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Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

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  1. H9N2 influenza virus, a subtype of influenza A virus, can spread across different species and induce the respiratory infectious disease in humans, leading to a severe public health risk and a huge economic los...

    Authors: Shaohua Wang, Na Li, Shugang Jin, Ruihua Zhang and Tong Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have clos...

    Authors: Ge Li, Xun Wang, Qingmei Li, Jifei Yang, Xiao Liu, Wenbao Qi, Junqing Guo, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

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  3. Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Behrokh Farahmand, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Majid Khanzadeh Alishahi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

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  4. Influenza places a significant burden on global health and economics. Individual case management and public health efforts to mitigate the spread of influenza are both strongly impacted by our ability to accur...

    Authors: David R. McIlwain, Han Chen, Maria Apkarian, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Kenneth Kim, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Garry P. Nolan and Monica M. McNeal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:45

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:55

  5. Both the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been reported to cross species barriers to infect humans. H5N1 viruses can cause severe damage...

    Authors: Yuting Yang, Yun Zhang, Changcheng Yang, Fang Fang, Ying Wang, Haiyan Chang, Ze Chen and Ping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:39

    Content type: Research

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  6. Influenza A virus (IAV) contains a genome with eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments that encode 17 proteins. During its assembly, all eight separate viral RNA (vRNA) segments are incorporated int...

    Authors: Xiuli Li, Min Gu, Qinmei Zheng, Ruyi Gao and Xiufan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:36

    Content type: Review

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  7. Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. Howev...

    Authors: Rui-hua Zhang, Hong-liang Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Chun-hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Jun Li, Tong Xu, Xue-jing Wang, Cun-lian Wang, Hui-chen Zhang, Ming-ju Xu and Shu-fei Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  8. To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiwei Du, Li Guo, Feng Liu, Haoxiang Su and Fan Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  9. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

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  10. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194

    Content type: Research

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  11. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191

    Content type: Research

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  12. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182

    Content type: Research

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  13. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174

    Content type: Review

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  14. This study aims to screen the male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status and genotyping in Qingcheng District, Qingyuan City, Guangdong Province, China to provide a reference basis for formulating preven...

    Authors: Wei-Guo Yin, Meng Yang, Lei Peng, Yan-Mei Liu, Bin Cheng, Shu-Xia Xuan, Chen Chen and Feng-Jun Tan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:155

    Content type: Research

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  15. Heterozygosity at HLA class I loci is generally considered beneficial for host defense. We report here an element of HLA class I homozygosity that may or may not help preserve its existence in populations but ...

    Authors: Eliana E. Ochoa, Ruksana Huda, Steven F. Scheibel, Joan E. Nichols, David J. Mock, Nayef El-Daher, Frank M. Domurat and Norbert J. Roberts Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:128

    Content type: Research

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  16. The protective efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines is unsatisfactory due to the presence of various serotypes generated by genetic reassortment. Thus, immunization with a polyantigen chimeric epit...

    Authors: Lei Yu, Jun Pan, Guangli Cao, Mengsheng Jiang, Yunshan Zhang, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Xing Zhang, Xiaolong Hu, Renyu Xue and Chengliang Gong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:121

    Content type: Research

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  17. H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following...

    Authors: Abdelheq Barberis, Amine Boudaoud, Angelina Gorrill, Josianne Loupias, Abdeljelil Ghram, Jihene Lachheb, Nadir Alloui and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:108

    Content type: Research

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  18. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) is a key player in inhibiting antiviral response in host cells, thereby facilitating its replication. However, other roles of NS1, which are indepe...

    Authors: Tim Wai Sha, Michaela Weber, Dacquin M. Kasumba, Takeshi Noda, Masahiro Nakano, Hiroki Kato and Takashi Fujita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:107

    Content type: Research

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  19. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

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  20. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  21. Reverse genetics is used in many laboratories around the world and enables the creation of tailor-made influenza viruses with a desired genotype or phenotype. However, the process is not flawless, and difficul...

    Authors: Sushant Bhat, Dagmara Bialy, Joshua E. Sealy, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang and Munir Iqbal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:82

    Content type: Methodology

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  22. The low pathogenic H9N2 AIV caused the serious impact on the poultry industry and public safety. Our purpose was to investigate the molecular evolutionary characteristics of the new isolated H9N2 virus and inv...

    Authors: Yuan Nan Yu, Yang Zheng, Shan Shan Hao, Ze Zhang, Jia Xi Cai, Man Man Zong, Xiu Li Feng and Qing Tao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

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  23. Although influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to evade IFN responses by inhibiting the synthesis of IFN, how IAV regulates signaling downstream of IFN is incompletely understood.

    Authors: Yinping Du, Fan Yang, Qiuxia Wang, Nuo Xu, Yizhang Xie, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin and Daxin Peng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

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  24. Avian influenza virus infections cause significant economic losses on poultry farms and pose the threat of a possible pandemic outbreak. Routine vaccination of poultry against avian influenza is not recommende...

    Authors: Barbara Małgorzata Kalenik, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Anna Stachyra, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Anna Fogtman, Róża Sawicka, Krzysztof Śmietanka and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:66

    Content type: Research

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  25. H6 subtype influenza viruses were prevalent in domestic poultry and wild birds, which also could pose potential threat to humans. However, little is known about the prevalence of H6 subtype viruses in wild bir...

    Authors: Chuanxia Hu, Xiaofang Li, Caihui Zhu, Feng Zhou, Wangjun Tang, Di Wu, Zhihui Li, Lichen Zhou, Jing Liu, Xiaoman Wei, Jie Cui, Tianhou Wang and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:62

    Content type: Research

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  26. The host cell protease TMPRSS2 cleaves the influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA). Several reports have described resistance of Tmprss2−/− knock-out (KO) mice to IAV infection but IAV of the H2 subtype have n...

    Authors: Ruth Lydia Olga Lambertz, Ingo Gerhauser, Inga Nehlmeier, Sabine Gärtner, Michael Winkler, Sarah Rebecca Leist, Heike Kollmus, Stefan Pöhlmann and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:56

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Hemagglutinin (HA), as the surface immunogenic protein, is the most important component of influenza viruses. Previous studies showed that the stability of HA was significant for HA’s immunogenicity, and many ...

    Authors: Jialing Wu, Yang Wang, Ying Wei, Zhichao Xu, Xin Tan, Zhihui Wu, Jing Zheng, George Dacai Liu, Yongchang Cao and Chunyi Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:55

    Content type: Research

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  28. Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and ant...

    Authors: Huan Cui, Chunmao Zhang, Zongzheng Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Guanxi Chen, Mengxi Lai, Zhixiang Li, Shishan Dong, Ligong Chen, Zhaoyang Li, Chengyu Wang, Juxiang Liu, Yuwei Gao and Zhendong Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:12

    Content type: Research

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  29. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

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  32. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

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  33. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

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  34. H9N2 influenza viruses continuously circulate in multiple avian species and are repeatedly transmitted to humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To investigate the adaptation ability of H9N2 avi...

    Authors: Zhe Hu, Yiran Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jingjing Wang, Qi Tong, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Changqing Liu, Jinhua Liu and Yipeng Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:135

    Content type: Short report

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  35. Despite the high yearly prevalence of Influenza, the pathogenesis mechanism and involved genes have not been fully known. Finding the patterns and mapping the complex interactions between different genes help ...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani, Mahdieh Farzanehpour and Farida Behzadian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:124

    Content type: Research

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  36. In 2017–2018, a new highly pathogenic H5N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) variant appeared in poultry and wild birds in Asian and European countries and caused multiple outbreaks. These variant strains are differ...

    Authors: Lin Liu, Ying Zhang, Pengfei Cui, Congcong Wang, Xianying Zeng, Guohua Deng and Xiurong Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:119

    Content type: Research

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  37. Influenza A and B viruses mainly cause respiratory infectious disease. Till now, few tests are able to simultaneously detect both, especially in primary medical establishments.

    Authors: Qingjun Pan, Weiquan Wu, Shuzhen Liao, Sijie Wang, Chunfei Zhao, Chen Li and Ping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:91

    Content type: Research

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  38. Human infection with avian influenza H7N9 virus was first reported in 2013. Since the fifth epidemic, a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N9 virus has emerged and caused 33 human infections. Several p...

    Authors: Jing Tang, Jing Zhang, Jianfang Zhou, Wenfei Zhu, Lei Yang, Shumei Zou, Hejiang Wei, Li Xin, Weijuan Huang, Xiyan Li, Yanhui Cheng and Dayan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:87

    Content type: Research

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  39. Type A influenza viruses (IAVs) cause significant infections in humans and multiple species of animals including pigs, horses, birds, dogs and some marine animals. They are of complicated phylogenetic diversit...

    Authors: Qingye Zhuang, Suchun Wang, Shuo Liu, Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Wenming Jiang, Kaicheng Wang, Cheng Peng, Dong Liu, Aizhen Guo and Jiming Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:85

    Content type: Research

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  40. Advances in molecular laboratory techniques are changing the prospects for the diagnosis of viral infectious diseases. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay (multiplex-PCR) can detect dozens of pathogens s...

    Authors: Le Wang, Shuo Yang, Xiaotong Yan, Teng Liu, Zhishan Feng and Guixia Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:84

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. The increased levels of blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A, influenza B and people with influenza-like illness (ILI)...

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Haideh Namdari, Mohammad Farahmand, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Talat Mokhtari-Azad and Farhad Rezaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:79

    Content type: Research

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  42. Influenza B virus is a main causative pathogen of annual influenza epidemics, however, research on influenza B virus in general lags behind that on influenza A viruses, one of the important reasons is studies ...

    Authors: Bing Yuan, Chunguang Yang, Xueshan Xia, Mark Zanin, Sook-san Wong, Fan Yang, Jixiang Chang, Zhitong Mai, Jin Zhao, Yunhui Zhang, Runfeng Li, Nanshan Zhong and Zifeng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:77

    Content type: Research

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  43. Compared with chickens, ducks are normally resistant to avian influenza virus without clinical signs while they habor almost all subtypes of influenza A viruses. To date, however the mechanism for duck anti-in...

    Authors: Jianmei Yang, Hongrui Cui, Qiaoyang Teng, Wenjun Ma, Xuesong Li, Binbin Wang, Dawei Yan, Hongjun Chen, Qinfang Liu and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Since H7N9 influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in 2013, five waves of outbreaks have occurred, posing a huge threat to human health. In preparation for a potential H7N9 epidemic, it is essential to eva...

    Authors: Ai-jun Chen, Jie Dong, Xin-hui Yuan, Hong Bo, Shu-zhen Li, Chao Wang, Zhao-jun Duan and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. As a low pathogenic influenza virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) often induces high morbidity in association with secondary bacterial infections in chickens or mammals. To explore this phenom...

    Authors: Haoran Lu, Luxuan Zhang, Junfang Xiao, Che Wu, Huanmin Zhang, Yihu Chen, Zhengyong Hu, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie and Hongxin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:24

    Content type: Research

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  46. As a leading cause of respiratory disease, influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a pandemic threat in annual seasonal outbreaks. Given the limitation of existing anti-influenza therapeutic drugs, developme...

    Authors: Ming Zhong, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Haiyan Yan, Shuo Wu, Zhengyi Gu and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:21

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused five outbreak waves of human infections in China since 2013 and posed a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. The number of reported H7N9 virus human cas...

    Authors: Jianru Qin, Ouyang Peng, Xiaoting Shen, Lang Gong, Chunyi Xue and Yongchang Cao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. The influenza matrix protein (M1) layer under the viral membrane plays multiple roles in virus assembly and infection. N-domain and C-domain are connected by a loop region, which consists of conserved RQMV motif.

    Authors: Petra Švančarová and Tatiana Betáková

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:187

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  49. Few studies have analyzed influenza B virus lineages based on hemagglutinin A (HA) gene sequences in southern China. The present study analyzed the HA gene and the lineages of influenza B virus isolates from Guan...

    Authors: Feng Ye, Xiao-juan Chen, Wen-da Guan, Si-hua Pan, Zi-feng Yang and Rong-chang Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:175

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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