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Section Editor: Li Wu, Ohio State University, USA 
Deputy Section Editor: Ben Berkhout, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands ​​​​​​​

The Retroviruses section of Virology Journal aims to publish research articles and reviews covering all aspects of human and animal retroviruses. We welcome basic and translational studies on the mechanisms of retrovirus replication and pathogenesis, including reports on the development of antiretroviral drugs and vaccines. Interdisciplinary research on retroviruses using multiple approaches is particularly welcome.

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  1. Content type: Short report

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis and is widely spread worldwide, except several European countries, Australia and New Zealand. Although BLV is highly prevalent in China, information ...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Lina Chen, Maoli Dong, Wenjiang Huang, Xiaoli Hao, Yalan Peng, Zaicheng Gong, Aijian Qin, Shaobin Shang and Zhangping Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:108

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  2. Content type: Research

    The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 has been shown to influence the global distribution, disease progression, treatment success, and the development of an effective vaccine. Despite the low HIV prevalence in C...

    Authors: Lem Edith Abongwa, Anthony Kebira Nyamache, Judith Ndongo Torimiro, Paul Okemo and Fokunang Charles

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:103

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  3. Content type: Research

    Shenzhen City is a rapidly growing area with a large number of floating populations, thus making it difficult to control HIV. Serial cross-sectional studies are helpful for the prediction of epidemiological te...

    Authors: Dijing Jia, Jin Zhao, Yongjian Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Lei Jia, Tao Gui, Lin Chen, Chenli Zheng, Jingwan Han, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Hanping Li and Lin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:83

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  4. Content type: Research

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Previously, we reported the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA), an assay for BLV infectivi...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Yuma Hachiya, Hiroshi Sentsui and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:66

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  5. Content type: Research

    Heterosexual transmission has contributed greatly to the current HIV-1 epidemic in China. However, the HIV-1 genetic characteristics in the heterosexually transmitted population in Jiangsu province remained un...

    Authors: Peipei Xiao, Ying Zhou, Jing Lu, Li Yan, Xiaoqin Xu, Haiyang Hu, Jianjun Li, Ping Ding, Tao Qiu, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan and Haitao Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:51

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  6. Content type: Research

    HIV integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors, including lens-epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), Ku70, p300, and Rad52, are subject to small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification. In addition ...

    Authors: Yingfeng Zheng, Kallesh Danappa Jayappa, Zhujun Ao, Xiangguo Qiu, Ruey-Chyi Su and Xiaojian Yao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:42

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  7. Content type: Research

    The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) co...

    Authors: Jacob Couturier, Aaron F. Orozco, Hongbing Liu, Sona Budhiraja, Edward B. Siwak, Pramod N. Nehete, K. Jagannadha Sastry, Andrew P. Rice and Dorothy E. Lewis

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:22

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  8. Content type: Research

    Understanding the prevalence and evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) and associated mutation patterns is critical to implementing free antiretroviral therapy in Yunnan, the first antiretroviral treatment l...

    Authors: Jianjian Li, Yawen Xu, Jiafa Liu, Bihui Yang, Cuixian Yang, Mi Zhang and Xingqi Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:5

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  9. Content type: Short report

    The major obstacle to cure of HIV type-1 infection is the presence of the HIV reservoir, hidden from the immune system and insensitive to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Eradication approaches have bee...

    Authors: Mary-Aude Rochat, Erika Schlaepfer, Stefan P. Kuster, Duo Li, Annette Audige, Sandra Ivic, Audrey Fahrny and Roberto F. Speck

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:191

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  10. Content type: Research

    Limited data are available on the incidence of variations in nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). Consequently, the possible impact of SNPs on BLV LTR func...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Renée N Douville and Jacek Kuźmak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:165

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  11. Content type: Research

    Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses th...

    Authors: Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng and Linchun Fu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:159

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  12. Content type: Research

    Recent systems for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) monitoring allow one-by-one analysis and fast turn-around-time for results. VL measurement on two rapid recently commercialized systems...

    Authors: Charlotte Pronier, Sarrah Boukthir, Laura Courtellemont, Gisèle Lagathu, Anne Maillard and Vincent Thibault

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:156

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  13. Content type: Research

    An HIV cure has not yet been achieved because latent viral reservoirs persist, particularly in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. In vitro, it is difficult to infect resting CD4+ T cells with HIV-1, but infections readi...

    Authors: Meghan Schilthuis, Seth Verkaik, Mackenzie Walhof, Andrew Philipose, Olivia Harlow, Derrick Kamp, Bo Ram Kim and Anding Shen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:152

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  14. Content type: Research

    Antiretrovirals have been available in Ghana since 2003 for HIV-1 positive pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Suboptimal responses to treatment observed post-PMTCT intervent...

    Authors: Alexander Martin-Odoom, Charles Addoquaye Brown, John Kofi Odoom, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Nana Afia Asante Ntim, Elena Delgado, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena William Sagoe, Theophilus Adiku and William Kwabena Ampofo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:143

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  15. Content type: Research

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant problem for HIV patients, with the risk of developing ADRs increasing as the infection progresses to AIDS. However, the pathophysiology underlying ADRs remains u...

    Authors: Kemi Adeyanju, John R. Bend, Michael J. Rieder and Gregory A. Dekaban

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:82

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  16. Content type: Research

    The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) affects 2–5 million people worldwide, and is associated with a number of degenerative and infectious diseases. The Envelope glycoproteins (gp) are highly conserve...

    Authors: Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Edivaldo Costa Jr, Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Cássia Cristine Costa Pereira, Louise de Souza Canto Ferreira, Danilo Souza de Almeida, Marcos William Leão de Araújo, Mariza da Silva Borges, Carlos Araujo da Costa, Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa, Stephen Francis Ferrari and Maísa Silva de Sousa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:80

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  17. Content type: Research

    The tumor suppressor gene p53 has been found to suppress HIV infection by various mechanisms, but the inhibition of HIV at an early stage of replication by host cell p53 and its downstream gene p21 has not bee...

    Authors: Binshan Shi, Hamayun J. Sharifi, Sara DiGrigoli, Michaela Kinnetz, Katie Mellon, Wenwei Hu and Carlos M. C. de Noronha

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:53

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  18. Content type: Research

    Reticuloendotheliosis is an immunosuppressive disease caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is commonly found in poultry farms and has caused a notable economic loss worldwide. Despite this, th...

    Authors: Zhihao Ren, Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yixin Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang and Peng Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:42

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  19. Content type: Research

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the pre...

    Authors: Monique Figueiredo Teixeira, Meritxell Sabidó, André Luiz Leturiondo, Cynthia de Oliveira Ferreira, Kátia Luz Torres and Adele Schwartz Benzaken

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:36

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  20. Content type: Research

    In spite of the purification of the laying hens and broilers of avian leukosis virus (ALV) has made remarkable achievements, the infection of ALV was still serious in Chinese indigenous chickens.

    Authors: Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yawen Zhang, Zhihui Zhang, Sibao Tian, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang and Peng Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:33

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  21. Content type: Research

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is produced by activated monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and acts as a potent attractant for Th2 cells and a subset of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Previous report...

    Authors: Mineki Saito, Hiroe Sejima, Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Toshio Matsuzaki, Eiji Matsuura, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tatsufumi Nakamura and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:234

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  22. Content type: Research

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strai...

    Authors: Claudia Filoni, A. Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:226

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  23. Content type: Research

    HIV infection in Cameroon is characterized by a great viral diversity with all HIV-1 groups (M, N, O, and P) and HIV-2 in circulation. HIV group determination is very important if tailored viral load analysis ...

    Authors: Elodie Téclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo T., Martin Zekeng, Valérie Ngono, Laure Ngono, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Richard Njouom and Anfumbom Kfutwah

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:224

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  24. Content type: Research

    Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary potential of polymorphic sites in a viral protein is important for understanding the development of drug resistance in the presence of an inhibitor. We therefore set out ...

    Authors: Karolin Meixenberger, Kaveh Pouran Yousef, Maureen Rebecca Smith, Sybille Somogyi, Stefan Fiedler, Barbara Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda, Norbert Bannert, Max von Kleist and Claudia Kücherer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:223

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  25. Content type: Review

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses....

    Authors: Meripet Polat, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:209

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  26. Content type: Research

    Conflicting results regarding the association of MMTV with human breast cancer have been reported. Published sequence data have indicated unique MMTV strains in some human samples. However, concerns regarding ...

    Authors: Raisa Perzova, Lynn Abbott, Patricia Benz, Steve Landas, Seema Khan, Jordan Glaser, Coleen K. Cunningham and Bernard Poiesz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:196

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  27. Content type: Review

    Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immu...

    Authors: Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke and Corena de Beer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:192

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  28. Content type: Short Report

    Human BST2 (hBST2, also called Tetherin) is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. BST2s from different mammals also possess antiviral activity. Bovine BST2s (bBST2s), ...

    Authors: Zhibin Liang, Yang Zhang, Jie Song, Hui Zhang, Suzhen Zhang, Yue Li, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:173

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  29. Content type: Research

    Induction of broad immune responses at mucosal site remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosal pathogens. Abundance of evidence indicates that the co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants, including cyto...

    Authors: Xianliang Sun, Han Zhang, Shuiling Xu, Lili Shi, Jingjian Dong, Dandan Gao, Yan Chen and Hao Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:163

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  30. Content type: Research

    The function of p53 in cancer biology has been studied extensively, but its role in anti-retrovirus infection has been elusive for many years. The restriction of retrovirus early stage replication by p53 was i...

    Authors: Michaela Kinnetz, Faris Alghamdi, Michael Racz, Wenwei Hu and Binshan Shi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:151

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  31. Content type: Short report

    Detection of specific immune responses against cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 was recently reported in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infecte...

    Authors: Yasuo Shiohama, Tadasuke Naito, Toshio Matsuzaki, Reiko Tanaka, Takeaki Tomoyose, Hiroshi Takashima, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:130

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  32. Content type: Research

    Nullbasic is a mutant HIV-1 Tat protein that inhibits HIV-1 replication via three independent mechanisms that disrupts 1) reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into a DNA copy, 2) HIV-1 Rev protein fun...

    Authors: Lina Rustanti, Hongping Jin, Mary Lor, Min Hsuan Lin, Daniel J. Rawle and David Harrich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:52

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  33. Content type: Research

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), a Type 1 transmembrane protein, assembles into a trimeric spike complex that mediates virus entry into host cells. The high potential energ...

    Authors: Hanh T. Nguyen, Navid Madani, Haitao Ding, Emerald Elder, Amy Princiotto, Christopher Gu, Patrice Darby, James Alin, Alon Herschhorn, John C. Kappes, Youdong Mao and Joseph G. Sodroski

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:33

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  34. Content type: Short report

    HIV-1 is highly variable genetically and at protein level, a property it uses to subvert antiviral immunity and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess if HIV subtype differences were associated with va...

    Authors: Rose C. Kitawi, Carol W. Hunja, Rashid Aman, Bernhards R. Ogutu, Anne W. T. Muigai, Gilbert O. Kokwaro and Washingtone Ochieng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:29

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  35. Content type: Research

    Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has a worldwide distribution and it is endemic in some regions of Iran. One of the most important routes of HTLV-1 transmission is via transfusion of contaminat...

    Authors: Gharib Karimi, Maryam Zadsar and Ali Akbar Pourfathollah

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:14

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  36. Content type: Short report

    Retroviruses are known to rely extensively on the expression of viral proteins from the sense proviral genomic strand. Yet, the production of regulatory retroviral proteins from antisense-encoded viral genes i...

    Authors: Mamneet Manghera, Alycia Magnusson and Renée N. Douville

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:9

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  37. Content type: Research

    Increasing evidence suggests an unexpected potential for non-neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection. Consequently, identification of functional linear B-cell epitopes for HIV are important for develo...

    Authors: Bapi Pahar, Carys S. Kenway-Lynch, Preston Marx, Sudesh K. Srivastav, Celia LaBranche, David C. Montefiori and Arpita Das

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:200

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  38. Content type: Short report

    During sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), macrophages are initial targets for HIV infection. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) has been shown to protect against HIV infectio...

    Authors: Andrew W. Woodham, Adriana M. Sanna, Julia R. Taylor, Joseph G. Skeate, Diane M. Da Silva, Lodewijk V. Dekker and W. Martin Kast

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:187

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  39. Content type: Research

    HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle for HIV-1 eradication. Extensive efforts are being directed toward the reactivation of latent HIV reservoirs with the aim of eliminating latently infected cells via the host i...

    Authors: Zhujun Ao, Rong Zhu, Xiaoli Tan, Lisa Liu, Liyu Chen, Shuiping Liu and XiaoJian Yao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:177

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  40. Content type: Research

    Although the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV positive individuals has proved to be effective in suppressing the virus to below detection limits of commonly used assays, virological failure a...

    Authors: M. L. Mzingwane, C. T. Tiemessen, K. L. Richter, S. H. Mayaphi, G. Hunt and S. M. Bowyer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:170

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  41. Content type: Research

    Cell-free residual HIV-1 virions (RVs) persist in plasma below 20–50 vRNA copies/ml in most patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). How RVs are produced in the body during therapy is not fully cl...

    Authors: Samantha Rassler, Roberto Ramirez, Nadeen Khoury, Gail Skowron and Gautam K. Sahu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:157

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  42. Content type: Research

    With increasing data on HIV-1, a more relevant molecular model describing mechanism details of HIV-1 genetic recombination usually requires upgrades. Currently an incomplete structural understanding of the cop...

    Authors: Lei Jia, Lin Li, Tao Gui, Siyang Liu, Hanping Li, Jingwan Han, Wei Guo, Yongjian Liu and Jingyun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:156

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  43. Content type: Research

    Despite the successful inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by combination antiretroviral therapy, cells latently infected with HIV-1 remaining in patients are a major obstacle...

    Authors: YoungHyun Shin, Hoyong Lim, Byeong-Sun Choi, Kyung-Chang Kim, Chun Kang, Yong-Soo Bae and Cheol-Hee Yoon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:141

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  44. Content type: Research

    Bovine foamy virus (BFV) encodes the transactivator BTas, which enhances viral gene transcription by binding to the long terminal repeat promoter and the internal promoter. In this study, we investigated the d...

    Authors: Tiejun Bing, Suzhen Zhang, Xiaojuan Liu, Zhibin Liang, Peng Shao, Song Zhang, Wentao Qiao and Juan Tan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:117

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  45. Content type: Research

    The cellular sulfonation pathway modulates key steps of virus replication. This pathway comprises two main families of sulfonate-conjugating enzymes: Golgi sulfotransferases, which sulfonate proteins, glycopro...

    Authors: Justine Swann, Jeff Murry and John A. T. Young

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:30

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  46. Content type: Research

    The interaction of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 (gp120/gp41) with coreceptor molecules has important implications for specific cellular targeting and pathogenesis. Experimental and theoretical evidences ...

    Authors: Elena Pacheco-Martínez, Evangelina Figueroa-Medina, Carlos Villarreal, Germinal Cocho, José L. Medina-Franco, Oscar Méndez-Lucio and Leonor Huerta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:28

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