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Emerging viruses

Section Editor: Tom Geisbert, University of Texas Medical Branch, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Chad Mire, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, USA 

The Emerging viruses section of Virology Journal includes studies covering all aspects of new and reemerging viruses that cause severe and/or lethal diseases in humans and animals. Examples of these viruses include filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg), henipaviruses (Nipah, Hendra), Lassa virus, Lujo virus, South American hemorrhagic fever viruses (Junin, Machupo, Guanarito, Chapare, Sabia), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, hantaviruses, SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, tick-borne encephalitis viruses, and Zika virus. Topics of interest include but are not limited to virus discovery, mechanisms of virus entry, assembly, protein translation, transcription and replication, pathogenesis, immunology, ecology, and epidemiology. Basic and translational research on the development of preventive vaccines and antiviral drugs and therapeutic interventions is particularly welcome.

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  1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to many countries around the world. In addition to lung disease, severe cases also displayed varying degrees of liver injury. This articl...

    Authors: Dongdong Yu, Qingru Du, Shengguang Yan, Xu-Guang Guo, Yehao He, Guodong Zhu, Kewei Zhao and Shi Ouyang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:121

    Content type: Review

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  2. The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays h...

    Authors: Janine Michel, Markus Neumann, Eva Krause, Thomas Rinner, Therese Muzeniek, Marica Grossegesse, Georg Hille, Franziska Schwarz, Andreas Puyskens, Sophie Förster, Barbara Biere, Daniel Bourquain, Cristina Domingo, Annika Brinkmann, Lars Schaade, Livia Schrick…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:110

    Content type: Research

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  3. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection re...

    Authors: Janina Krambrich, Dario Akaberi, Jiaxin Ling, Tove Hoffman, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom and Åke Lundkvist

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:109

    Content type: Research

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  4. SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do...

    Authors: Natalie C. Marshall, Ruwandi M. Kariyawasam, Nathan Zelyas, Jamil N. Kanji and Mathew A. Diggle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:93

    Content type: Research

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  5. The emergence and rapid spread of the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC-202012/01) SARS-CoV-2 variant has aroused global concern. The N501Y substitution is the only mutation in the interface between the RBD of B.1.1.7 and ...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Xiangyang Ge, Jiazhen Yu, Mingxia Zhang, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:87

    Content type: Short report

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  6. At the beginning of the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little was known about its actual rate of infectivity and any COVID-19 patient positive in laboratory te...

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:71

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:82

  7. Efficient monitoring and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require access to diagnostic tests, and serological diagnostic testing is desirable. In the current study, antibodies were investigated i...

    Authors: Jira Chansaenroj, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Nawarat Posuwan, Jiratchaya Puenpa, Natthinee Sudhinaraset, Chintana Chirathaworn and Yong Poovorawan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

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  8. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broke out as a global pandemic in late 2019. The acidic pH environment of endosomes is believed to be essential for SARS-CoV-2 to be able to ente...

    Authors: Chao Shang, Xinyu Zhuang, He Zhang, Yiquan Li, Yilong Zhu, Jing Lu, Chenchen Ge, Jianan Cong, Tingyu Li, Mingyao Tian, Ningyi Jin and Xiao Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

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  9. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety l...

    Authors: Hideki Tani, Miyuki Kimura, Long Tan, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hiroyuki Kishi, Shuetsu Fukushi, Masayuki Saijo, Kaori Sano, Tadaki Suzuki, Hitoshi Kawasuji, Akitoshi Ueno, Yuki Miyajima, Yasutaka Fukui, Ippei Sakamaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

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  10. Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion partic...

    Authors: Yue Zheng, Erin T. Larragoite, Elizabeth S. C. P. Williams, Juan Lama, Isabel Cisneros, Julio C. Delgado, Patricia Slev, Jenna Rychert, Emily A. Innis, Mayte Coiras, Matthew T. Rondina, Adam M. Spivak and Vicente Planelles

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:1

    Content type: Methodology

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  11. Rodent borne hantaviruses are emerging viruses infecting humans through inhalation. They cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hemorrhagic cardiopulmonary syndrome. Recently, hantaviruses have been d...

    Authors: Olivia Wesula Lwande, Nahla Mohamed, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Gert Olsson and Magnus Evander

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:198

    Content type: Research

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  12. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is posing a serious threat to global public health. Reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Chunyang Dai, Huiyan Wang, Yong Gao, Tuantuan Li, Yan Fang, Zuojun Shen, Lichang Chen, Zhaowu Chen, Xuejun Ma and Ming Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:197

    Content type: Research

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  13. Lassa fever and Ebola are characterized by non-specific initial presentations that can progress to severe multisystem illnesses with high fatality rates. Samples from additional subjects are examined to extend...

    Authors: Trevor V. Gale, John S. Schieffelin, Luis M. Branco, Robert F. Garry and Donald S. Grant

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:188

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a catastrophic burden to global healthcare systems. The fast spread of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), h...

    Authors: Wai Sing Chan, Chun Hang Au, Ho Yin Lam, Candy Ling Na Wang, Dona Ngar-Yin Ho, Yuk Man Lam, Daniel Ka Wing Chu, Leo Lit Man Poon, Tsun Leung Chan, Jonpaul Sze-Tsing Zee, Edmond Shiu Kwan Ma and Bone Siu Fai Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:183

    Content type: Short report

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  15. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Chutikarn Chaimayo, Bualan Kaewnaphan, Nattaya Tanlieng, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Ruengpung Sutthent, Nattawut Puangpunngam, Theerawoot Tharmviboonsri, Orawan Pongraweewan, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Yongyut Sirivatanauksorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Navin Horthongkham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:177

    Content type: Research

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  16. We aimed to describe the features of 220 nonemergency (mild or common type) COVID-19 patients from a shelter hospital, as well as evaluate the efficiency of antiviral drug, Arbidol in their disease progressions.

    Authors: Wei Gao, Si Chen, Kun Wang, Rongzhang Chen, Qian Guo, Jingjing Lu, Xiaodong Wu, Yanan He, Qiaoyun Yan, Shengyun Wang, Feilong Wang, Li Jin, Jing Hua and Qiang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:162

    Content type: Short report

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  17. Aimed to summarize the characteristics of chest CT imaging in Chinese hospitalized patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) to provide reliable evidence for further guiding clinical routine.

    Authors: Haitao Yang, Yuzhu Lan, Xiujuan Yao, Sheng Lin and Baosong Xie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:159

    Content type: Research

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  18. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously named 2019-nCov), a novel coronavirus that emerged in China in December 2019 and was dec...

    Authors: Sumanth Khadke, Nayla Ahmed, Nausheen Ahmed, Ryan Ratts, Shine Raju, Molly Gallogly, Marcos de Lima and Muhammad Rizwan Sohail

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:154

    Content type: Review

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  19. The basic reproduction number (R0) is the number of cases directly caused by an infected individual throughout his infectious period. R0 is used to determine the ability of a disease to spread within a given p...

    Authors: Samath Dharmaratne, Supun Sudaraka, Ishanya Abeyagunawardena, Kasun Manchanayake, Mahen Kothalawala and Wasantha Gunathunga

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:144

    Content type: Research

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  20. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. ...

    Authors: Mulugeta Kiros, Henok Andualem, Teklehaimanot Kiros, Wasihun Hailemichael, Sisay Getu, Alene Geteneh, Derbie Alemu and Woldaregay Erku Abegaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:143

    Content type: Review

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  21. Infections caused by protozoan parasites burden the world with huge costs in terms of human and animal health. Most parasitic diseases caused by protozoans are neglected, particularly those associated with pov...

    Authors: Paul Barrow, Jean Claude Dujardin, Nicolas Fasel, Alex D. Greenwood, Klaus Osterrieder, George Lomonossoff, Pier Luigi Fiori, Robert Atterbury, Matteo Rossi and Marco Lalle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:142

    Content type: Review

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  22. The COVID-19 causing coronavirus is an enveloped RNA virus that utilizes an enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase for its replication. Favipiravir (FVP) triphosphate, a purine nucleoside analog, inhibits that en...

    Authors: Dhan Bahadur Shrestha, Pravash Budhathoki, Sitaram Khadka, Prajwol Bikram Shah, Nisheem Pokharel and Prama Rashmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:141

    Content type: Research

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  23. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed significant threats to international health. The genetic traits as well as evol...

    Authors: Wei Hou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:138

    Content type: Short report

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  24. The Covid19 infection is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a novel member of the coronavirus (CoV) family. CoV genomes code for a ORF1a / ORF1ab polyprotein and four structural proteins widely studied as major d...

    Authors: Christian Jean Michel, Claudine Mayer, Olivier Poch and Julie Dawn Thompson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:131

    Content type: Research

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  25. We recently reported the development of the first African green monkey (AGM) model for COVID-19 based on a combined liquid intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Robert W. Cross, Krystle N. Agans, Abhishek N. Prasad, Viktoriya Borisevich, Courtney Woolsey, Daniel J. Deer, Natalie S. Dobias, Joan B. Geisbert, Karla A. Fenton and Thomas W. Geisbert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:125

    Content type: Short report

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  26. Dengue fever (DF) is an arthropod-borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Recently, DENV has been reported as an important emerging infect...

    Authors: Mawahib H. Eldigail, Hazem A. Abubaker, Fatima A. Khalid, Tajeldin M. Abdallah, Hassan H. Musa, Mohamed E. Ahmed, Gamal K. Adam, Mustafa I. Elbashir and Imadeldin E. Aradaib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:118

    Content type: Research

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  27. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronav...

    Authors: Yicheng Yang, Zhiqiang Xiao, Kaiyan Ye, Xiaoen He, Bo Sun, Zhiran Qin, Jianghai Yu, Jinxiu Yao, Qinghua Wu, Zhang Bao and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:117

    Content type: Review

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  28. Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of pa...

    Authors: Dongyu Guo, Jianhua Xia, Yang Wang, Xuhong Zhang, Ye Shen and Jian-Ping Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Case Report

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  29. Coronaviruses are large family-RNA viruses that belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae. The novel COVID-19 infection, caused by a beta coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, is a n...

    Authors: Endeshaw Chekol Abebe, Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie, Mestet Yibeltal Shiferaw and Tabarak Malik

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Review

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  30. The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (...

    Authors: Alvaro Mesoraca, Katia Margiotti, Antonella Viola, Antonella Cima, Davide Sparacino and Claudio Giorlandino

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Herein, we reported a cas...

    Authors: Tian-min Xu, Bin Lin, Cong Chen, Long-gen Liu and Yuan Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  32. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-h...

    Authors: Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Osman H. Ibrahim, Ali Alhafufi, Samy Kasem, Ali Aldowerij, Raed Albrahim, Ali Abu-obaidah, Ali Alkarar, Faisal Altaib Bayoumi, Ali Mohammed Almansour, Musaad Aldubaib, Hail M. Al-Abdely, Hanan H. Balkhy and Ibrahim Qasim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:77

    Content type: Research

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  33. Zika virus (ZIKV) is a major human pathogen and member of the Flavivirus genus. Previous studies have identified neutralizing antibodies from Zika patients that bind to quaternary epitopes across neighboring enve...

    Authors: Elizabeth A. Henderson, Christina C. Tam, Luisa W. Cheng, Annie Elong Ngono, Anh-Viet Nguyen, Sujan Shresta, Matt McGee, Hal Padgett, Laurence K. Grill and Mikhail Martchenko Shilman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:43

    Content type: Research

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  34. Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease, affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP), caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the existence of a safe vaccine, YF continues to cause morbidity and ...

    Authors: Natalia Ingrid Oliveira Silva, Lívia Sacchetto, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Benoit de Thoisy and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:9

    Content type: Review

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  35. Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool for visualization of the spatio-temporal dynamics of moving signals in living cells. Although this technique can be utilized to visualize nucleocapsid transport in Marburg ...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Olga Dolnik, Takeshi Noda and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The aim of this article is to summarise the virology content presented at the 9th Lorne Infection and Immunity Conference, Australia, in February 2019. The broad program included virology as a key theme, and t...

    Authors: Gregor Ebert, Prasad N. Paradkar and Sarah L. Londrigan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:109

    Content type: Meeting report

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  37. Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya...

    Authors: E. Chepkorir, D. P. Tchouassi, S. L. Konongoi, J. Lutomiah, C. Tigoi, Z. Irura, F. Eyase, M. Venter and R. Sang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:65

    Content type: Research

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  38. Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a global threat with immediate need for accurate diagnostics, efficacious vaccines and therapeutics. Several ZIKV envelope (Env)-based vaccines have been developed recently. Howeve...

    Authors: Young Chan Kim, Cesar Lopez-Camacho, Joanne E. Nettleship, Nahid Rahman, Michelle L. Hill, Laura Silva-Reyes, Georgina Ortiz-Martinez, Gloria Figueroa-Aguilar, María Antonieta Mar, Héctor Vivanco-Cid, Christine S. Rollier, Nicole Zitzmann, Martha Eva Viveros-Sandoval, Raymond J. Owens and Arturo Reyes-Sandoval

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:193

    Content type: Research

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  39. Here we propose a strategy allowing implementing efficient and practicable large-scale seroepidemiological studies for Zika Virus (ZIKV). It combines screening by a commercial NS1 protein-based Zika IgG ELISA,...

    Authors: Elif Nurtop, Paola Mariela Saba Villarroel, Boris Pastorino, Laetitia Ninove, Jan Felix Drexler, Yelin Roca, Bouba Gake, Audrey Dubot-Peres, Gilda Grard, Christophe Peyrefitte, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie and Pierre Gallian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:192

    Content type: Short report

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:12

  40. African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic infection in suids with a mortality rate of up to 100%. No vaccine is available and the potential for catastrophic disease in Europe remains elevate...

    Authors: Jason Farlow, Marina Donduashvili, Maka Kokhreidze, Adam Kotorashvili, Nino G. Vepkhvadze, Nato Kotaria and Ana Gulbani

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:190

    Content type: Research

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  41. Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-born flavivirus that can infect multiple avian and mammalian species. The viral surface envelope (E) protein functions to initiate the viral infection by recognizing cellular r...

    Authors: Zimin Chen, Fei Ye, Sheng Lin, Fanli Yang, Yanwei Cheng, Yu Cao, Zhujun Chen and Guangwen Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:183

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  42. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a key cytosolic receptor of the innate immune system. Seneca valley virus (SVV) is a newly emerging RNA virus that infects pigs causing significant economic losses in ...

    Authors: Pengfei Li, Xiangle Zhang, Weijun Cao, Fan Yang, Xiaoli Du, Zhengwang Shi, Miaotao Zhang, Xiangtao Liu, Zixiang Zhu and Haixue Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:162

    Content type: Research

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  43. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is endemic among population of young children in Thailand. The disease is mostly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16).

    Authors: Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jarunee Prasertsopon, Anek Mungaomklang, Chompunuch Klinmalai, Pirom Noisumdaeng, Kantima Sangsiriwut, Boonrat Tassaneetrithep, Ratigorn Guntapong, Sopon Iamsirithaworn and Pilaipan Puthavathana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:158

    Content type: Research

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  44. Tembusu virus is a newly emerging flavivirus that caused egg-drop syndrome in ducks in China. TMUV envelope protein is a major structural protein locates at the surface of tembusu virus particle. During tembus...

    Authors: Dongmin Zhao, Kaikai Han, Xinmei Huang, Lijiao Zhang, Huili Wang, Na Liu, Yujie Tian, Qingtao Liu, Jing Yang, Yuzhuo Liu and Yin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:142

    Content type: Research

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  45. Currently, no FDA-approved vaccines or treatments are available for Ebola virus disease (EVD), and therapy remains largely supportive. Ebola virus (EBOV) has broad tissue tropism and can infect a variety of ce...

    Authors: Manasi Tamhankar, Dawn M. Gerhardt, Richard S. Bennett, Nicole Murphy, Peter B. Jahrling and Jean L. Patterson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:135

    Content type: Research

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