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Emerging viruses

Section Editor: Tom Geisbert, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Chad Mire, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA 

The Emerging viruses section of Virology Journal includes studies covering all aspects of new and reemerging viruses that cause severe and/or lethal diseases in humans and animals. Examples of these viruses include filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), henipaviruses (Nipah, Hendra), Lassa virus, Lujo virus, South American hemorrhagic fever viruses (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Chapare, Sabia), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, hantaviruses, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis viruses, and Zika virus. Topics of interest include but are not limited to virus discovery, mechanisms of virus entry, assembly, protein translation, transcription and replication, pathogenesis, immunology, ecology, and epidemiology. Basic and translational research on the development of preventive vaccines and antiviral drugs and therapeutic interventions is particularly welcome.

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  1. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a catastrophic burden to global healthcare systems. The fast spread of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), h...

    Authors: Wai Sing Chan, Chun Hang Au, Ho Yin Lam, Candy Ling Na Wang, Dona Ngar-Yin Ho, Yuk Man Lam, Daniel Ka Wing Chu, Leo Lit Man Poon, Tsun Leung Chan, Jonpaul Sze-Tsing Zee, Edmond Shiu Kwan Ma and Bone Siu Fai Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:183

    Content type: Short report

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  2. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Chutikarn Chaimayo, Bualan Kaewnaphan, Nattaya Tanlieng, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Ruengpung Sutthent, Nattawut Puangpunngam, Theerawoot Tharmviboonsri, Orawan Pongraweewan, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Yongyut Sirivatanauksorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Navin Horthongkham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:177

    Content type: Research

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  3. We aimed to describe the features of 220 nonemergency (mild or common type) COVID-19 patients from a shelter hospital, as well as evaluate the efficiency of antiviral drug, Arbidol in their disease progressions.

    Authors: Wei Gao, Si Chen, Kun Wang, Rongzhang Chen, Qian Guo, Jingjing Lu, Xiaodong Wu, Yanan He, Qiaoyun Yan, Shengyun Wang, Feilong Wang, Li Jin, Jing Hua and Qiang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:162

    Content type: Short report

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  4. Aimed to summarize the characteristics of chest CT imaging in Chinese hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to provide reliable evidence for further guiding clinical routine.

    Authors: Haitao Yang, Yuzhu Lan, Xiujuan Yao, Sheng Lin and Baosong Xie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:159

    Content type: Research

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  5. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously named 2019-nCov), a novel coronavirus that emerged in China in December 2019 and was dec...

    Authors: Sumanth Khadke, Nayla Ahmed, Nausheen Ahmed, Ryan Ratts, Shine Raju, Molly Gallogly, Marcos de Lima and Muhammad Rizwan Sohail

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:154

    Content type: Review

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  6. The basic reproduction number (R0) is the number of cases directly caused by an infected individual throughout his infectious period. R0 is used to determine the ability of a disease to spread within a given p...

    Authors: Samath Dharmaratne, Supun Sudaraka, Ishanya Abeyagunawardena, Kasun Manchanayake, Mahen Kothalawala and Wasantha Gunathunga

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:144

    Content type: Research

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  7. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. ...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Henok Andualem, Teklehaimanot Kiros, Wasihun Hailemichael, Sisay Getu, Alene Geteneh, Derbie Alemu and Woldaregay Erku Abegaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:143

    Content type: Review

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  8. Infections caused by protozoan parasites burden the world with huge costs in terms of human and animal health. Most parasitic diseases caused by protozoans are neglected, particularly those associated with pov...

    Authors: Paul Barrow, Jean Claude Dujardin, Nicolas Fasel, Alex D. Greenwood, Klaus Osterrieder, George Lomonossoff, Pier Luigi Fiori, Robert Atterbury, Matteo Rossi and Marco Lalle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:142

    Content type: Review

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  9. The COVID-19 causing coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus that utilizes an enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase for its replication. Favipiravir (FVP) triphosphate, a purine nucleoside analog, inhibits that en...

    Authors: Dhan Bahadur Shrestha, Pravash Budhathoki, Sitaram Khadka, Prajwol Bikram Shah, Nisheem Pokharel and Prama Rashmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:141

    Content type: Research

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  10. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed significant threats to international health. The genetic traits as well as evol...

    Authors: Wei Hou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:138

    Content type: Short report

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  11. The Covid19 infection is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a novel member of the coronavirus (CoV) family. CoV genomes code for a ORF1a / ORF1ab polyprotein and four structural proteins widely studied as major d...

    Authors: Christian Jean Michel, Claudine Mayer, Olivier Poch and Julie Dawn Thompson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:131

    Content type: Research

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  12. We recently reported the development of the first African green monkey (AGM) model for COVID-19 based on a combined liquid intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Robert W. Cross, Krystle N. Agans, Abhishek N. Prasad, Viktoriya Borisevich, Courtney Woolsey, Daniel J. Deer, Natalie S. Dobias, Joan B. Geisbert, Karla A. Fenton and Thomas W. Geisbert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:125

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Dengue fever (DF) is an arthropod-borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Recently, DENV has been reported as an important emerging infect...

    Authors: Mawahib H. Eldigail, Hazem A. Abubaker, Fatima A. Khalid, Tajeldin M. Abdallah, Hassan H. Musa, Mohamed E. Ahmed, Gamal K. Adam, Mustafa I. Elbashir and Imadeldin E. Aradaib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:118

    Content type: Research

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronav...

    Authors: Yicheng Yang, Zhiqiang Xiao, Kaiyan Ye, Xiaoen He, Bo Sun, Zhiran Qin, Jianghai Yu, Jinxiu Yao, Qinghua Wu, Zhang Bao and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:117

    Content type: Review

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  15. Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of pa...

    Authors: Dongyu Guo, Jianhua Xia, Yang Wang, Xuhong Zhang, Ye Shen and Jian-Ping Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Case Report

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  16. Coronaviruses are large family-RNA viruses that belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae. The novel COVID-19 infection, caused by a beta coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, is a n...

    Authors: Endeshaw Chekol Abebe, Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie, Mestet Yibeltal Shiferaw and Tabarak Malik

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Review

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  17. The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (...

    Authors: Alvaro Mesoraca, Katia Margiotti, Antonella Viola, Antonella Cima, Davide Sparacino and Claudio Giorlandino

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Herein, we reported a cas...

    Authors: Tian-min Xu, Bin Lin, Cong Chen, Long-gen Liu and Yuan Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Case Report

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  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-h...

    Authors: Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Osman H. Ibrahim, Ali Alhafufi, Samy Kasem, Ali Aldowerij, Raed Albrahim, Ali Abu-obaidah, Ali Alkarar, Faisal Altaib Bayoumi, Ali Mohammed Almansour, Musaad Aldubaib, Hail M. Al-Abdely, Hanan H. Balkhy and Ibrahim Qasim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:77

    Content type: Research

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  20. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the Flavivirus genus. Previous studies have identified neutralizing antibodies from Zika patients that bind to quaternary epitopes across neighboring enve...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Henderson, Christina C. Tam, Luisa W. Cheng, Annie Elong Ngono, Anh-Viet Nguyen, Sujan Shresta, Matt McGee, Hal Padgett, Laurence K. Grill and Mikhail Martchenko Shilman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  21. Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease, affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP), caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the existence of a safe vaccine, YF continues to cause morbidity and ...

    Authors: Natalia Ingrid Oliveira Silva, Lívia Sacchetto, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Benoit de Thoisy and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:9

    Content type: Review

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  22. Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool for visualization of the spatio-temporal dynamics of moving signals in living cells. Although this technique can be utilized to visualize nucleocapsid transport in Marburg ...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Olga Dolnik, Takeshi Noda and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

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  23. The aim of this article is to summarise the virology content presented at the 9th Lorne Infection and Immunity Conference, Australia, in February 2019. The broad program included virology as a key theme, and t...

    Authors: Gregor Ebert, Prasad N. Paradkar and Sarah L. Londrigan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:109

    Content type: Meeting report

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  24. Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya...

    Authors: E. Chepkorir, D. P. Tchouassi, S. L. Konongoi, J. Lutomiah, C. Tigoi, Z. Irura, F. Eyase, M. Venter and R. Sang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:65

    Content type: Research

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  25. Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a global threat with immediate need for accurate diagnostics, efficacious vaccines and therapeutics. Several ZIKV envelope (Env)-based vaccines have been developed recently. Howeve...

    Authors: Young Chan Kim, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Joanne E. Nettleship, Nahid Rahman, Michelle L. Hill, Laura Silva-Reyes, Georgina Ortiz-Martinez, Gloria Figueroa-Aguilar, María Antonieta Mar, Héctor Vivanco-Cid, Christine S. Rollier, Nicole Zitzmann, Martha Eva Viveros-Sandoval, Raymond J. Owens and Arturo Reyes-Sandoval

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:193

    Content type: Research

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  26. Here we propose a strategy allowing implementing efficient and practicable large-scale seroepidemiological studies for Zika Virus (ZIKV). It combines screening by a commercial NS1 protein-based Zika IgG ELISA,...

    Authors: Elif Nurtop, Paola Mariela Saba Villarroel, Boris Pastorino, Laetitia Ninove, Jan Felix Drexler, Yelin Roca, Bouba Gake, Audrey Dubot-Peres, Gilda Grard, Christophe Peyrefitte, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie and Pierre Gallian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:192

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:12

  27. African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic infection in suids with a mortality rate of up to 100%. No vaccine is available and the potential for catastrophic disease in Europe remains elevate...

    Authors: Jason Farlow, Marina Donduashvili, Maka Kokhreidze, Adam Kotorashvili, Nino G. Vepkhvadze, Nato Kotaria and Ana Gulbani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:190

    Content type: Research

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  28. Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-born flavivirus that can infect multiple avian and mammalian species. The viral surface envelope (E) protein functions to initiate the viral infection by recognizing cellular r...

    Authors: Zimin Chen, Fei Ye, Sheng Lin, Fanli Yang, Yanwei Cheng, Yu Cao, Zhujun Chen and Guangwen Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:183

    Content type: Short report

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  29. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key cytosolic receptor of the innate immune system. Seneca valley virus (SVV) is a newly emerging RNA virus that infects pigs causing significant economic losses in ...

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Xiangle Zhang, Weijun Cao, Fan Yang, Xiaoli Du, Zhengwang Shi, Miaotao Zhang, Xiangtao Liu, Zixiang Zhu and Haixue Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:162

    Content type: Research

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  30. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic among population of young children in Thailand. The disease is mostly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16).

    Authors: Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Anek Mungaomklang, Chompunuch Klinmalai, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Boonrat Tassaneetrithep, Ratigorn Guntapong, Sopon Iamsirithaworn and Pilaipan Puthavathana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:158

    Content type: Research

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  31. Tembusu virus is a newly emerging flavivirus that caused egg-drop syndrome in ducks in China. TMUV envelope protein is a major structural protein locates at the surface of tembusu virus particle. During tembus...

    Authors: Dongmin Zhao, Kaikai Han, Xinmei Huang, Lijiao Zhang, Huili Wang, Na Liu, Yujie Tian, Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Yuzhuo Liu and Yin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:142

    Content type: Research

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  32. Currently, no FDA-approved vaccines or treatments are available for Ebola virus disease (EVD), and therapy remains largely supportive. Ebola virus (EBOV) has broad tissue tropism and can infect a variety of ce...

    Authors: Manasi Tamhankar, Dawn M. Gerhardt, Richard S. Bennett, Nicole Murphy, Peter B. Jahrling and Jean L. Patterson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:135

    Content type: Research

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  33. Chikungunya (CHIKV) virus is an important mosquito-borne virus causing outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. The detection of specific antibodies against CHIKV is used for diagnosis after the ac...

    Authors: Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, William Marciel de Souza, Danillo Lucas Alves Espósito, Angélica Silva, Marilia Farignoli Romeiro, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, Benedito Antônio Lopes da Fonseca and Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:112

    Content type: Methodology

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  34. Serologic detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections is challenging because of antigenic similarities among flaviviruses.

    Authors: Mariana Kikuti, Laura B. Tauro, Patrícia S. S. Moreira, Gúbio S. Campos, Igor A. D. Paploski, Scott C. Weaver, Mitermayer G. Reis, Uriel Kitron and Guilherme S. Ribeiro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:108

    Content type: Research

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  35. Machupo virus (MACV) is a member of the Mammarenavirus genus, Arenaviridae family and is the etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, which causes small outbreaks or sporadic cases. Several other arenavirus...

    Authors: Amélie D. Zaza, Cécile H. Herbreteau and Christophe N. Peyrefitte

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:99

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  36. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV), a tick borne bunyavirus. However, Immunohistochemistry of SFTS patients are not well stud...

    Authors: Shibo Li, Yang Li, Qiujing Wang, Xuewen Yu, Miaomiao Liu, Haibo Xie, Liyong Qian, Ling Ye, Zhejuan Yang, Jianjing Zhang, Huimin Zhu and Wenhong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:97

    Content type: Research

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  37. ‘Rapid Apple Decline’ (RAD) is a newly emerging problem of young, dwarf apple trees in the Northeastern USA. The affected trees show trunk necrosis, cracking and canker before collapse in summer. In this study...

    Authors: Huawei Liu, Liping Wu, Ekaterina Nikolaeva, Kari Peter, Zongrang Liu, Dimitre Mollov, Mengji Cao and Ruhui Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:85

    Content type: Research

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  38. Hantavirus infection is a zoonotic disease that is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and cardiopulmonary syndrome in human. Anjozorobe virus, a representative virus of Thailand orthohantavi...

    Authors: Vololoniaina Raharinosy, Marie-Marie Olive, Fehivola Mandanirina Andriamiarimanana, Soa Fy Andriamandimby, Jean-Pierre Ravalohery, Seta Andriamamonjy, Claudia Filippone, Danielle Aurore Doll Rakoto, Sandra Telfer and Jean-Michel Heraud

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:83

    Content type: Research

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  39. The 2014/2015 Ebolavirus outbreak resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,323 reported deaths, as of March 2016. Domestic transmission of the Guinea strain associated with the outbreak occurred mainly in six...

    Authors: Ameh S. James, Shawn Todd, Nina M. Pollak, Glenn A. Marsh and Joanne Macdonald

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:75

    Content type: Research

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  40. Mosquitoes are the potential vectors for a variety of viruses that can cause diseases in the human and animal populations. Viruses in the order Picornavirales infect a broad range of hosts, including mosquitoes. ...

    Authors: Harindranath Cholleti, Juliette Hayer, Jose Fafetine, Mikael Berg and Anne-Lie Blomström

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:71

    Content type: Research

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  41. Rift Valley Fever Phlebovirus (RVFV) and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Orthonairovirus (CCHFV) specific antibodies had been documented among humans in urban settings of the southwestern and northern Cameroon...

    Authors: Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Gide Martial Yonga Wansi, Maurice Demanou, Antoine Gessain and Richard Njouom

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:63

    Content type: Short report

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  42. The 4 dengue serotypes (DENV) are mosquito-borne pathogens that are associated with severe hemorrhagic disease. DENV particles have a lipid bilayer envelope that anchors two membrane glycoproteins prM and E. T...

    Authors: Stefan W. Metz, Ashlie Thomas, Laura White, Mark Stoops, Markus Corten, Holger Hannemann and Aravinda M. de Silva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:60

    Content type: Research

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  43. Bats are natural reservoirs for several highly pathogenic and novel viruses including coronaviruses (CoVs) (mainly Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus). Lyle’s flying fox (Pteropus lylei)‘s roosts and foraging s...

    Authors: Supaporn Wacharapluesadee, Prateep Duengkae, Aingorn Chaiyes, Thongchai Kaewpom, Apaporn Rodpan, Sangchai Yingsakmongkon, Sininat Petcharat, Patcharakiti Phengsakul, Pattarapol Maneeorn and Thiravat Hemachudha

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:38

    Content type: Research

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  44. Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Bats, among mammals, are pointed to harbor a significantly higher p...

    Authors: Davide Lelli, Alice Prosperi, Ana Moreno, Chiara Chiapponi, Anna Maria Gibellini, Paola De Benedictis, Stefania Leopardi, Enrica Sozzi and Antonio Lavazza

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:37

    Content type: Research

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  45. Zika virus is an emerging arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae and genus Flavivirus that until 2007 was restricted to a few cases of mild illness in Africa and Asia.

    Authors: Ligia Fernandes Abdalla, João Hugo Abdalla Santos, Renata Teodora Jales Barreto, Erick Martins e Souza, Fabrício Fonseca D’Assunção, Márcio Aurélio Borges, Valdinete Alves Nascimento, George Allan Villarouco da Silva, Victor Costa de Souza, Rajendranath Ramasawmy, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Jordana Graziela Coelho-dos-Reis, Lis Ribeiro do Vale Antonelli, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho and Felipe Gomes Naveca

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:23

    Content type: Case report

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  46. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belongs to beta group of coronavirus, can infect multiple host species and causes severe diseases in humans. Multiple surveillance and phylogeneti...

    Authors: Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Luca de Sabato, Guendalina Zaccaria, Arianna Boni, Enrica Sozzi, Alice Prosperi, Antonio Lavazza, Eleonora Cella, Maria Rita Castrucci, Massimo Ciccozzi and Gabriele Vaccari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:239

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2018 15:10

  47. The composition of the porcine virome includes viruses that infect pig cells, ancient virus-derived elements including endogenous retroviruses inserted in the pig chromosomes, and bacteriophages that infect a ...

    Authors: Joachim Denner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:171

    Content type: Review

    Published on: