Skip to main content


Section Editor: Linda Chelico, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
Deputy Section Editor: Molly Ohainle, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, USA

The Retroviruses section of Virology Journal aims to publish research articles and reviews covering all aspects of human and animal retroviruses. We welcome basic and translational studies on the mechanisms of retrovirus replication and pathogenesis, including reports on the development of antiretroviral drugs and vaccines. Interdisciplinary research on retroviruses using multiple approaches is particularly welcome.

Page 1 of 3

  1. Transplantation among HIV positive patients may be a valuable therapeutic intervention. This study involves an HIV D+/R+ kidney–liver transplantation, where PBMC-associated HIV quasispecies were analyzed in do...

    Authors: Gabriella Rozera, Ubaldo Visco-Comandini, Emanuela Giombini, Francesco Santini, Federica Forbici, Giulia Berno, Cesare Gruber, Paolo De Paolis, Roberto Colonnelli, Gianpiero D’Offizi, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Paolo Grossi, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito and Isabella Abbate
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:4
  2. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) that affects the effectiveness of the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is becoming prevalent worldwide. However, its prevalence and transmission among HIV-1 tre...

    Authors: Yun Lan, Linghua Li, Xiang He, Fengyu Hu, Xizi Deng, Weiping Cai, Junbin Li, Xuemei Ling, Qinghong Fan, Xiaoli Cai, Liya Li, Feng Li and Xiaoping Tang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:181
  3. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes two diseases including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL cancer) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TS...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Rahman Emamzadeh, Majid Teymoori-Rad and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:175
  4. Reducing the pool of HIV-1 reservoirs in patients is a must to achieve functional cure. The most prominent HIV-1 cell reservoirs are resting CD4 + T cells and brain derived microglial cells. Infected microglia...

    Authors: Sepideh Saeb, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim, Fadoua Daouad, Kazem Baesi, Olivier Rohr, Clémentine Wallet and Christian Schwartz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:107
  5. The HIV-1 epidemic is still considered a global public health problem, but great advances have been made in fighting it by antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART has a considerable impact on viral replication and h...

    Authors: Lorena Leticia Peixoto de Lima, Allysson Quintino Tenório de Oliveira, Tuane Carolina Ferreira Moura, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Sandra Souza Lima, Andrea Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:78
  6. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques constitute an excellent model of human HIV infection. Sensitive detection of SIV RNA in cell and tissue samples from infected animals subjected to t...

    Authors: Samuel Long and Brian Berkemeier
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:35
  7. The generation of accurate and reproducible viral sequence data is necessary to understand the diversity present in populations of RNA viruses isolated from clinical samples. While various sequencing methods a...

    Authors: Ryan V. Moriarty, Nicolas Fesser, Matthew S. Sutton, Vanessa Venturi, Miles P. Davenport, Timothy Schlub and Shelby L. O’Connor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:21
  8. Integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV replication that catalyzes insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral genome into the host chromosome during the early steps of viral infection. Highly active ant...

    Authors: Ki Hoon Park, Minjee Kim, Seoung Eun Bae, Hee Jung Lee, Kyung-Chang Kim, Byeong Sun Choi and Young Bong Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:17
  9. In Tianjin, China, there is a relatively high prevalence of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of HIV cases in Tianjin is also increasing. We investigated the HIV molecular transmission network...

    Authors: Minna Zheng, Maohe Yu, Shaohui Cheng, Ning Zhou, Tielin Ning, Long Li, Fangning Zhao, Xuan Zhao, Jingjin Zhu and Guohong Jiang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:169
  10. Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy ...

    Authors: Billal Musah Obeng, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, Gifty Mawuli, Christopher Zaab-Yen Abana and Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:114
  11. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. We previously reported the development and protocol of the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuS...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:57
  12. There are few data on the prevalence of acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRs) in Hunan Province, China, that could affect the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Authors: Xiaobai Zou, Jianmei He, Jun Zheng, Roberta Malmgren, Weisi Li, Xiuqing Wei, Guoqiang Zhang and Xi Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:38
  13. After viral fusion with the cell membrane, the conical capsid of HIV-1 disassembles by a process called uncoating. Previously we have utilized the CsA washout assay, in which TRIM-CypA mediated restriction of ...

    Authors: Zachary Ingram, Melanie Taylor, Glister Okland, Richard Martin and Amy E. Hulme
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:31
  14. Several reports indicate that a portion (5–10%) of men living with HIV-1 intermittently shed HIV-1 RNA into seminal plasma while on long term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is highly suggestive o...

    Authors: Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Jennifer Norman, Karen Cohen, Kevin Rebe, Carolyn Williamson and Jeffrey R. Dorfman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:29
  15. Transfection, the process of introducing purified nucleic acids into cells, and viral transduction, viral-mediated nucleic acid transfer, are two commonly utilized techniques for gene delivery in the research ...

    Authors: Jeffrey Sebrow, Stephen P. Goff and Daniel O. Griffin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:22
  16. Anhui Province in China is facing a severe HIV epidemic with an increasing number of newly diagnosed cases.

    Authors: Dong Zhang, Jianjun Wu, Yu Zhang, Yuelan Shen, Sheying Dai, Xiaolin Wang, Hui Xing, Jin Lin, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Yizu Qin, Yongjian Liu, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Hanping Li and Lin Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:17
  17. EOS plays an important role in maintaining the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induces a regulated transformation of Tregs into T helper-like cells, which are capable of secreting proin...

    Authors: Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:160
  18. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus, is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly prolonged course involving persis...

    Authors: Lanlan Bai, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Masaaki Sato, William C. Davis, Satoshi Wada, Junko Kohara and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:157
  19. HIV-1 hijacks the cellular machinery for its own replication through protein-protein interactions between viral and host cell factors. One strategy against HIV-1 infection is thus to target these key protein c...

    Authors: Fadila Larguet, Clément Caté, Benoit Barbeau, Eric Rassart and Elsy Edouard
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:138
  20. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA modulating gene expression. m6A modification is a dynamic reversible process regulated by three protein grou...

    Authors: Fang Wu, Wenzhao Cheng, Feiyuan Zhao, Mingqing Tang, Yong Diao and Ruian Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:133
  21. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leucosis and is widely spread worldwide, except several European countries, Australia and New Zealand. Although BLV is highly prevalent in China, information ...

    Authors: Yi Yang, Lina Chen, Maoli Dong, Wenjiang Huang, Xiaoli Hao, Yalan Peng, Zaicheng Gong, Aijian Qin, Shaobin Shang and Zhangping Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:108
  22. The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 has been shown to influence the global distribution, disease progression, treatment success, and the development of an effective vaccine. Despite the low HIV prevalence in C...

    Authors: Lem Edith Abongwa, Anthony Kebira Nyamache, Judith Ndongo Torimiro, Paul Okemo and Fokunang Charles
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:103
  23. Shenzhen City is a rapidly growing area with a large number of floating populations, thus making it difficult to control HIV. Serial cross-sectional studies are helpful for the prediction of epidemiological te...

    Authors: Dijing Jia, Jin Zhao, Yongjian Liu, Xiaolin Wang, Lei Jia, Tao Gui, Lin Chen, Chenli Zheng, Jingwan Han, Tianyi Li, Jingyun Li, Hanping Li and Lin Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:83
  24. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Previously, we reported the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA), an assay for BLV infectivi...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Yuma Hachiya, Hiroshi Sentsui and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:66
  25. Heterosexual transmission has contributed greatly to the current HIV-1 epidemic in China. However, the HIV-1 genetic characteristics in the heterosexually transmitted population in Jiangsu province remained un...

    Authors: Peipei Xiao, Ying Zhou, Jing Lu, Li Yan, Xiaoqin Xu, Haiyang Hu, Jianjun Li, Ping Ding, Tao Qiu, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan and Haitao Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:51
  26. HIV integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors, including lens-epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), Ku70, p300, and Rad52, are subject to small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification. In addition ...

    Authors: Yingfeng Zheng, Kallesh Danappa Jayappa, Zhujun Ao, Xiangguo Qiu, Ruey-Chyi Su and Xiaojian Yao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:42
  27. The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) co...

    Authors: Jacob Couturier, Aaron F. Orozco, Hongbing Liu, Sona Budhiraja, Edward B. Siwak, Pramod N. Nehete, K. Jagannadha Sastry, Andrew P. Rice and Dorothy E. Lewis
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:22
  28. Understanding the prevalence and evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) and associated mutation patterns is critical to implementing free antiretroviral therapy in Yunnan, the first antiretroviral treatment l...

    Authors: Jianjian Li, Yawen Xu, Jiafa Liu, Bihui Yang, Cuixian Yang, Mi Zhang and Xingqi Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:5
  29. The major obstacle to cure of HIV type-1 infection is the presence of the HIV reservoir, hidden from the immune system and insensitive to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Eradication approaches have bee...

    Authors: Mary-Aude Rochat, Erika Schlaepfer, Stefan P. Kuster, Duo Li, Annette Audige, Sandra Ivic, Audrey Fahrny and Roberto F. Speck
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:191
  30. Limited data are available on the incidence of variations in nucleotide sequences of long terminal repeat (LTR) regions of Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV). Consequently, the possible impact of SNPs on BLV LTR func...

    Authors: Aneta Pluta, Marzena Rola-Łuszczak, Renée N Douville and Jacek Kuźmak
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:165
  31. Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses th...

    Authors: Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng and Linchun Fu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:159
  32. Recent systems for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) monitoring allow one-by-one analysis and fast turn-around-time for results. VL measurement on two rapid recently commercialized systems...

    Authors: Charlotte Pronier, Sarrah Boukthir, Laura Courtellemont, Gisèle Lagathu, Anne Maillard and Vincent Thibault
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:156
  33. An HIV cure has not yet been achieved because latent viral reservoirs persist, particularly in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes. In vitro, it is difficult to infect resting CD4+ T cells with HIV-1, but infections readi...

    Authors: Meghan Schilthuis, Seth Verkaik, Mackenzie Walhof, Andrew Philipose, Olivia Harlow, Derrick Kamp, Bo Ram Kim and Anding Shen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:152
  34. Antiretrovirals have been available in Ghana since 2003 for HIV-1 positive pregnant women for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Suboptimal responses to treatment observed post-PMTCT intervent...

    Authors: Alexander Martin-Odoom, Charles Addoquaye Brown, John Kofi Odoom, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Nana Afia Asante Ntim, Elena Delgado, Margaret Lartey, Kwamena William Sagoe, Theophilus Adiku and William Kwabena Ampofo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:143
  35. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a significant problem for HIV patients, with the risk of developing ADRs increasing as the infection progresses to AIDS. However, the pathophysiology underlying ADRs remains u...

    Authors: Kemi Adeyanju, John R. Bend, Michael J. Rieder and Gregory A. Dekaban
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:82
  36. The human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) affects 2–5 million people worldwide, and is associated with a number of degenerative and infectious diseases. The Envelope glycoproteins (gp) are highly conserve...

    Authors: Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Edivaldo Costa Jr, Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Cássia Cristine Costa Pereira, Louise de Souza Canto Ferreira, Danilo Souza de Almeida, Marcos William Leão de Araújo, Mariza da Silva Borges, Carlos Araujo da Costa, Edna Aoba Yassui Ishikawa, Stephen Francis Ferrari and Maísa Silva de Sousa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:80
  37. The tumor suppressor gene p53 has been found to suppress HIV infection by various mechanisms, but the inhibition of HIV at an early stage of replication by host cell p53 and its downstream gene p21 has not bee...

    Authors: Binshan Shi, Hamayun J. Sharifi, Sara DiGrigoli, Michaela Kinnetz, Katie Mellon, Wenwei Hu and Carlos M. C. de Noronha
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:53
  38. Reticuloendotheliosis is an immunosuppressive disease caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV). It is commonly found in poultry farms and has caused a notable economic loss worldwide. Despite this, th...

    Authors: Zhihao Ren, Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yixin Wang, Xiaofeng Liu, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang and Peng Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:42
  39. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and are infected with a broader range of HPV types than HIV-negative women. We aimed to determine the pre...

    Authors: Monique Figueiredo Teixeira, Meritxell Sabidó, André Luiz Leturiondo, Cynthia de Oliveira Ferreira, Kátia Luz Torres and Adele Schwartz Benzaken
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:36
  40. In spite of the purification of the laying hens and broilers of avian leukosis virus (ALV) has made remarkable achievements, the infection of ALV was still serious in Chinese indigenous chickens.

    Authors: Fanfeng Meng, Qiuchen Li, Yawen Zhang, Zhihui Zhang, Sibao Tian, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang and Peng Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:33
  41. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is produced by activated monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and acts as a potent attractant for Th2 cells and a subset of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Previous report...

    Authors: Mineki Saito, Hiroe Sejima, Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Toshio Matsuzaki, Eiji Matsuura, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tatsufumi Nakamura and Hiroshi Takashima
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:234
  42. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strai...

    Authors: Claudia Filoni, A. Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:226
  43. HIV infection in Cameroon is characterized by a great viral diversity with all HIV-1 groups (M, N, O, and P) and HIV-2 in circulation. HIV group determination is very important if tailored viral load analysis ...

    Authors: Elodie Téclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo T., Martin Zekeng, Valérie Ngono, Laure Ngono, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Richard Njouom and Anfumbom Kfutwah
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:224
  44. Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary potential of polymorphic sites in a viral protein is important for understanding the development of drug resistance in the presence of an inhibitor. We therefore set out ...

    Authors: Karolin Meixenberger, Kaveh Pouran Yousef, Maureen Rebecca Smith, Sybille Somogyi, Stefan Fiedler, Barbara Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda, Norbert Bannert, Max von Kleist and Claudia Kücherer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:223
  45. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses....

    Authors: Meripet Polat, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:209