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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Alexander A Khromykh, University of Queensland, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Michael Beard, University of Adelaide, Australia

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Among all known picornaviruses, only two species, equine rhinitis A virus and equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) are known to infect horses, causing respiratory infections. No reports have described the detection ...

    Authors: Patrick C. Y. Woo, Susanna K. P. Lau, Garnet K. Y. Choi, Yi Huang, Renate Wernery, Sunitha Joseph, Emily Y. M. Wong, Shyna K. Elizabeth, Nissy Annie Georgy Patteril, Tong Li, Ulrich Wernery and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:94

    Content type: Research

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  2. We report the isolation and characterization of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 4 from a resident of Santa Fé, state of Paraná, South Brazil, in March 2013. This patient presented with hemorrhagic manifestations,...

    Authors: Diogo Kuczera, Lorena Bavia, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Giovanny Augusto Camacho Antevere Mazzarotto, Mateus Nóbrega Aoki, Ana Maria Ferrari Mansano, Ediléia Inês Tomeleri, Wilson Liuti Costa Junior, Milena Menegazzo Miranda, Maria Lo Sarzi, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos and Juliano Bordignon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:93

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. RNA viruses are characterized by high rate of mutations mainly due to the lack of proofreading repair activities associated with its RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). In case of arboviruses, this phenomenon...

    Authors: Jaspreet Jain, Kalika Mathur, Jatin Shrinet, Raj K. Bhatnagar and Sujatha Sunil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:86

    Content type: Research

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  4. The family Flaviviridae comprises a wide variety of viruses that are distributed worldwide, some of which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are neither vaccines nor antivirals for m...

    Authors: Lorena Bavia, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Mateus Nóbrega Aoki and Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:84

    Content type: Review

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  5. Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the main cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The most commonly detected NoV strains belong to the genetically diverse GII.4 genotype, with new pandemic variants emerging periodical...

    Authors: Noelia Carmona-Vicente, David J. Allen, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Miren Iturriza-Gómara and Javier Buesa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:82

    Content type: Research

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  6. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could induce chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma in human. The use of primary human hepatocyte as a viral host is restrained with the scarcity of tissue supply. A cultur...

    Authors: Khanit Sa-ngiamsuntorn, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Phetcharat Phanthong, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Narisorn Kitiyanant, Wasun Chantratita and Suradej Hongeng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:59

    Content type: Research

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  7. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious virus infecting pigs of all ages with high morbidity and mortality among newborn piglets. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available to pro...

    Authors: Niraj Makadiya, Robert Brownlie, Jan van den Hurk, Nathalie Berube, Brenda Allan, Volker Gerdts and Alexander Zakhartchouk

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:57

    Content type: Research

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  8. Brevicoryne brassicae virus (BrBV) is a positive-strand genomic RNA virus which is unassigned tentative member of the genus Iflavirus. BrBv was first identified and characterized in th...

    Authors: Neta Luria, Victoria Reingold, Oded Lachman, Noa Sela and Aviv Dombrovsky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:50

    Content type: Short report

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  9. Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, transmitted to human via mosquito. DENV infection is common in tropical areas and occasionally causes life-threatening symptoms. DENV contains a relativ...

    Authors: Warobon Noppakunmongkolchai, Teera Poyomtip, Thichakorn Jittawuttipoka, Natthanej Luplertlop, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Sarin Chimnaronk, Siwanon Jirawatnotai and Rutaiwan Tohtong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:35

    Content type: Research

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  10. Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking.

    Authors: Maryam Nabiel Al-Khannaq, Kim Tien Ng, Xiang Yong Oong, Yong Kek Pang, Yutaka Takebe, Jack Bee Chook, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Adeeba Kamarulzaman and Kok Keng Tee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:33

    Content type: Research

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  11. Rubella virus (RV) infection is usually a mild illness in children and adults. However, maternal infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the infant. F...

    Authors: Henriette Geyer, Michael Bauer, Jennifer Neumann, Amy Lüdde, Paul Rennert, Nicole Friedrich, Claudia Claus, Ludmilla Perelygina and Annette Mankertz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:21

    Content type: Research

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  12. Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) are a common cause of respiratory illnesses and are responsible for considerable morbidity and hospitalization across all age groups especially in individuals with compromised immuni...

    Authors: Lenata A. Sipulwa, Juliette R. Ongus, Rodney L. Coldren and Wallace D. Bulimo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:18

    Content type: Research

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  13. Porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) is widely distributed worldwide, and is highly prevalent among piglets with or without diarrhea, existing as at least five distinct lineages (PoAstV1–PoAstV5) within the genus Mamastro...

    Authors: Yuhan Cai, Wenqi Yin, Yuanchen Zhou, Bi Li, Lun Ai, Meng Pan and Wanzhu Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:6

    Content type: Short report

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  14. The incidence of neurological complications and fatalities associated with Hand, Foot & Mouth disease has increased over recent years, due to emergence of newly-evolved strains of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). In the...

    Authors: May Shin Yap, Yin Quan Tang, Yin Yeo, Wei Ling Lim, Lee Wei Lim, Kuan Onn Tan, Mark Richards, Iekhsan Othman, Chit Laa Poh and Boon Chin Heng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:5

    Content type: Methodology

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  15. The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Inter...

    Authors: Devendra K. Rai, Paul Lawrence, Anna Kloc, Elizabeth Schafer and Elizabeth Rieder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:224

    Content type: Research

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  16. Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. The incidence of infection is estimated to be 390 million cases and 25,000 deaths per year. Despite these numbers...

    Authors: Paula Rodrigues Zanello, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Celso de Oliveira Rezende Júnior, Larissa Albuquerque Oliveira, Adriane Antonia Pereira, Mauro Vieira de Almeida, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos and Juliano Bordignon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:223

    Content type: Research

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  17. The first known cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), associated with infection by a novel coronavirus (CoV), occurred in 2012 in Jordan but were reported retrospectively. The case first to be publ...

    Authors: Ian M. Mackay and Katherine E. Arden

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:222

    Content type: Review

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  18. Bats have been recognized as the natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses. Special attention has been paid to bat coronaviruses as the two emerging coronaviruses which have caused unexpected human dise...

    Authors: Ben Hu, Xingyi Ge, Lin-Fa Wang and Zhengli Shi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:221

    Content type: Review

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  19. Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified to cause severe respiratory infection in humans since 2012. The continuing MERS epidemic with a case-fatality of more than 30 % poses a ma...

    Authors: Jie Zhou, Hin Chu, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:218

    Content type: Review

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  20. According to recent statistics, 96 million apparent dengue infections were estimated worldwide in 2010. This figure is by far greater than the WHO prediction which indicates the rapid spread of this disease po...

    Authors: Taoufik Nedjadi, Sherif El-Kafrawy, Sayed S. Sohrab, Philippe Desprès, Ghazi Damanhouri and Esam Azhar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:212

    Content type: Review

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  21. Human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) are significant causes of encephalitis and meningitis in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, type and viral RNA concentration of EV a...

    Authors: Silke Vollbach, Andreas Müller, Jan Felix Drexler, Arne Simon, Christian Drosten, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger and Marcus Panning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:199

    Content type: Research

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  22. Astroviruses are comprised of two genera with Avastrovirus infecting birds and Mamastrovirus infecting mammals. Avastroviruses have primarily been associated with infections of poultry, especially chicken, turkey...

    Authors: Ian H. Mendenhall, Katherine Nay Yaung, Priscilla H. Joyner, Lucy Keatts, Sophie Borthwick, Erica Sena Neves, Sorn San, Martin Gilbert and Gavin JD Smith

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:182

    Content type: Short report

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  23. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with a case fatality rate estimated to be as high as 75 % in humans and 90 % in horses. Surviving patients often have long-lasting and severe neurologi...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Pamela J. Glass and Radha K. Maheshwari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:154

    Content type: Research

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  24. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an arbovirus, is an important human and veterinary pathogen belonging to one of seven antigenic complexes in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. EEEV is considered ...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Diana Fisher, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Steven B. Bradfute, Radha K. Maheshwari and Pamela J. Glass

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:152

    Content type: Research

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  25. In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IF...

    Authors: Helen K. Palma-Ocampo, Juan C. Flores-Alonso, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Lilian Flores-Mendoza, Irma Herrera-Camacho, Nora H. Rosas-Murrieta and Gerardo Santos-López

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:150

    Content type: Research

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  26. Pattern of Dengue periodic epidemics through the years along with sporadic cases of Dengue hemorrhagic fever followed by a severe 2011 epidemic of Dengue fever in Pakistan make Pakistan a Dengue endemic countr...

    Authors: Madiha Akram, Zareen Fatima, Mike A. Purdy, Amanda Sue, Sana Saleem, Irum Amin, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Idrees and Rabia Nawaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:148

    Content type: Research

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  27. The lack of optimal porcine cell lines has severely impeded the study and progress in elucidation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) pathogenesis. Vero cell, an African green monkey kidney cell line, wa...

    Authors: Liyan Cao, Xuying Ge, Yu Gao, Georg Herrler, Yudong Ren, Xiaofeng Ren and Guangxing Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:127

    Content type: Research

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  28. Rhinovirus infections do not only cause common colds, but may also trigger severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even though rhinoviruses have been the focus of exten...

    Authors: Céline Lacroix, Samuela Laconi, Fabrizio Angius, Antonio Coluccia, Romano Silvestri, Raffaello Pompei, Johan Neyts and Pieter Leyssen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:106

    Content type: short report

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  29. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling pathway is involved in viral life cycle. However, the effect of MEK/ERK pathway in enterovirus 71(EV71)-inf...

    Authors: Weifeng Shi, Xueling Hou, Hongjun Peng, Li Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Zhiwen Gu, Qingbo Jiang, Mei Shi, Yun Ji and Jingting Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:227

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. The outcome of a viral infection is regulated by complex interactions of viral and host factors. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) engages and regulates several innate immune response pathways during infection. We h...

    Authors: Krystal Matthews, Alexandra Schäfer, Alissa Pham and Matthew Frieman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:209

    Content type: Research

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  31. Millions of human infections caused by arthropod-borne pathogens are initiated by the feeding of an infected mosquito on a vertebrate. However, interactions between the viruses and the mosquito vector, which f...

    Authors: John T Nuckols, Alexander J McAuley, Yan-Jang S Huang, Kate M Horne, Stephen Higgs, Robert A Davey and Dana L Vanlandingham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:215

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Stress granules (SGs) are granular aggregates in the cytoplasm that are formed under a variety of stress situations including viral infection. Previous studies indicate that poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae

    Authors: Shuo Wu, Yan Wang, Lexun Lin, Xiaoning Si, Tianying Wang, Xiaoyan Zhong, Lei Tong, Ying Luan, Yang Chen, Xiaoyu Li, Fengmin Zhang, Wenran Zhao and Zhaohua Zhong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:192

    Content type: Research

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  33. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have caused widespread outbreaks of chronic polyarthritis. The inflammatory responses in alphavirus-induced arthritis and...

    Authors: Weiqiang Chen, Suan-Sin Foo, Rachel W Li, Paul N Smith and Suresh Mahalingam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:189

    Content type: Research

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  34. Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully ...

    Authors: Cyril C Y Yip, Kin-Land Lo, Tak-Lun Que, Rodney A Lee, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo and Susanna K P Lau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:182

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Enteroviruses (EVs) are a common cause of respiratory tract infections and are classified into seven species (EVA-D and rhinoviruses [RHVs] A-C) with more than 200 different serotypes. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Jose L Huaman, Gladys Carrion, Julia S Ampuero, Jorge Gomez, Victor Ocaña, Irmia Paz, Elizabeth Gomez, Edward Chavez, Favio Sarmiento, Edward Pozo, V Alberto Laguna-Torres and Eric S Halsey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:169

    Content type: Research

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  36. Annually, rubella virus (RV) still causes severe congenital defects in around 100 000 children globally. An attempt to eradicate RV is currently underway and analytical tools to monitor the global decline of t...

    Authors: Leendert J Cloete, Emil P Tanov, Brejnev M Muhire, Darren P Martin and Gordon W Harkins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:166

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by Enterovirus 71(EV71), and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Guangzhou, the biggest city of South China. However, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) were observed in...

    Authors: Biao Di, Ying Zhang, Huaping Xie, Xiaoquan Li, Chun Chen, Peng Ding, Peng He, Dahu Wang, Jinmei Geng, Lei Luo, Zhijun Bai, Zhicong Yang and Ming Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:157

    Content type: Research

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  38. Most known flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), are maintained in natural transmission cycles between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. Other flaviviruses such as Modoc virus (MODV) and ...

    Authors: Rungrat Saiyasombat, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Wyatt Allen Miller, Peter J Bredenbeek and Bradley J Blitvich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:150

    Content type: Research

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  39. The first documented case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) occurred in 2012, and outbreaks have continued ever since, mainly in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV is primarily diagnosed using a r...

    Authors: Kazuya Shirato, Takuya Yano, Syouhei Senba, Shigehiro Akachi, Takashi Kobayashi, Takamichi Nishinaka, Tsugunori Notomi and Shutoku Matsuyama

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:139

    Content type: Research

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  40. It is generally believed that RNA virus replicating in the cell cytoplasm would not encode microRNAs (miRNAs) due to nucleus inaccessibility. Recent studies have described cytoplasmic RNA virus genome-derived ...

    Authors: Jiandong Shi, Zhiqing Duan, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Bin Wang, Jing Zhang, Haixuan Wang, Ningzhu Hu and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:121

    Content type: Research

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  41. Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic...

    Authors: James R Carter, James H Keith, Tresa S Fraser, James L Dawson, Cheryl A Kucharski, Kate M Horne, Stephen Higgs and Malcolm J Fraser Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:111

    Content type: Research

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  42. The laboratory mouse model is commonly employed to study the pathogenesis of encephalitic flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). However, it is known that some strains of these viruses do not ...

    Authors: Kotaro Aoki, Satoshi Shimada, Dash Sima Simantini, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Corazon C Buerano, Kouichi Morita and Daisuke Hayasaka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:105

    Content type: Research

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