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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Alexander A Khromykh, University of Queensland, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Michael Beard, University of Adelaide, Australia

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Content type: Short report

    Astroviruses are comprised of two genera with Avastrovirus infecting birds and Mamastrovirus infecting mammals. Avastroviruses have primarily been associated with infections of poultry, especially chicken, turkey...

    Authors: Ian H. Mendenhall, Katherine Nay Yaung, Priscilla H. Joyner, Lucy Keatts, Sophie Borthwick, Erica Sena Neves, Sorn San, Martin Gilbert and Gavin JD Smith

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:182

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  2. Content type: Research

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with a case fatality rate estimated to be as high as 75 % in humans and 90 % in horses. Surviving patients often have long-lasting and severe neurologi...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Pamela J. Glass and Radha K. Maheshwari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:154

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  3. Content type: Research

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an arbovirus, is an important human and veterinary pathogen belonging to one of seven antigenic complexes in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. EEEV is considered ...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Diana Fisher, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Steven B. Bradfute, Radha K. Maheshwari and Pamela J. Glass

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:152

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  4. Content type: Research

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IF...

    Authors: Helen K. Palma-Ocampo, Juan C. Flores-Alonso, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Lilian Flores-Mendoza, Irma Herrera-Camacho, Nora H. Rosas-Murrieta and Gerardo Santos-López

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:150

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  5. Content type: Research

    Pattern of Dengue periodic epidemics through the years along with sporadic cases of Dengue hemorrhagic fever followed by a severe 2011 epidemic of Dengue fever in Pakistan make Pakistan a Dengue endemic countr...

    Authors: Madiha Akram, Zareen Fatima, Mike A. Purdy, Amanda Sue, Sana Saleem, Irum Amin, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Idrees and Rabia Nawaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:148

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  6. Content type: Research

    The lack of optimal porcine cell lines has severely impeded the study and progress in elucidation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) pathogenesis. Vero cell, an African green monkey kidney cell line, wa...

    Authors: Liyan Cao, Xuying Ge, Yu Gao, Georg Herrler, Yudong Ren, Xiaofeng Ren and Guangxing Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:127

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  7. Content type: short report

    Rhinovirus infections do not only cause common colds, but may also trigger severe exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even though rhinoviruses have been the focus of exten...

    Authors: Céline Lacroix, Samuela Laconi, Fabrizio Angius, Antonio Coluccia, Romano Silvestri, Raffaello Pompei, Johan Neyts and Pieter Leyssen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:106

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  8. Content type: Research

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling pathway is involved in viral life cycle. However, the effect of MEK/ERK pathway in enterovirus 71(EV71)-inf...

    Authors: Weifeng Shi, Xueling Hou, Hongjun Peng, Li Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Zhiwen Gu, Qingbo Jiang, Mei Shi, Yun Ji and Jingting Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:227

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  9. Content type: Research

    The outcome of a viral infection is regulated by complex interactions of viral and host factors. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) engages and regulates several innate immune response pathways during infection. We h...

    Authors: Krystal Matthews, Alexandra Schäfer, Alissa Pham and Matthew Frieman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:209

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  10. Content type: Short report

    Millions of human infections caused by arthropod-borne pathogens are initiated by the feeding of an infected mosquito on a vertebrate. However, interactions between the viruses and the mosquito vector, which f...

    Authors: John T Nuckols, Alexander J McAuley, Yan-Jang S Huang, Kate M Horne, Stephen Higgs, Robert A Davey and Dana L Vanlandingham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:215

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  11. Content type: Research

    Stress granules (SGs) are granular aggregates in the cytoplasm that are formed under a variety of stress situations including viral infection. Previous studies indicate that poliovirus, a member of Picornaviridae

    Authors: Shuo Wu, Yan Wang, Lexun Lin, Xiaoning Si, Tianying Wang, Xiaoyan Zhong, Lei Tong, Ying Luan, Yang Chen, Xiaoyu Li, Fengmin Zhang, Wenran Zhao and Zhaohua Zhong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:192

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  12. Content type: Research

    Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have caused widespread outbreaks of chronic polyarthritis. The inflammatory responses in alphavirus-induced arthritis and...

    Authors: Weiqiang Chen, Suan-Sin Foo, Rachel W Li, Paul N Smith and Suresh Mahalingam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:189

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  13. Content type: Research

    Emerging human picornaviruses, including human parechovirus (HPeV), Aichi virus (AiV) and salivirus (SalV) were found to be associated with gastroenteritis, but their roles in enteric infections are not fully ...

    Authors: Cyril C Y Yip, Kin-Land Lo, Tak-Lun Que, Rodney A Lee, Kwok-Hung Chan, Kwok-Yung Yuen, Patrick C Y Woo and Susanna K P Lau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:182

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  14. Content type: Research

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a common cause of respiratory tract infections and are classified into seven species (EVA-D and rhinoviruses [RHVs] A-C) with more than 200 different serotypes. Little is known about th...

    Authors: Jose L Huaman, Gladys Carrion, Julia S Ampuero, Jorge Gomez, Victor Ocaña, Irmia Paz, Elizabeth Gomez, Edward Chavez, Favio Sarmiento, Edward Pozo, V Alberto Laguna-Torres and Eric S Halsey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:169

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  15. Content type: Research

    Annually, rubella virus (RV) still causes severe congenital defects in around 100 000 children globally. An attempt to eradicate RV is currently underway and analytical tools to monitor the global decline of t...

    Authors: Leendert J Cloete, Emil P Tanov, Brejnev M Muhire, Darren P Martin and Gordon W Harkins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:166

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  16. Content type: Research

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is usually caused by Enterovirus 71(EV71), and Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) in Guangzhou, the biggest city of South China. However, Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) were observed in...

    Authors: Biao Di, Ying Zhang, Huaping Xie, Xiaoquan Li, Chun Chen, Peng Ding, Peng He, Dahu Wang, Jinmei Geng, Lei Luo, Zhijun Bai, Zhicong Yang and Ming Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:157

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  17. Content type: Research

    Most known flaviviruses, including West Nile virus (WNV), are maintained in natural transmission cycles between hematophagous arthropods and vertebrate hosts. Other flaviviruses such as Modoc virus (MODV) and ...

    Authors: Rungrat Saiyasombat, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Wyatt Allen Miller, Peter J Bredenbeek and Bradley J Blitvich

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:150

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  18. Content type: Research

    The first documented case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) occurred in 2012, and outbreaks have continued ever since, mainly in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV is primarily diagnosed using a r...

    Authors: Kazuya Shirato, Takuya Yano, Syouhei Senba, Shigehiro Akachi, Takashi Kobayashi, Takamichi Nishinaka, Tsugunori Notomi and Shutoku Matsuyama

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:139

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  19. Content type: Research

    It is generally believed that RNA virus replicating in the cell cytoplasm would not encode microRNAs (miRNAs) due to nucleus inaccessibility. Recent studies have described cytoplasmic RNA virus genome-derived ...

    Authors: Jiandong Shi, Zhiqing Duan, Jing Sun, Meini Wu, Bin Wang, Jing Zhang, Haixuan Wang, Ningzhu Hu and Yunzhang Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:121

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  20. Content type: Research

    Approximately 100 million confirmed infections and 20,000 deaths are caused by Dengue virus (DENV) outbreaks annually. Global warming and rapid dispersal have resulted in DENV epidemics in formally non-endemic...

    Authors: James R Carter, James H Keith, Tresa S Fraser, James L Dawson, Cheryl A Kucharski, Kate M Horne, Stephen Higgs and Malcolm J Fraser Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:111

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  21. Content type: Research

    The laboratory mouse model is commonly employed to study the pathogenesis of encephalitic flaviviruses such as Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). However, it is known that some strains of these viruses do not ...

    Authors: Kotaro Aoki, Satoshi Shimada, Dash Sima Simantini, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Corazon C Buerano, Kouichi Morita and Daisuke Hayasaka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:105

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  22. Content type: Methodology

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) is a neurotropic virus causing Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in infants and children under the age of five. It is a major concern for public health issues across Asia-Pacific regio...

    Authors: Ashok Raj Kattur Venkatachalam, Milene Szyporta, Tanja Kristin Kiener, Premanand Balraj and Jimmy Kwang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:99

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  23. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the etiologic agent of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-Pacific region, Many strategies have been applied to develop EV71 vaccines but no vaccines are currently available...

    Authors: Fushun Zhang, Chunsheng Hao, Shuo Zhang, Aqian Li, Quanfu Zhang, Wei Wu, Lin Liu, Chuan Li, Mifang Liang, Xiuling Li and Dexin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:80

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  24. Content type: Research

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children, especially in the Asia-Pacific regions. EV71 vaccine development is of high priority at present, and neutralizati...

    Authors: Yue-Xiang Li, Hui Zhao, Rui-Yuan Cao, Yong-Qiang Deng, Jian-Feng Han, Shun-Ya Zhu, Jie Ma, Long Liu, E-De Qin and Cheng-Feng Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:79

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  25. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis E (HEV) is an important public-health concern as a major cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. In industrialised countries it is considered rare, and largely confined to travellers re...

    Authors: Giuseppina La Rosa, Marta Fratini, Michele Muscillo, Marcello Iaconelli, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Giulio Pisani, Roberto Bruni and Anna Rita Ciccaglione

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:72

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  26. Content type: Research

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen found worldwide in calves. It can cause significant economic losses in agriculture. Many BVDV strains have been isolated in China. However, the pathogenesis and...

    Authors: Shuqin Zhang, Bin Tan, Yulin Ding, Fengxue Wang, Li Guo, Yongjun Wen, Shipeng Cheng and Hua Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:67

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  27. Content type: Short report

    The epidemiology of dengue in the South Pacific has been characterized by transmission of a single dominant serotype for 3–5 years, with subsequent replacement by another serotype. From 2001 to 2008 only DENV-...

    Authors: Myrielle Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Maïté Aubry, Olivia O’Connor, Claudine Roche, Ann-Claire Gourinat, Aurélie Guigon, Alyssa Pyke, Jean-Paul Grangeon, Eric Nilles, Suzanne Chanteau, John Aaskov and Van-Mai Cao-Lormeau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:61

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  28. Content type: Case Report

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne virus that has four serotypes. Collection of serum from patients is time- and labor- consuming, and presents a high injury risk for infants and children. The genomic and...

    Authors: Xuezheng Ma, Wei Zhen, Pengfei Yang, Xiaohong Sun, Weizhong Nie, Liping Zhang, Huanzhou Xu and Kongxin Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:56

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  29. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease that occurs in young children. Neither antiviral agents nor vaccines are available for efficiently combating viral infection. S...

    Authors: Xiao-Xin Ren, Li Ma, Qing-Wei Liu, Chuan Li, Zhong Huang, Li Wu, Si-Dong Xiong, Jian-Hua Wang and Hai-Bo Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:47

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  30. Content type: Short report

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a disease of major economic impact worldwide. The etiologic agent of this disease is the PRRS virus (PRRSV). Increasing evidence suggest that microevolut...

    Authors: Zen H Lu, Alexander Brown, Alison D Wilson, Jay G Calvert, Monica Balasch, Pablo Fuentes-Utrilla, Julia Loecherbach, Frances Turner, Richard Talbot, Alan L Archibald and Tahar Ait-Ali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:42

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  31. Content type: Research

    Human Rhinoviruses (HRV) are major causative agents of acute respiratory tract infections in all age group and important contributing factors of childhood morbidity and mortality. Clinical presentation is poor...

    Authors: Julien Dupouey, Laetitia Ninove, Vanessa Ferrier, Odile Py, Céline Gazin, Laurence Thirion-Perrier and Xavier de Lamballerie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:31

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  32. Content type: Research

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection leads to substantial economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. However, no effective countermeasures exist to combat this virus infe...

    Authors: Jintao Gao, Shuqi Xiao, Xiaohong Liu, Liangliang Wang, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qianqian Ji, Yue Wang, Delin Mo and Yaosheng Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:17

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  33. Content type: Research

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has a significant impact on public health. An estimated three billion people in 'at-risk’ regions remain unvaccinated and the number of unvaccinated individuals in certain Asi...

    Authors: Zixue Shi, Jianchao Wei, Xufang Deng, Shuqing Li, Yafeng Qiu, Donghua Shao, Beibei Li, Keyu Zhang, Feiqun Xue, Xiaodu Wang and Zhiyong Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:10

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  34. Content type: Research

    Flavivirus NS1 is a non-structural glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and secreted into the extracellular space, where it acts as an antagonist of complement pathway activation. Despite its tra...

    Authors: Soonjeon Youn, Rebecca L Ambrose, Jason M Mackenzie and Michael S Diamond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:339

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  35. Content type: Research

    Norovirus is the commonest cause of epidemic gastroenteritis among people of all ages. Outbreaks frequently occur in hospitals and the community, costing the UK an estimated £110 m per annum. An evolutionary e...

    Authors: T H Nicholas Wong, Bethany L Dearlove, Jessica Hedge, Adam P Giess, Paolo Piazza, Amy Trebes, John Paul, Erasmus Smit, E Grace Smith, Julian K Sutton, Mark H Wilcox, Kate E Dingle, Tim E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, Daniel J Wilson and David H Wyllie

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:335

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  36. Content type: Research

    Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. The RNA helicases retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA-5) ar...

    Authors: Xiao-Ying Dong, Wen-Jun Liu, Ming-Qiu Zhao, Jia-Ying Wang, Jing-Jing Pei, Yong-Wen Luo, Chun-Mei Ju and Jin-Ding Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:286

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  37. Content type: Case Report

    In recent decades, Echovirus 30 (E30) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been reported to be the common causative agents of acute meningitis among patients in South East Asia. An E30 outbreak in Vietna...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Leo Uchida, Phan Thi Nga, Kenta Okamoto, Takeshi Nabeshima, Dang Thi Thu Thao, Do Thien Hai, Nguyen Thi Tuyet, Hoang Minh Duc, Le Xuan Luat, Futoshi Hasebe and Kouichi Morita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:280

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  38. Content type: Research

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. After autoproteolytic cleavage, the CHIKV capsid protein (CP) is involved in RNA binding and assembly of the viral particle. The monomeric CP ...

    Authors: Saijo Thomas, Jagdish Rai, Lijo John, Stephan Schaefer, Brigitte M Pützer and Ottmar Herchenröder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:269

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  39. Content type: Research

    The clinical presentation of dengue is classified by the World Health Organization into dengue without warning signs, dengue with warning signs and severe dengue. Reports of neurological disease caused by Dengue ...

    Authors: Kátia Paulino Ribeiro de Souza, Emanuele Guimarães Silva, Eliseu Soares de Oliveira Rocha, Leandra Barcelos Figueiredo, Camila Megale de Almeida-Leite, Rosa Maria Esteves Arantes, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes, Gustavo Portela Ferreira, Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira, Erna Geessien Kroon and Marco Antônio Campos

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:267

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  40. Content type: Research

    Evaluation of the primary etiologic agents that cause aseptic meningitis outbreaks may provide valuable information regarding the prevention and management of aseptic meningitis. An outbreak of aseptic meningi...

    Authors: Hong Xiao, Dawei Guan, Ruiyu Chen, Pingxi Chen, Corina Monagin, Wei Li, Juan Su, Cong Ma, Wanli Zhang and Changwen Ke

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:263

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  41. Content type: Research

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes acute viral encephalitis in humans. Pigs are important amplifiers of JEV. The entry mechanism of JEV into porcine cells remains larg...

    Authors: Songbai Yang, Minhui He, Xiangdong Liu, Xinyun Li, Bin Fan and Shuhong Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:258

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  42. Content type: Research

    Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or...

    Authors: Cynthia CH Khoo, Jeffrey B Doty, Nicole L Held, Ken E Olson and Alexander WE Franz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:257

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  43. Content type: Research

    Ophiostoma novo-ulmi is the causative agent of Dutch elm disease (DED). It is an ascomycetous filamentous fungus that ranks as the third most devastating fungal pathogen in Canada. The disease front has spread ea...

    Authors: William E Hintz, Joyce S Carneiro, Irina Kassatenko, Aniko Varga and Delano James

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:252

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  44. Content type: Research

    The flaviviral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a phosphoprotein, though the precise identities and roles of many specific phosphorylations remain unknown. Protein kinase G (PKG), a cGMP-dependent protein kina...

    Authors: Julie A Keating, Dipankar Bhattacharya, Pei-Yin Lim, Shaun Falk, Bernard Weisblum, Kristen A Bernard, Mayuri Sharma, Richard J Kuhn and Rob Striker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:242

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