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Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

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  1. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

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  2. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

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  3. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

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  4. H9N2 influenza viruses continuously circulate in multiple avian species and are repeatedly transmitted to humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To investigate the adaptation ability of H9N2 avi...

    Authors: Zhe Hu, Yiran Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jingjing Wang, Qi Tong, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Changqing Liu, Jinhua Liu and Yipeng Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:135

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Despite the high yearly prevalence of Influenza, the pathogenesis mechanism and involved genes have not been fully known. Finding the patterns and mapping the complex interactions between different genes help ...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mahdieh Farzanehpour and Farida Behzadian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:124

    Content type: Research

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  6. In 2017–2018, a new highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) variant appeared in poultry and wild birds in Asian and European countries and caused multiple outbreaks. These variant strains are differ...

    Authors: Lin Liu, Ying Zhang, Pengfei Cui, Congcong Wang, Xianying Zeng, Guohua Deng and Xiurong Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:119

    Content type: Research

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  7. Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments.

    Authors: Qingjun Pan, Weiquan Wu, Shuzhen Liao, Sijie Wang, Chunfei Zhao, Chen Li and Ping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:91

    Content type: Research

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  8. Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several p...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Jing Zhang, Jianfang Zhou, Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Shumei Zou, Hejiang Wei, Li Xin, Weijuan Huang, Xiyan Li, Yanhui Cheng and Dayan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:87

    Content type: Research

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  9. Type A influenza viruses (IAVs) cause significant infections in humans and multiple species of animals including pigs, horses, birds, dogs and some marine animals. They are of complicated phylogenetic diversit...

    Authors: Qingye Zhuang, Suchun Wang, Shuo Liu, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Wenming Jiang, Kaicheng Wang, Cheng Peng, Dong Liu, Aizhen Guo and Jiming Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:85

    Content type: Research

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  10. Advances in molecular laboratory techniques are changing the prospects for the diagnosis of viral infectious diseases. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (multiplex-PCR) can detect dozens of pathogens s...

    Authors: Le Wang, Shuo Yang, Xiaotong Yan, Teng Liu, Zhishan Feng and Guixia Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:84

    Content type: Research

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  11. The increased levels of blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A, influenza B and people with influenza-like illness (ILI)...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Haideh Namdari, Mohammad Farahmand, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Talat Mokhtari-Azad and Farhad Rezaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:79

    Content type: Research

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  12. Influenza B virus is a main causative pathogen of annual influenza epidemics, however, research on influenza B virus in general lags behind that on influenza A viruses, one of the important reasons is studies ...

    Authors: Bing Yuan, Chunguang Yang, Xueshan Xia, Mark Zanin, Sook-san Wong, Fan Yang, Jixiang Chang, Zhitong Mai, Jin Zhao, Yunhui Zhang, Runfeng Li, Nanshan Zhong and Zifeng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:77

    Content type: Research

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  13. Compared with chickens, ducks are normally resistant to avian influenza virus without clinical signs while they habor almost all subtypes of influenza A viruses. To date, however the mechanism for duck anti-in...

    Authors: Jianmei Yang, Hongrui Cui, Qiaoyang Teng, Wenjun Ma, Xuesong Li, Binbin Wang, Dawei Yan, Hongjun Chen, Qinfang Liu and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

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  14. Since H7N9 influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in 2013, five waves of outbreaks have occurred, posing a huge threat to human health. In preparation for a potential H7N9 epidemic, it is essential to eva...

    Authors: Ai-jun Chen, Jie Dong, Xin-hui Yuan, Hong Bo, Shu-zhen Li, Chao Wang, Zhao-jun Duan and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

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  15. As a low pathogenic influenza virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) often induces high morbidity in association with secondary bacterial infections in chickens or mammals. To explore this phenom...

    Authors: Haoran Lu, Luxuan Zhang, Junfang Xiao, Che Wu, Huanmin Zhang, Yihu Chen, Zhengyong Hu, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie and Hongxin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:24

    Content type: Research

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  16. As a leading cause of respiratory disease, influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a pandemic threat in annual seasonal outbreaks. Given the limitation of existing anti-influenza therapeutic drugs, developme...

    Authors: Ming Zhong, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Haiyan Yan, Shuo Wu, Zhengyi Gu and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:21

    Content type: Research

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  17. Avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused five outbreak waves of human infections in China since 2013 and posed a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. The number of reported H7N9 virus human cas...

    Authors: Jianru Qin, Ouyang Peng, Xiaoting Shen, Lang Gong, Chunyi Xue and Yongchang Cao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:3

    Content type: Research

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  18. The influenza matrix protein (M1) layer under the viral membrane plays multiple roles in virus assembly and infection. N-domain and C-domain are connected by a loop region, which consists of conserved RQMV motif.

    Authors: Petra Švančarová and Tatiana Betáková

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:187

    Content type: Research

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  19. Few studies have analyzed influenza B virus lineages based on hemagglutinin A (HA) gene sequences in southern China. The present study analyzed the HA gene and the lineages of influenza B virus isolates from Guan...

    Authors: Feng Ye, Xiao-juan Chen, Wen-da Guan, Si-hua Pan, Zi-feng Yang and Rong-chang Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:175

    Content type: Research

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  20. Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen that poses a severe threat to the health of humans. Nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV plays crucial roles in the viral life cycle by interacting with various cellular f...

    Authors: Guoyao Ma, Lin Chen, Jing Luo, Bo Wang, Chengmin Wang, Meng Li, Chengmei Huang, Juan Du, Jiajun Ma, Yungfu Chang and Hongxuan He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:172

    Content type: Research

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  21. The H6N1 subtype of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect people with an influenza-like illness; the H6N1 viruses possess the ability for zoonotic transmission from avians into mammals, and possibly pose a...

    Authors: Haibo Wu, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Rufeng Lu, Xiuming Peng, Bin Chen, Hangping Yao and Nanping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:164

    Content type: Research

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  22. Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kit is a famous traditional Chinese medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang, China. Flavonoids extracted from it exhibits inhibitory activities against several influenza virus strain...

    Authors: Haiyan Yan, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Xueping Ma, Jinqiu Yin, Shuo Wu, Hua Huang and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:88

    Content type: Research

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  23. With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the ...

    Authors: Tessa Slater, Isabella Eckerle and Kin-Chow Chang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:68

    Content type: Research

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  24. The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in virus replication, virulence and inhibition of the host antiviral immune response. In the avian...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Chunling Zhang, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:57

    Content type: Research

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  25. Non-structural protein NS1 of influenza A viruses harbours several determinants of pathogenicity and host-range. However it is still unclear to what extent each of its two structured domains (i.e. RNA-binding ...

    Authors: Sascha Trapp, Denis Soubieux, Alexandra Lidove, Evelyne Esnault, Adrien Lion, Vanaique Guillory, Alan Wacquiez, Emmanuel Kut, Pascale Quéré, Thibaut Larcher, Mireille Ledevin, Virginie Nadan, Christelle Camus-Bouclainville and Daniel Marc

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:55

    Content type: Research

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  26. The highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype, such as the H5N1 viral strains or the novel H5N8 and H5N2 reassortants, are of both veterinary and public health concern worldwide. To combat th...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Anna Bierczyńska-Krzysik, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Piotr Baran, Anna Porębska, Katarzyna Florys, Marcin Zieliński and Grażyna Płucienniczak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:13

    Content type: Research

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  27. Swine influenza is a respiratory infection of pigs that may have a significant economic impact in affected herds and pose a threat to the human population since swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are zoonotic ...

    Authors: Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Cédric Woudstra, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Timm C. Harder, Patrick Fach, Séverine Hervé and Gaëlle Simon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:7

    Content type: Methodology

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  28. Influenza is a severe contagious disease especially in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Beside vaccination, the discovery of new anti-viral agents represents an important strategy to encounter...

    Authors: Raihan Shah Mahmud, Ahmed Mostafa, Christin Müller, Pumaree Kanrai, Vera Ulyanova, Yulia Sokurenko, Julia Dzieciolowski, Irina Kuznetsova, Olga Ilinskaya and Stephan Pleschka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:5

    Content type: Research

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  29. Numerous toxicological studies have focused on injury caused by exposure to single types of nanoparticles, but few have investigated how such exposures impact a host’s immune response to pathogen challenge. Fe...

    Authors: Hao Chen, Xiao Zheng, Justine Nicholas, Sara T. Humes, Julia C. Loeb, Sarah E. Robinson, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr, Dipesh Das, Navid B. Saleh, William L. Castleman, John A. Lednicky and Tara Sabo-Attwood

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:242

    Content type: Research

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  30. IFITM3 has been suggested to be associated with infection in some ethnic groups. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are also important clinical conditions that can predispose individual...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Hadiseh Shokouhi Targhi, Vahideh Mazaheri and Behrokh Farahmand

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:218

    Content type: Research

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  31. Endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in response to virus infection. Our previous microarray analysis showed that H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation increased t...

    Authors: Bo Feng, Lihong Zhao, Wei Wang, Jianfang Wang, Hongyan Wang, Huiqin Duan, Jianjun Zhang and Jian Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:213

    Content type: Research

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  32. Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory w...

    Authors: Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Weijuan Huang, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:180

    Content type: Research

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  33. Cationic derivatives of polyprenols (trimethylpolyprenylammonium iodides – PTAI) with variable chain length between 6 and 15 isoprene units prepared from naturally occurring poly-cis-prenols were tested as DNA va...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Monika Rak, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Zbigniew Madeja, Katarzyna Gawarecka, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Ewa Świeżewska, Marek Masnyk, Marek Chmielewski, Agnieszka Sirko and Anna Góra-Sochacka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:168

    Content type: Research

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  34. Influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein has been linked to viral virulence. Strains of the H3N2 subtype historically express full-length PB1-F2 proteins but during the 2010–2011 influenza seasons, nearly half o...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Yi-Mo Deng, Brad Gilbertson, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Ian Barr and Lorena Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:162

    Content type: Short Report

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  35. Defective interfering (DI) viruses are natural antivirals made by nearly all viruses. They have a highly deleted genome (thus being non-infectious) and interfere with the replication of genetically related inf...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Kirsten Bentley, Anthony C. Marriott, Paul D. Scott, Nigel J. Dimmock and Andrew J. Easton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  36. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the subtypes H5 and H7 are known to give rise to highly pathogenic (HP) phenotypes by spontaneous insertional mutations which convert a monobasic trypsin-sensi...

    Authors: Annika Graaf, Martin Beer and Timm Harder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:137

    Content type: Short report

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  37. Recently, avian influenza virus has caused repeated worldwide outbreaks in humans. Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) play an important role in the circulation and reassortment of novel Avian Influenza Virus (AIVs). ...

    Authors: Xiaoxu Zeng, Mingbin Liu, Heng Zhang, Jingwen Wu, Xiang Zhao, Wenbing Chen, Lei Yang, Fenglan He, Guoyin Fan, Dayan Wang, Haiying Chen and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:136

    Content type: Research

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  38. Yearly influenza virus mutations potentially affect the performance of molecular assays, if nucleic acid changes involve the sequences in the assay. Because individual patient viral loads depend on variables s...

    Authors: Kenneth H. Rand, Maura Pieretti, Rodney Arcenas, Stacy G. Beal, Herbert Houck, Emma Boslet and John A. Lednicky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:128

    Content type: Research

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  39. Various studies have shown that infants under the age of 6 months are especially vulnerable for complications due to influenza. Currently there are no vaccines licensed for use in this age group. Vaccination o...

    Authors: Joan E. M. van der Lubbe, Jessica Vreugdenhil, Sarra Damman, Joost Vaneman, Jaco Klap, Jaap Goudsmit, Katarina Radošević and Ramon Roozendaal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:123

    Content type: Research

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  40. Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particle...

    Authors: Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski and Wojciech Rozek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:120

    Content type: Short Report

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  41. On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identif...

    Authors: Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S. Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman and Weonhwa Jheong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:60

    Content type: Short report

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  42. Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5’- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target ...

    Authors: Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:55

    Content type: Research

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  43. National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viru...

    Authors: Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-NA Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee and Jae-Hong Kim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:54

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades....

    Authors: Ahmed H. Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Timm C. Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Hafez M. Hafez and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:48

    Content type: Case report

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  45. Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immu...

    Authors: Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg and Anna-Karin Maltais

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:44

    Content type: Short report

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  46. H6 subtype avian influenza viruses are globally distributed and, in recent years, have been isolated with increasing frequency from both domestic and wild bird species as well as infected humans. Many reports ...

    Authors: Ye Ge, Hongliang Chai, Zhiqiang Fan, Xianfu Wang, Qiucheng Yao, Jian Ma, Si Chen, Yuping Hua, Guohua Deng and Hualan Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:36

    Content type: Research

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  47. Influenza A virus is controlled with yearly vaccination while emerging global pandemics are kept at bay with antiviral medications. Unfortunately, influenza A viruses have emerged resistance to approved influe...

    Authors: Alicia M. Davis, Jose Ramirez and Laura L. Newcomb

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:22

    Content type: Research

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  48. The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ...

    Authors: Sahar Essa, Haya Al-tawalah, Sarah AlShamali and Widad Al-Nakib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:19

    Content type: Research

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  49. H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays...

    Authors: Boxiang Gui, Qin Chen, Chuanxia Hu, Caihui Zhu and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:10

    Content type: Research

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