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Positive-strand RNA viruses

Section Editor: Alexander A Khromykh, University of Queensland, Australia
Deputy Section Editor: Michael Beard, University of Adelaide, Australia

The Positive-strand RNA viruses section of Virology Journal invites submissions of research articles and reviews covering all aspects of positive-strand RNA virus biology. Basic research topics of interest include all facets of the viral life cycle from viral attachment and entry, viral RNA replication and translation, viral gene expression/regulation, viral protein processing, viral particle assembly and secretion. We welcome studies that investigate interactions between the virus and host that impact viral replication and the cellular response to infection. Other topics include but are not limited to viral pathogenesis, epidemiology, and viral immunology. We also welcome basic and translational studies on the development of novel model systems, antiviral drugs and vaccines.

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  1. Content type: Methodology

    Quantitation of HIV-RNA is critically important for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, monitoring and assessment of infectivity in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study was to assess performance character...

    Authors: Angelos. Hatzakis, Helen Papachristou, Sangeetha J. Nair, Jacqueline Fortunko, Tracy Foote, HeeCheol Kim, Tashi L. Peling and Andrew J. Worlock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:176

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  2. Content type: Research

    Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the αVβ6 integrin receptor through a highly co...

    Authors: Outi Heikkilä, Pirjo Merilahti, Marika Hakanen, Eveliina Karelehto, Jonna Alanko, Maria Sukki, Saija Kiljunen and Petri Susi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:171

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  3. Content type: Research

    Four vaccine-related polioviruses (VRPV) were isolated from aseptic encephalitis cases in Yunnan, China in 2010. The genomic sequences of these VRPVs were investigated to gain a better understanding of their m...

    Authors: Jiansheng Liu, Haihao Zhang, Yilin Zhao, Longhui Xia, Chen Guo, Huai Yang, Na Luo, Zhanlong He and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:162

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  4. Content type: Research

    Culex Flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific virus that is widely distributed and primarily infects mosquito species from the genus Culex. Its hosts include Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and A...

    Authors: Cíntia Bittar, Daiane Cristina Machado, Danila Vedovello, Leila Sabrina Ullmann, Paula Rahal, João Pessoa Araújo Junior and Maurício Lacerda Nogueira

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:158

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  5. Content type: Research

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a prevalent mosquito-borne pathogen that is emerging in many parts of the globe causing significant human morbidity. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of an infect...

    Authors: Pattra Chalaem, Sarunyou Chusri, Stefan Fernandez, Wilaiwan Chotigeat, Juan Anguita, Utpal Pal and Kamoltip Promnares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:150

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  6. Content type: Short report

    Dengue virus is circulating in Pakistan since 1994, which causes major and minor outbreaks in many areas of the country. The incidence of dengue in Pakistan in past years mainly restricted to parts of Sindh an...

    Authors: Amjad Ali, Habib Ahmad, Muhammad Idrees, Fazli Zahir and Ijaz Ali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:144

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  7. Content type: Short report

    About half of the world’s population are living in the endemic area of dengue viruses implying that a rapid-mass vaccination may be required. In addition, a major target of dengue vaccine are children, thus, a...

    Authors: Nattika Nantachit, Panya Sunintaboon and Sukathida Ubol

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:142

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  8. Content type: Short report

    Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhoea worldwide. The highest disease burden is seen in resource-constrained settings of sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, commercial multiplex PCR panels pro...

    Authors: Amelie Leva, Daniel Eibach, Ralf Krumkamp, Julia Käsmaier, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Jürgen May, Egbert Tannich and Marcus Panning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:132

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  9. Content type: Review

    Flaviviruses are emerging arthropod-borne viruses representing an immense global health problem. The prominent viruses of this group include dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, West ...

    Authors: Meghana Rastogi, Nikhil Sharma and Sunit Kumar Singh

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:131

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  10. Content type: Methodology

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has become a major public health problem across the Asia-Pacific region, and is commonly caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6), CV-A10 and CV-A16....

    Authors: Anh To Nguyen, Thanh Tan Tran, Van Minh Tu Hoang, Ngoc My Nghiem, Nhu Nguyen Truc Le, Thanh Thi My Le, Qui Tu Phan, Khanh Huu Truong, Nhan Nguyen Thanh Le, Viet Lu Ho, Viet Chau Do, Tuan Manh Ha, Hung Thanh Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh Nguyen, Guy Thwaites, H. Rogier van Doorn…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:125

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  11. Content type: Short report

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the main pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in mainland China, and the dominant EV-A71 strains belong to subgenotype C4. To date, only ...

    Authors: Qian Yang, Yong Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Wei Huang, Hongqiu An and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:115

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  12. Content type: Research

    Recurrence of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) pandemics continues to threaten public health. Despite increasing awareness and efforts, effective vaccine and drug treatment have yet to be available. Probiot...

    Authors: Lei Yin Emily Ang, Horng Khit Issac Too, Eng Lee Tan, Tak-Kwong Vincent Chow, Pei-Chi Lynette Shek, Elizabeth Tham and Sylvie Alonso

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:111

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2016 13:186

  13. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) and also causes severe neurological complications, leading to fatality in young children. However, no effective therapy is cur...

    Authors: Chonsaeng Kim, Hyunju Kang, Dong-eun Kim, Jae-Hyoung Song, Miri Choi, Mingu Kang, Kyungjin Lee, Hae Soo Kim, Jin Soo Shin, Hyejeong Jeong, Sunhee Jung, Sang-Bae Han, Jong Heon Kim, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Chong-Kyo Lee, Meehyein Kim…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:99

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  14. Content type: Research

    Among all known picornaviruses, only two species, equine rhinitis A virus and equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV) are known to infect horses, causing respiratory infections. No reports have described the detection ...

    Authors: Patrick C. Y. Woo, Susanna K. P. Lau, Garnet K. Y. Choi, Yi Huang, Renate Wernery, Sunitha Joseph, Emily Y. M. Wong, Shyna K. Elizabeth, Nissy Annie Georgy Patteril, Tong Li, Ulrich Wernery and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:94

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  15. Content type: Case Report

    We report the isolation and characterization of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 4 from a resident of Santa Fé, state of Paraná, South Brazil, in March 2013. This patient presented with hemorrhagic manifestations,...

    Authors: Diogo Kuczera, Lorena Bavia, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Giovanny Augusto Camacho Antevere Mazzarotto, Mateus Nóbrega Aoki, Ana Maria Ferrari Mansano, Ediléia Inês Tomeleri, Wilson Liuti Costa Junior, Milena Menegazzo Miranda, Maria Lo Sarzi, Wander Rogério Pavanelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos and Juliano Bordignon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:93

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  16. Content type: Research

    RNA viruses are characterized by high rate of mutations mainly due to the lack of proofreading repair activities associated with its RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). In case of arboviruses, this phenomenon...

    Authors: Jaspreet Jain, Kalika Mathur, Jatin Shrinet, Raj K. Bhatnagar and Sujatha Sunil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:86

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  17. Content type: Review

    The family Flaviviridae comprises a wide variety of viruses that are distributed worldwide, some of which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. There are neither vaccines nor antivirals for m...

    Authors: Lorena Bavia, Ana Luiza Pamplona Mosimann, Mateus Nóbrega Aoki and Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:84

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  18. Content type: Research

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the main cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. The most commonly detected NoV strains belong to the genetically diverse GII.4 genotype, with new pandemic variants emerging periodical...

    Authors: Noelia Carmona-Vicente, David J. Allen, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Miren Iturriza-Gómara and Javier Buesa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:82

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  19. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) could induce chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma in human. The use of primary human hepatocyte as a viral host is restrained with the scarcity of tissue supply. A cultur...

    Authors: Khanit Sa-ngiamsuntorn, Adisak Wongkajornsilp, Phetcharat Phanthong, Suparerk Borwornpinyo, Narisorn Kitiyanant, Wasun Chantratita and Suradej Hongeng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:59

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  20. Content type: Research

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious virus infecting pigs of all ages with high morbidity and mortality among newborn piglets. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available to pro...

    Authors: Niraj Makadiya, Robert Brownlie, Jan van den Hurk, Nathalie Berube, Brenda Allan, Volker Gerdts and Alexander Zakhartchouk

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:57

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  21. Content type: Short report

    Brevicoryne brassicae virus (BrBV) is a positive-strand genomic RNA virus which is unassigned tentative member of the genus Iflavirus. BrBv was first identified and characterized in th...

    Authors: Neta Luria, Victoria Reingold, Oded Lachman, Noa Sela and Aviv Dombrovsky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:50

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  22. Content type: Research

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family, transmitted to human via mosquito. DENV infection is common in tropical areas and occasionally causes life-threatening symptoms. DENV contains a relativ...

    Authors: Warobon Noppakunmongkolchai, Teera Poyomtip, Thichakorn Jittawuttipoka, Natthanej Luplertlop, Anavaj Sakuntabhai, Sarin Chimnaronk, Siwanon Jirawatnotai and Rutaiwan Tohtong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:35

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  23. Content type: Research

    Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking.

    Authors: Maryam Nabiel Al-Khannaq, Kim Tien Ng, Xiang Yong Oong, Yong Kek Pang, Yutaka Takebe, Jack Bee Chook, Nik Sherina Hanafi, Adeeba Kamarulzaman and Kok Keng Tee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:33

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  24. Content type: Research

    Rubella virus (RV) infection is usually a mild illness in children and adults. However, maternal infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the infant. F...

    Authors: Henriette Geyer, Michael Bauer, Jennifer Neumann, Amy Lüdde, Paul Rennert, Nicole Friedrich, Claudia Claus, Ludmilla Perelygina and Annette Mankertz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:21

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  25. Content type: Research

    Human Coronaviruses (HCoV) are a common cause of respiratory illnesses and are responsible for considerable morbidity and hospitalization across all age groups especially in individuals with compromised immuni...

    Authors: Lenata A. Sipulwa, Juliette R. Ongus, Rodney L. Coldren and Wallace D. Bulimo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:18

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  26. Content type: Short report

    Porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) is widely distributed worldwide, and is highly prevalent among piglets with or without diarrhea, existing as at least five distinct lineages (PoAstV1–PoAstV5) within the genus Mamastro...

    Authors: Yuhan Cai, Wenqi Yin, Yuanchen Zhou, Bi Li, Lun Ai, Meng Pan and Wanzhu Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:6

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  27. Content type: Methodology

    The incidence of neurological complications and fatalities associated with Hand, Foot & Mouth disease has increased over recent years, due to emergence of newly-evolved strains of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). In the...

    Authors: May Shin Yap, Yin Quan Tang, Yin Yeo, Wei Ling Lim, Lee Wei Lim, Kuan Onn Tan, Mark Richards, Iekhsan Othman, Chit Laa Poh and Boon Chin Heng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:5

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  28. Content type: Research

    The nuclear protein Src-associated protein of 68 kDa in mitosis (Sam68) is known to bind RNA and be involved in cellular processes triggered in response to environmental stresses, including virus infection. Inter...

    Authors: Devendra K. Rai, Paul Lawrence, Anna Kloc, Elizabeth Schafer and Elizabeth Rieder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:224

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  29. Content type: Research

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. The incidence of infection is estimated to be 390 million cases and 25,000 deaths per year. Despite these numbers...

    Authors: Paula Rodrigues Zanello, Andrea Cristine Koishi, Celso de Oliveira Rezende Júnior, Larissa Albuquerque Oliveira, Adriane Antonia Pereira, Mauro Vieira de Almeida, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos and Juliano Bordignon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:223

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  30. Content type: Review

    The first known cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), associated with infection by a novel coronavirus (CoV), occurred in 2012 in Jordan but were reported retrospectively. The case first to be publ...

    Authors: Ian M. Mackay and Katherine E. Arden

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:222

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  31. Content type: Review

    Bats have been recognized as the natural reservoirs of a large variety of viruses. Special attention has been paid to bat coronaviruses as the two emerging coronaviruses which have caused unexpected human dise...

    Authors: Ben Hu, Xingyi Ge, Lin-Fa Wang and Zhengli Shi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:221

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  32. Content type: Review

    Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was identified to cause severe respiratory infection in humans since 2012. The continuing MERS epidemic with a case-fatality of more than 30 % poses a ma...

    Authors: Jie Zhou, Hin Chu, Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:218

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  33. Content type: Review

    According to recent statistics, 96 million apparent dengue infections were estimated worldwide in 2010. This figure is by far greater than the WHO prediction which indicates the rapid spread of this disease po...

    Authors: Taoufik Nedjadi, Sherif El-Kafrawy, Sayed S. Sohrab, Philippe Desprès, Ghazi Damanhouri and Esam Azhar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:212

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  34. Content type: Research

    Human enterovirus (EV) and parechovirus (HPeV) are significant causes of encephalitis and meningitis in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, type and viral RNA concentration of EV a...

    Authors: Silke Vollbach, Andreas Müller, Jan Felix Drexler, Arne Simon, Christian Drosten, Anna Maria Eis-Hübinger and Marcus Panning

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:199

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  35. Content type: Short report

    Astroviruses are comprised of two genera with Avastrovirus infecting birds and Mamastrovirus infecting mammals. Avastroviruses have primarily been associated with infections of poultry, especially chicken, turkey...

    Authors: Ian H. Mendenhall, Katherine Nay Yaung, Priscilla H. Joyner, Lucy Keatts, Sophie Borthwick, Erica Sena Neves, Sorn San, Martin Gilbert and Gavin JD Smith

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:182

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  36. Content type: Research

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with a case fatality rate estimated to be as high as 75 % in humans and 90 % in horses. Surviving patients often have long-lasting and severe neurologi...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Pamela J. Glass and Radha K. Maheshwari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:154

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  37. Content type: Research

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), an arbovirus, is an important human and veterinary pathogen belonging to one of seven antigenic complexes in the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. EEEV is considered ...

    Authors: Shelley P. Honnold, Eric C. Mossel, Russell R. Bakken, Diana Fisher, Cathleen M. Lind, Jeffrey W. Cohen, Lori T. Eccleston, Kevin B. Spurgers, Rebecca Erwin-Cohen, Steven B. Bradfute, Radha K. Maheshwari and Pamela J. Glass

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:152

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  38. Content type: Research

    In viral disease, infection is controlled at the cellular level by type I interferon (IFN-I), but dengue virus (DENV) has the ability to inhibit this response. Type III interferon, also known as lambda IFN (IF...

    Authors: Helen K. Palma-Ocampo, Juan C. Flores-Alonso, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Lilian Flores-Mendoza, Irma Herrera-Camacho, Nora H. Rosas-Murrieta and Gerardo Santos-López

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:150

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  39. Content type: Research

    Pattern of Dengue periodic epidemics through the years along with sporadic cases of Dengue hemorrhagic fever followed by a severe 2011 epidemic of Dengue fever in Pakistan make Pakistan a Dengue endemic countr...

    Authors: Madiha Akram, Zareen Fatima, Mike A. Purdy, Amanda Sue, Sana Saleem, Irum Amin, Muhammad Shahid, Muhammad Idrees and Rabia Nawaz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:148

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  40. Content type: Research

    The lack of optimal porcine cell lines has severely impeded the study and progress in elucidation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) pathogenesis. Vero cell, an African green monkey kidney cell line, wa...

    Authors: Liyan Cao, Xuying Ge, Yu Gao, Georg Herrler, Yudong Ren, Xiaofeng Ren and Guangxing Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:127

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