Skip to main content

Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

Page 1 of 4

  1. In 2011, a new influenza virus, named Influenza D Virus (IDV), was isolated from pigs, and then cattle, presenting influenza-like symptoms. IDV is one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD...

    Authors: Yutian Wang, Weiyang Sun, Zhenfei Wang, Menglin Zhao, Xinghai Zhang, Yunyi Kong, Xuefeng Wang, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Yongkun Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Songtao Yang and Yuwei Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:230

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The fifth wave of H7N9 avian influenza virus caused a large number of human infections and a large number of poultry deaths in China. Since September 2017, mainland China has begun to vaccinate poultry with H5...

    Authors: Jin Guo, Wentao Song, Xiansheng Ni, Wei Liu, Jingwen Wu, Wen Xia, Xianfeng Zhou, Wei Wang, Fenglan He, Xi Wang, Guoyin Fan, Kun Zhou, Haiying Chen and Shengen Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:213

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  3. Several studies on gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu) have revealed its superior efficacy for inducing homologous and heterologous virus-specific immunity. However, many inactivated vaccines, notably i...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Masoud Malek, Sara Abdolahi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Leila Alizadeh, Mehdi Samadi, Seyed Reza Mohebbi and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:201

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:215

  4. The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) has become the most widespread subtype of AIV among birds in Asia, which threatens the poultry industry and human health. Therefore, it is important to establish...

    Authors: Yixin Xiao, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:198

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  5. The development of an influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor is required; therefore, a method for evaluating the activity of influenza RdRp needs to be developed. The current method uses an ul...

    Authors: Yuka Horio, Mototada Shichiri and Yuji Isegawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:177

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  6. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. As it has been shown to have anti-viral activity, we hypothesized that it may alleviate infections caused by H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV...

    Authors: Le Ming, Zhihui Li, Xiaofang Li, Ling Tang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:171

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic poten...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska and Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. H9N2 influenza virus, a subtype of influenza A virus, can spread across different species and induce the respiratory infectious disease in humans, leading to a severe public health risk and a huge economic los...

    Authors: Shaohua Wang, Na Li, Shugang Jin, Ruihua Zhang and Tong Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  9. H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have clos...

    Authors: Ge Li, Xun Wang, Qingmei Li, Jifei Yang, Xiao Liu, Wenbao Qi, Junqing Guo, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Behrokh Farahmand, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Majid Khanzadeh Alishahi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. Influenza places a significant burden on global health and economics. Individual case management and public health efforts to mitigate the spread of influenza are both strongly impacted by our ability to accur...

    Authors: David R. McIlwain, Han Chen, Maria Apkarian, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Kenneth Kim, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Garry P. Nolan and Monica M. McNeal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:45

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:55

  12. Both the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been reported to cross species barriers to infect humans. H5N1 viruses can cause severe damage...

    Authors: Yuting Yang, Yun Zhang, Changcheng Yang, Fang Fang, Ying Wang, Haiyan Chang, Ze Chen and Ping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Influenza A virus (IAV) contains a genome with eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments that encode 17 proteins. During its assembly, all eight separate viral RNA (vRNA) segments are incorporated int...

    Authors: Xiuli Li, Min Gu, Qinmei Zheng, Ruyi Gao and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:36

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  14. Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. Howev...

    Authors: Rui-hua Zhang, Hong-liang Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Chun-hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Jun Li, Tong Xu, Xue-jing Wang, Cun-lian Wang, Hui-chen Zhang, Ming-ju Xu and Shu-fei Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiwei Du, Li Guo, Feng Liu, Haoxiang Su and Fan Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  19. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  21. This study aims to screen the male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status and genotyping in Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, China to provide a reference basis for formulating preven...

    Authors: Wei-Guo Yin, Meng Yang, Lei Peng, Yan-Mei Liu, Bin Cheng, Shu-Xia Xuan, Chen Chen and Feng-Jun Tan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:155

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Heterozygosity at HLA class I loci is generally considered beneficial for host defense. We report here an element of HLA class I homozygosity that may or may not help preserve its existence in populations but ...

    Authors: Eliana E. Ochoa, Ruksana Huda, Steven F. Scheibel, Joan E. Nichols, David J. Mock, Nayef El-Daher, Frank M. Domurat and Norbert J. Roberts Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:128

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. The protective efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines is unsatisfactory due to the presence of various serotypes generated by genetic reassortment. Thus, immunization with a polyantigen chimeric epit...

    Authors: Lei Yu, Jun Pan, Guangli Cao, Mengsheng Jiang, Yunshan Zhang, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Xing Zhang, Xiaolong Hu, Renyu Xue and Chengliang Gong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following...

    Authors: Abdelheq Barberis, Amine Boudaoud, Angelina Gorrill, Josianne Loupias, Abdeljelil Ghram, Jihene Lachheb, Nadir Alloui and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:108

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) is a key player in inhibiting antiviral response in host cells, thereby facilitating its replication. However, other roles of NS1, which are indepe...

    Authors: Tim Wai Sha, Michaela Weber, Dacquin M. Kasumba, Takeshi Noda, Masahiro Nakano, Hiroki Kato and Takashi Fujita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:107

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Reverse genetics is used in many laboratories around the world and enables the creation of tailor-made influenza viruses with a desired genotype or phenotype. However, the process is not flawless, and difficul...

    Authors: Sushant Bhat, Dagmara Bialy, Joshua E. Sealy, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang and Munir Iqbal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:82

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  29. The low pathogenic H9N2 AIV caused the serious impact on the poultry industry and public safety. Our purpose was to investigate the molecular evolutionary characteristics of the new isolated H9N2 virus and inv...

    Authors: Yuan Nan Yu, Yang Zheng, Shan Shan Hao, Ze Zhang, Jia Xi Cai, Man Man Zong, Xiu Li Feng and Qing Tao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Although influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to evade IFN responses by inhibiting the synthesis of IFN, how IAV regulates signaling downstream of IFN is incompletely understood.

    Authors: Yinping Du, Fan Yang, Qiuxia Wang, Nuo Xu, Yizhang Xie, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin and Daxin Peng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommende...

    Authors: Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Anna Fogtman, Róża Sawicka, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild bir...

    Authors: Chuanxia Hu, Xiaofang Li, Caihui Zhu, Feng Zhou, Wangjun Tang, Di Wu, Zhihui Li, Lichen Zhou, Jing Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui, Tianhou Wang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. The host cell protease TMPRSS2 cleaves the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). Several reports have described resistance of Tmprss2−/− knock-out (KO) mice to IAV infection but IAV of the H2 subtype have n...

    Authors: Ruth Lydia Olga Lambertz, Ingo Gerhauser, Inga Nehlmeier, Sabine Gärtner, Michael Winkler, Sarah Rebecca Leist, Heike Kollmus, Stefan Pöhlmann and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  34. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the surface immunogenic protein, is the most important component of influenza viruses. Previous studies showed that the stability of HA was significant for HA’s immunogenicity, and many ...

    Authors: Jialing Wu, Yang Wang, Ying Wei, Zhichao Xu, Xin Tan, Zhihui Wu, Jing Zheng, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao and Chunyi Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and ant...

    Authors: Huan Cui, Chunmao Zhang, Zongzheng Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Guanxi Chen, Mengxi Lai, Zhixiang Li, Shishan Dong, Ligong Chen, Zhaoyang Li, Chengyu Wang, Juxiang Liu, Yuwei Gao and Zhendong Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  38. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. H9N2 influenza viruses continuously circulate in multiple avian species and are repeatedly transmitted to humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To investigate the adaptation ability of H9N2 avi...

    Authors: Zhe Hu, Yiran Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jingjing Wang, Qi Tong, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Changqing Liu, Jinhua Liu and Yipeng Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:135

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  42. Despite the high yearly prevalence of Influenza, the pathogenesis mechanism and involved genes have not been fully known. Finding the patterns and mapping the complex interactions between different genes help ...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mahdieh Farzanehpour and Farida Behzadian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:124

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. In 2017–2018, a new highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) variant appeared in poultry and wild birds in Asian and European countries and caused multiple outbreaks. These variant strains are differ...

    Authors: Lin Liu, Ying Zhang, Pengfei Cui, Congcong Wang, Xianying Zeng, Guohua Deng and Xiurong Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:119

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments.

    Authors: Qingjun Pan, Weiquan Wu, Shuzhen Liao, Sijie Wang, Chunfei Zhao, Chen Li and Ping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several p...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Jing Zhang, Jianfang Zhou, Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Shumei Zou, Hejiang Wei, Li Xin, Weijuan Huang, Xiyan Li, Yanhui Cheng and Dayan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:87

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. Type A influenza viruses (IAVs) cause significant infections in humans and multiple species of animals including pigs, horses, birds, dogs and some marine animals. They are of complicated phylogenetic diversit...

    Authors: Qingye Zhuang, Suchun Wang, Shuo Liu, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Wenming Jiang, Kaicheng Wang, Cheng Peng, Dong Liu, Aizhen Guo and Jiming Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:85

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Advances in molecular laboratory techniques are changing the prospects for the diagnosis of viral infectious diseases. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (multiplex-PCR) can detect dozens of pathogens s...

    Authors: Le Wang, Shuo Yang, Xiaotong Yan, Teng Liu, Zhishan Feng and Guixia Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. The increased levels of blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A, influenza B and people with influenza-like illness (ILI)...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Haideh Namdari, Mohammad Farahmand, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Talat Mokhtari-Azad and Farhad Rezaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:79

    Content type: Research

    Published on: