Skip to main content

Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

Page 1 of 4

  1. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a serious public health threat. Due to drug resistance and side effects of the conventional antiviral drugs, repurposing the available natural compounds with high tole...

    Authors: Hadiseh Shokouhi Targhi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Mehriar Amininasab
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:88
  2. Influenza A virus infections occur in different species, causing mild-to-severe symptoms that lead to a heavy disease burden. H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2 are major subtypes of swine influenza A viruses in pigs and occ...

    Authors: Ji-Rong Yang, Chuan-Yi Kuo, I.-Ling Yu, Fang-Yen Kung, Fang-Tzy Wu, Jen-Shiou Lin and Ming-Tsan Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:63
  3. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic, segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The rapid mutation of IAVs results in host immune response escape and antiviral drug and vaccine resistance. RUNX1 is a transcr...

    Authors: Yixiang Hu, Qi Pan, Kun Zhou, Yuehuan Ling, Hao Wang and Yan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:39
  4. In early 2020, a novel H9N2 AIV immune escape variant emerged in South China and rapidly spread throughout mainland China. The effectiveness of the current H9N2 vaccine is being challenged by emerging immune e...

    Authors: Yiqing Zheng, Yanna Guo, Yingfei Li, Bing Liang, Xiaoyuan Sun, Shijia Li, Huizhi Xia and Jihui Ping
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:26
  5. Reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIV) may result in novel viruses with new characteristics that may threaten human health when causing the next flu pandemic. A particular risk may be pos...

    Authors: Hongrui Cui, Guangsheng Che, Mart C. M. de Jong, Xuesong Li, Qinfang Liu, Jianmei Yang, Qiaoyang Teng, Zejun Li and Nancy Beerens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:20
  6. Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during inf...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Huan Mai, YuanYuan Chen, Baiyi Liu, YiSi Liu, Ying Ji, Xu Cong and Yan Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:11
  7. The highly pathogenic Influenza H7N9 virus is believed to cause multiple organ infections. However, there have been few systematic animal experiments demonstrating the virus distribution after H7N9 virus infec...

    Authors: Xiao-Xin Wu, Song-Jia Tang, Shu-Hao Yao, Yu-Qin Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Lin-Fang Cheng, Fu-Ming Liu, Nan-Ping Wu, Hang-Ping Yao and Lan-Juan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:237
  8. In 2011, a new influenza virus, named Influenza D Virus (IDV), was isolated from pigs, and then cattle, presenting influenza-like symptoms. IDV is one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD...

    Authors: Yutian Wang, Weiyang Sun, Zhenfei Wang, Menglin Zhao, Xinghai Zhang, Yunyi Kong, Xuefeng Wang, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Yongkun Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Songtao Yang and Yuwei Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:230
  9. The fifth wave of H7N9 avian influenza virus caused a large number of human infections and a large number of poultry deaths in China. Since September 2017, mainland China has begun to vaccinate poultry with H5...

    Authors: Jin Guo, Wentao Song, Xiansheng Ni, Wei Liu, Jingwen Wu, Wen Xia, Xianfeng Zhou, Wei Wang, Fenglan He, Xi Wang, Guoyin Fan, Kun Zhou, Haiying Chen and Shengen Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:213
  10. Several studies on gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu) have revealed its superior efficacy for inducing homologous and heterologous virus-specific immunity. However, many inactivated vaccines, notably i...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Masoud Malek, Sara Abdolahi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Leila Alizadeh, Mehdi Samadi, Seyed Reza Mohebbi and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:201

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:215

  11. The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) has become the most widespread subtype of AIV among birds in Asia, which threatens the poultry industry and human health. Therefore, it is important to establish...

    Authors: Yixin Xiao, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:198
  12. The development of an influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor is required; therefore, a method for evaluating the activity of influenza RdRp needs to be developed. The current method uses an ul...

    Authors: Yuka Horio, Mototada Shichiri and Yuji Isegawa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:177
  13. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. As it has been shown to have anti-viral activity, we hypothesized that it may alleviate infections caused by H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV...

    Authors: Le Ming, Zhihui Li, Xiaofang Li, Ling Tang and Guimei He
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:171
  14. H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic poten...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska and Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:91
  15. H9N2 influenza virus, a subtype of influenza A virus, can spread across different species and induce the respiratory infectious disease in humans, leading to a severe public health risk and a huge economic los...

    Authors: Shaohua Wang, Na Li, Shugang Jin, Ruihua Zhang and Tong Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:75
  16. H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have clos...

    Authors: Ge Li, Xun Wang, Qingmei Li, Jifei Yang, Xiao Liu, Wenbao Qi, Junqing Guo, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:68
  17. Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Behrokh Farahmand, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Majid Khanzadeh Alishahi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:64
  18. Influenza places a significant burden on global health and economics. Individual case management and public health efforts to mitigate the spread of influenza are both strongly impacted by our ability to accur...

    Authors: David R. McIlwain, Han Chen, Maria Apkarian, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Kenneth Kim, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Garry P. Nolan and Monica M. McNeal
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:45

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:55

  19. Both the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been reported to cross species barriers to infect humans. H5N1 viruses can cause severe damage...

    Authors: Yuting Yang, Yun Zhang, Changcheng Yang, Fang Fang, Ying Wang, Haiyan Chang, Ze Chen and Ping Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:39
  20. Influenza A virus (IAV) contains a genome with eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments that encode 17 proteins. During its assembly, all eight separate viral RNA (vRNA) segments are incorporated int...

    Authors: Xiuli Li, Min Gu, Qinmei Zheng, Ruyi Gao and Xiufan Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:36
  21. Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. Howev...

    Authors: Rui-hua Zhang, Hong-liang Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Chun-hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Jun Li, Tong Xu, Xue-jing Wang, Cun-lian Wang, Hui-chen Zhang, Ming-ju Xu and Shu-fei Tian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:22
  22. To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiwei Du, Li Guo, Feng Liu, Haoxiang Su and Fan Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:14
  23. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10
  24. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194
  25. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191
  26. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182
  27. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174
  28. This study aims to screen the male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status and genotyping in Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, China to provide a reference basis for formulating preven...

    Authors: Wei-Guo Yin, Meng Yang, Lei Peng, Yan-Mei Liu, Bin Cheng, Shu-Xia Xuan, Chen Chen and Feng-Jun Tan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:155
  29. Heterozygosity at HLA class I loci is generally considered beneficial for host defense. We report here an element of HLA class I homozygosity that may or may not help preserve its existence in populations but ...

    Authors: Eliana E. Ochoa, Ruksana Huda, Steven F. Scheibel, Joan E. Nichols, David J. Mock, Nayef El-Daher, Frank M. Domurat and Norbert J. Roberts Jr
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:128
  30. The protective efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines is unsatisfactory due to the presence of various serotypes generated by genetic reassortment. Thus, immunization with a polyantigen chimeric epit...

    Authors: Lei Yu, Jun Pan, Guangli Cao, Mengsheng Jiang, Yunshan Zhang, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Xing Zhang, Xiaolong Hu, Renyu Xue and Chengliang Gong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:121
  31. H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following...

    Authors: Abdelheq Barberis, Amine Boudaoud, Angelina Gorrill, Josianne Loupias, Abdeljelil Ghram, Jihene Lachheb, Nadir Alloui and Mariette F. Ducatez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:108
  32. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) is a key player in inhibiting antiviral response in host cells, thereby facilitating its replication. However, other roles of NS1, which are indepe...

    Authors: Tim Wai Sha, Michaela Weber, Dacquin M. Kasumba, Takeshi Noda, Masahiro Nakano, Hiroki Kato and Takashi Fujita
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:107
  33. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94
  34. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92
  35. Reverse genetics is used in many laboratories around the world and enables the creation of tailor-made influenza viruses with a desired genotype or phenotype. However, the process is not flawless, and difficul...

    Authors: Sushant Bhat, Dagmara Bialy, Joshua E. Sealy, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang and Munir Iqbal
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:82
  36. The low pathogenic H9N2 AIV caused the serious impact on the poultry industry and public safety. Our purpose was to investigate the molecular evolutionary characteristics of the new isolated H9N2 virus and inv...

    Authors: Yuan Nan Yu, Yang Zheng, Shan Shan Hao, Ze Zhang, Jia Xi Cai, Man Man Zong, Xiu Li Feng and Qing Tao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:78
  37. Although influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to evade IFN responses by inhibiting the synthesis of IFN, how IAV regulates signaling downstream of IFN is incompletely understood.

    Authors: Yinping Du, Fan Yang, Qiuxia Wang, Nuo Xu, Yizhang Xie, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin and Daxin Peng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:74
  38. Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommende...

    Authors: Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Anna Fogtman, Róża Sawicka, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Agnieszka Sirko
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:66
  39. H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild bir...

    Authors: Chuanxia Hu, Xiaofang Li, Caihui Zhu, Feng Zhou, Wangjun Tang, Di Wu, Zhihui Li, Lichen Zhou, Jing Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui, Tianhou Wang and Guimei He
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:62
  40. The host cell protease TMPRSS2 cleaves the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). Several reports have described resistance of Tmprss2−/− knock-out (KO) mice to IAV infection but IAV of the H2 subtype have n...

    Authors: Ruth Lydia Olga Lambertz, Ingo Gerhauser, Inga Nehlmeier, Sabine Gärtner, Michael Winkler, Sarah Rebecca Leist, Heike Kollmus, Stefan Pöhlmann and Klaus Schughart
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:56
  41. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the surface immunogenic protein, is the most important component of influenza viruses. Previous studies showed that the stability of HA was significant for HA’s immunogenicity, and many ...

    Authors: Jialing Wu, Yang Wang, Ying Wei, Zhichao Xu, Xin Tan, Zhihui Wu, Jing Zheng, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao and Chunyi Xue
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:55
  42. Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and ant...

    Authors: Huan Cui, Chunmao Zhang, Zongzheng Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Guanxi Chen, Mengxi Lai, Zhixiang Li, Shishan Dong, Ligong Chen, Zhaoyang Li, Chengyu Wang, Juxiang Liu, Yuwei Gao and Zhendong Guo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:12
  43. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163
  44. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162
  45. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152
  46. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150
  47. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149