Nancy Wang, Eric Bert, Damian Purcell and Richard Strugnell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:53

    Content type: Short report

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  33. To investigate the predictive significance of different pneumonia scoring systems in clinical severity and mortality risk of patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia.

    Authors: PengFei Cheng, Hao Wu, JunZhe Yang, XiaoYang Song, MengDa Xu, BiXi Li, JunJun Zhang, MingZhe Qin, Cheng Zhou and Xiang Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:33

    Content type: Research

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  34. Despite being a leading infectious cause of childhood disability globally, testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in pregnancy is generally not done in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), where breastfeeding practi...

    Authors: Kerina Duri, Simbarashe Chimhuya, Exnevia Gomo, Privilege Tendai Munjoma, Panashe Chandiwana, Louis Marie Yindom, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Asaph Ziruma, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Lovemore Ronald Mazengera, Benjamin Misselwitz, Felicity Zvanyadza Gumbo, Sebastian Jordi and Sarah Rowland-Jones

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:30

    Content type: Research

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  35. Diverse vaccination outcomes and protection levels among different populations pose a serious challenge to the development of an effective malaria vaccine. Co-infections are among many factors associated with ...

    Authors: Anneth-Mwasi Tumbo, Tobias Schindler, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Nina Orlova-Fink, Jose Raso Bieri, Maximillian Mpina, Florence A. Milando, Omar Juma, Ali Hamad, Elizabeth Nyakarungu, Mwajuma Chemba, Ali Mtoro, Kamaka Ramadhan, Ally Olotu, Damas Makweba, Stephen Mgaya…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:28

    Content type: Research

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  36. COVID-19 is diagnosed via detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Performance of many SARS-CoV-2 rtRT-PCR assays is not entirely known due to the...

    Authors: Jamil N. Kanji, Nathan Zelyas, Clayton MacDonald, Kanti Pabbaraju, Muhammad Naeem Khan, Abhaya Prasad, Jia Hu, Mathew Diggle, Byron M. Berenger and Graham Tipples

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:13

    Content type: Short report

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  37. Chemokine levels in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been shown to be markedly elevated. But the role of chemokines in mild COVID-19 has not yet been established. According to the epide...

    Authors: Xueyan Xi, Yang Guo, Min Zhu, Yuhui Wei, Gang Li, Boyu Du and Yunfu Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  38. The fight against the COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need to rapidly detect infected people. The challenge for clinical laboratories has been finding a high throughput, cost-efficient, and accurate te...

    Authors: Wesley Freppel, Natacha Merindol, Fabien Rallu and Marco Bergevin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:196

    Content type: Methodology

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  39. The new emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overall shares similar symptoms with other common respiratory viral infections. We aimed in this study to compare COVID-19 and human adenovirus (HAdV) infec...

    Authors: Kuanrong Li, Ling Li, Xianfeng Wang, Hui Li, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Jianbo Shao, Yi Xu, Liya He, Sitang Gong, Huimin Xia and Huiying Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:193

    Content type: Research

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  40. Several molecular kits are available for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, mostly lacking of proper clinical evaluation due to the emergency caused by COVID19 pandemia, particularly at developing countries like Ecuador.

    Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel and Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:178

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:41

  41. There is plenitude of information on HIV infection among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the epidemiology of HBV–HIV co-infections in the same cohort is not clea...

    Authors: Hussein Mukasa Kafeero, Dorothy Ndagire, Ponsiano Ocama, Abdul Walusansa and Hakim Sendagire

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most important causes of cancer. It can play a role in cervical and extra-cervical cancers. Penile cancer is rare, even if an increasing trend was recently re...

    Authors: Narcisa Muresu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Laura Saderi, Illari Sechi, Antonio Cossu, Vincenzo Marras, Marta Meloni, Marianna Martinelli, Clementina Cocuzza, Francesco Tanda and Andrea Piana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:161

    Content type: Short report

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  43. Fast, reliable and easy to handle methods are required to facilitate urgently needed point-of-care testing (POCT) in the current coronavirus pandemic. Life-threatening severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Lena Mautner, Christin-Kirsty Baillie, Heike Marie Herold, Wolfram Volkwein, Patrick Guertler, Ute Eberle, Nikolaus Ackermann, Andreas Sing, Melanie Pavlovic, Ottmar Goerlich, Ulrich Busch, Lars Wassill, Ingrid Huber and Armin Baiker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:160

    Content type: Methodology

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