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Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

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  1. Content type: Research

    The influenza matrix protein (M1) layer under the viral membrane plays multiple roles in virus assembly and infection. N-domain and C-domain are connected by a loop region, which consists of conserved RQMV motif.

    Authors: Petra Švančarová and Tatiana Betáková

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:187

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  2. Content type: Research

    Few studies have analyzed influenza B virus lineages based on hemagglutinin A (HA) gene sequences in southern China. The present study analyzed the HA gene and the lineages of influenza B virus isolates from Guan...

    Authors: Feng Ye, Xiao-juan Chen, Wen-da Guan, Si-hua Pan, Zi-feng Yang and Rong-chang Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:175

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  3. Content type: Research

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important pathogen that poses a severe threat to the health of humans. Nucleoprotein (NP) of IAV plays crucial roles in the viral life cycle by interacting with various cellular f...

    Authors: Guoyao Ma, Lin Chen, Jing Luo, Bo Wang, Chengmin Wang, Meng Li, Chengmei Huang, Juan Du, Jiajun Ma, Yungfu Chang and Hongxuan He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:172

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  4. Content type: Research

    The H6N1 subtype of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect people with an influenza-like illness; the H6N1 viruses possess the ability for zoonotic transmission from avians into mammals, and possibly pose a...

    Authors: Haibo Wu, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Rufeng Lu, Xiuming Peng, Bin Chen, Hangping Yao and Nanping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:164

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  5. Content type: Research

    Artemisia scoparia Waldst and Kit is a famous traditional Chinese medicine widely distributed in Xinjiang, China. Flavonoids extracted from it exhibits inhibitory activities against several influenza virus strain...

    Authors: Haiyan Yan, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Xueping Ma, Jinqiu Yin, Shuo Wu, Hua Huang and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:88

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  6. Content type: Research

    With the recent discovery of novel H17N10 and H18N11 influenza viral RNA in bats and report on high frequency of avian H9 seroconversion in a species of free ranging bats, an important issue to address is the ...

    Authors: Tessa Slater, Isabella Eckerle and Kin-Chow Chang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:68

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  7. Content type: Research

    Non-structural protein NS1 of influenza A viruses harbours several determinants of pathogenicity and host-range. However it is still unclear to what extent each of its two structured domains (i.e. RNA-binding ...

    Authors: Sascha Trapp, Denis Soubieux, Alexandra Lidove, Evelyne Esnault, Adrien Lion, Vanaique Guillory, Alan Wacquiez, Emmanuel Kut, Pascale Quéré, Thibaut Larcher, Mireille Ledevin, Virginie Nadan, Christelle Camus-Bouclainville and Daniel Marc

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:55

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  8. Content type: Research

    The influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in virus replication, virulence and inhibition of the host antiviral immune response. In the avian...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Chunling Zhang, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:57

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  9. Content type: Research

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the H5 subtype, such as the H5N1 viral strains or the novel H5N8 and H5N2 reassortants, are of both veterinary and public health concern worldwide. To combat th...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Anna Bierczyńska-Krzysik, Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska, Piotr Baran, Anna Porębska, Katarzyna Florys, Marcin Zieliński and Grażyna Płucienniczak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:13

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    Swine influenza is a respiratory infection of pigs that may have a significant economic impact in affected herds and pose a threat to the human population since swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) are zoonotic ...

    Authors: Emilie Bonin, Stéphane Quéguiner, Cédric Woudstra, Stéphane Gorin, Nicolas Barbier, Timm C. Harder, Patrick Fach, Séverine Hervé and Gaëlle Simon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:7

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  11. Content type: Research

    Influenza is a severe contagious disease especially in children, elderly and immunocompromised patients. Beside vaccination, the discovery of new anti-viral agents represents an important strategy to encounter...

    Authors: Raihan Shah Mahmud, Ahmed Mostafa, Christin Müller, Pumaree Kanrai, Vera Ulyanova, Yulia Sokurenko, Julia Dzieciolowski, Irina Kuznetsova, Olga Ilinskaya and Stephan Pleschka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:5

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  12. Content type: Research

    Numerous toxicological studies have focused on injury caused by exposure to single types of nanoparticles, but few have investigated how such exposures impact a host’s immune response to pathogen challenge. Fe...

    Authors: Hao Chen, Xiao Zheng, Justine Nicholas, Sara T. Humes, Julia C. Loeb, Sarah E. Robinson, Joseph H. Bisesi Jr, Dipesh Das, Navid B. Saleh, William L. Castleman, John A. Lednicky and Tara Sabo-Attwood

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:242

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  13. Content type: Research

    IFITM3 has been suggested to be associated with infection in some ethnic groups. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are also important clinical conditions that can predispose individual...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Hadiseh Shokouhi Targhi, Vahideh Mazaheri and Behrokh Farahmand

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:218

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  14. Content type: Research

    Endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in response to virus infection. Our previous microarray analysis showed that H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation increased t...

    Authors: Bo Feng, Lihong Zhao, Wei Wang, Jianfang Wang, Hongyan Wang, Huiqin Duan, Jianjun Zhang and Jian Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:213

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  15. Content type: Research

    Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory w...

    Authors: Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Weijuan Huang, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:180

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  16. Content type: Research

    Cationic derivatives of polyprenols (trimethylpolyprenylammonium iodides – PTAI) with variable chain length between 6 and 15 isoprene units prepared from naturally occurring poly-cis-prenols were tested as DNA va...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Monika Rak, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Zbigniew Madeja, Katarzyna Gawarecka, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Ewa Świeżewska, Marek Masnyk, Marek Chmielewski, Agnieszka Sirko and Anna Góra-Sochacka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:168

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  17. Content type: Short Report

    Influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein has been linked to viral virulence. Strains of the H3N2 subtype historically express full-length PB1-F2 proteins but during the 2010–2011 influenza seasons, nearly half o...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Yi-Mo Deng, Brad Gilbertson, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Ian Barr and Lorena Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:162

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  18. Content type: Research

    Defective interfering (DI) viruses are natural antivirals made by nearly all viruses. They have a highly deleted genome (thus being non-infectious) and interfere with the replication of genetically related inf...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Kirsten Bentley, Anthony C. Marriott, Paul D. Scott, Nigel J. Dimmock and Andrew J. Easton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:138

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  19. Content type: Short report

    Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the subtypes H5 and H7 are known to give rise to highly pathogenic (HP) phenotypes by spontaneous insertional mutations which convert a monobasic trypsin-sensi...

    Authors: Annika Graaf, Martin Beer and Timm Harder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:137

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  20. Content type: Research

    Recently, avian influenza virus has caused repeated worldwide outbreaks in humans. Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) play an important role in the circulation and reassortment of novel Avian Influenza Virus (AIVs). ...

    Authors: Xiaoxu Zeng, Mingbin Liu, Heng Zhang, Jingwen Wu, Xiang Zhao, Wenbing Chen, Lei Yang, Fenglan He, Guoyin Fan, Dayan Wang, Haiying Chen and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:136

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  21. Content type: Research

    Yearly influenza virus mutations potentially affect the performance of molecular assays, if nucleic acid changes involve the sequences in the assay. Because individual patient viral loads depend on variables s...

    Authors: Kenneth H. Rand, Maura Pieretti, Rodney Arcenas, Stacy G. Beal, Herbert Houck, Emma Boslet and John A. Lednicky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:128

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  22. Content type: Research

    Various studies have shown that infants under the age of 6 months are especially vulnerable for complications due to influenza. Currently there are no vaccines licensed for use in this age group. Vaccination o...

    Authors: Joan E. M. van der Lubbe, Jessica Vreugdenhil, Sarra Damman, Joost Vaneman, Jaco Klap, Jaap Goudsmit, Katarina Radošević and Ramon Roozendaal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:123

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  23. Content type: Short Report

    Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particle...

    Authors: Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski and Wojciech Rozek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:120

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  24. Content type: Short report

    On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identif...

    Authors: Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S. Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman and Weonhwa Jheong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:60

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  25. Content type: Research

    Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5’- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target ...

    Authors: Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:55

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  26. Content type: Research article

    National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viru...

    Authors: Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-NA Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee and Jae-Hong Kim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:54

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades....

    Authors: Ahmed H. Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Timm C. Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Hafez M. Hafez and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:48

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  28. Content type: Short report

    Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immu...

    Authors: Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg and Anna-Karin Maltais

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:44

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  29. Content type: Research

    H6 subtype avian influenza viruses are globally distributed and, in recent years, have been isolated with increasing frequency from both domestic and wild bird species as well as infected humans. Many reports ...

    Authors: Ye Ge, Hongliang Chai, Zhiqiang Fan, Xianfu Wang, Qiucheng Yao, Jian Ma, Si Chen, Yuping Hua, Guohua Deng and Hualan Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:36

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  30. Content type: Research

    Influenza A virus is controlled with yearly vaccination while emerging global pandemics are kept at bay with antiviral medications. Unfortunately, influenza A viruses have emerged resistance to approved influe...

    Authors: Alicia M. Davis, Jose Ramirez and Laura L. Newcomb

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:22

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  31. Content type: Research

    The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ...

    Authors: Sahar Essa, Haya Al-tawalah, Sarah AlShamali and Widad Al-Nakib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:19

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  32. Content type: Research

    The essential role of copper in eukaryotic cellular physiology is known, but has not been recognized as important in the context of influenza A virus infection. In this study, we investigated the effect of cel...

    Authors: Jonathan C. Rupp, Manon Locatelli, Alexis Grieser, Andrea Ramos, Patricia J. Campbell, Hong Yi, John Steel, Jason L. Burkhead and Eric Bortz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:11

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  33. Content type: Research

    H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays...

    Authors: Boxiang Gui, Qin Chen, Chuanxia Hu, Caihui Zhu and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:10

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  34. Content type: Short report

    H5N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect individuals that are in frequent contact with infected birds. In 2013, we isolated a novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N2 AIV strain [A/duck/Zhejiang/6DK19/20...

    Authors: Haibo Wu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng and Nanping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:159

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  35. Content type: Research

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are a serious threat to domestic poultry and can be a source of new human pandemic and annual influenza strains. Vaccination is the main strategy of protection against...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Piotr Kosson, Anna Protasiuk, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Grzegorz Kudla and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:143

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  36. Content type: Research

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to spread in poultry and wild birds worldwide. Morocco just faced its first H9N2 influenza virus outbreaks early 2016 affecting different types of poultry production. Afte...

    Authors: Mohammed EL Houadfi, Siham Fellahi, Saadia Nassik, Jean-Luc Guérin and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:140

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  37. Content type: Research

    The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses can act as a viral replication enhancer by antagonizing type I interferon (IFN) induction and response in infected cells. We previously reported that A/...

    Authors: Challika Kaewborisuth, Mark Zanin, Hans Häcker, Richard J. Webby and Porntippa Lekcharoensuk

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:127

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  38. Content type: Research

    Severe acute respiratory infections in children can be fatal, rapid identification of the causative agent and timely treatment can be life saving. Multiplex real time RT-PCR helps in simultaneous detection of ...

    Authors: Bharti Malhotra, M. Anjaneya Swamy, P. V. Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar and Jitendra Kumar Tiwari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:91

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  39. Content type: Short report

    Transportation into the host cell nucleus is crucial for replication and transcription of influenza virus. The classical nuclear import is regulated by specific cellular factor, importin-α. Seven isoforms of i...

    Authors: Khwansiri Ninpan, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Peerayuht Phuangphung, Sakda Sathirareuangchai, Mongkol Uiprasertkul and Prasert Auewarakul

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:90

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  40. Content type: Research

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), an immunoregulatory cytokine, is known to control many microbial infections. In a previous study, chicken interferon gamma (chIFN-γ) was found to be up-regulated following avian influ...

    Authors: Seong-Su Yuk, Dong-Hun Lee, Jae-Keun Park, Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, In-Soo Choi and Chang-Seon Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:71

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  41. Content type: Research

    Cross-reactive immunity against heterologous strains of influenza virus has the potential to provide partial protection in individuals that lack the proper neutralizing antibodies. In particular, the boosting ...

    Authors: Giuseppina Di Mario, Bruno Garulli, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Isabella Donatelli and Maria R. Castrucci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:56

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  42. Content type: Short report

    Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) were first detected in North America in wild, captive, and domestic birds during November–December 2014. Detec...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ramey, John M. Pearce, Andrew B. Reeves, Rebecca L. Poulson, Jennifer Dobson, Brian Lefferts, Kyle Spragens and David E. Stallknecht

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:55

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  43. Content type: Research

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequen...

    Authors: Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Kholosy, Mohammed K. Hassan, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth and Yilma J. Makonnen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:49

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  44. Content type: Research

    An extensive outbreak of equine influenza occurred across multiple countries in South America during 2012. The epidemic was first reported in Chile then spread to Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, where both vacc...

    Authors: Edsel Alves Beuttemmüller, Alana Woodward, Adam Rash, Luis Eduardo dos Santos Ferraz, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri and Debra Elton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:45

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  45. Content type: Research

    Avian influenza virus H7N9 has jumped species barrier, causing sporadic human infections since 2013. We have previously isolated an H7N9 virus from a patient, and an H7N9 virus from a chicken in a live poultry...

    Authors: Kelvin K. W. To, Candy C. Y. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo, Susanna K. P. Lau, Jasper F. W. Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J. X. Zhang, Honglin Chen and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:42

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  46. Content type: Short report

    Previously, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study in BXD recombinant inbred mice to identify host genetic factors that confer resistance to influenza A virus infection. We found Lst1 (leukoc...

    Authors: Sarah R. Leist, Heike Kollmus, Bastian Hatesuer, Ruth L. O. Lambertz and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:17

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  47. Content type: Research

    Since the 1990s, influenza A viruses of the H9N2 subtype have been causing infections in the poultry population around the globe. This influenza subtype is widely circulating in poultry and human cases of AI H...

    Authors: A. Heidari, M. Mancin, H. Nili, G. H. Pourghanbari, K. B. Lankarani, S. Leardini, G. Cattoli, I. Monne and A. Piccirillo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:16

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  48. Content type: Review

    This review provides for the first time an assessment of the current understanding about the occurrence and the clinical significance of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in influenza patients, and their correlat...

    Authors: Laetitia Minodier, Remi N. Charrel, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi, Sylvie van der Werf, Thierry Blanchon, Thomas Hanslik and Alessandra Falchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:215

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  49. Content type: Research

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and therefore it remains a high priority to develop more broadly protective vaccines. Adjuvation of current seasonal influenza vac...

    Authors: Freek Cox, Eirikur Saeland, Matthijs Baart, Martin Koldijk, Jeroen Tolboom, Liesbeth Dekking, Wouter Koudstaal, Karin Lövgren Bengtsson, Jaap Goudsmit and Katarina Radošević

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:210

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