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Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

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  1. The essential role of copper in eukaryotic cellular physiology is known, but has not been recognized as important in the context of influenza A virus infection. In this study, we investigated the effect of cel...

    Authors: Jonathan C. Rupp, Manon Locatelli, Alexis Grieser, Andrea Ramos, Patricia J. Campbell, Hong Yi, John Steel, Jason L. Burkhead and Eric Bortz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:11
  2. H5N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect individuals that are in frequent contact with infected birds. In 2013, we isolated a novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N2 AIV strain [A/duck/Zhejiang/6DK19/20...

    Authors: Haibo Wu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng and Nanping Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:159
  3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are a serious threat to domestic poultry and can be a source of new human pandemic and annual influenza strains. Vaccination is the main strategy of protection against...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Piotr Kosson, Anna Protasiuk, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Grzegorz Kudla and Agnieszka Sirko
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:143
  4. H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to spread in poultry and wild birds worldwide. Morocco just faced its first H9N2 influenza virus outbreaks early 2016 affecting different types of poultry production. Afte...

    Authors: Mohammed EL Houadfi, Siham Fellahi, Saadia Nassik, Jean-Luc Guérin and Mariette F. Ducatez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:140
  5. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses can act as a viral replication enhancer by antagonizing type I interferon (IFN) induction and response in infected cells. We previously reported that A/...

    Authors: Challika Kaewborisuth, Mark Zanin, Hans Häcker, Richard J. Webby and Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:127
  6. Severe acute respiratory infections in children can be fatal, rapid identification of the causative agent and timely treatment can be life saving. Multiplex real time RT-PCR helps in simultaneous detection of ...

    Authors: Bharti Malhotra, M. Anjaneya Swamy, P. V. Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar and Jitendra Kumar Tiwari
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:91
  7. Transportation into the host cell nucleus is crucial for replication and transcription of influenza virus. The classical nuclear import is regulated by specific cellular factor, importin-α. Seven isoforms of i...

    Authors: Khwansiri Ninpan, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Peerayuht Phuangphung, Sakda Sathirareuangchai, Mongkol Uiprasertkul and Prasert Auewarakul
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:90
  8. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), an immunoregulatory cytokine, is known to control many microbial infections. In a previous study, chicken interferon gamma (chIFN-γ) was found to be up-regulated following avian influ...

    Authors: Seong-Su Yuk, Dong-Hun Lee, Jae-Keun Park, Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, In-Soo Choi and Chang-Seon Song
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:71
  9. Cross-reactive immunity against heterologous strains of influenza virus has the potential to provide partial protection in individuals that lack the proper neutralizing antibodies. In particular, the boosting ...

    Authors: Giuseppina Di Mario, Bruno Garulli, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Isabella Donatelli and Maria R. Castrucci
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:56
  10. Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) were first detected in North America in wild, captive, and domestic birds during November–December 2014. Detec...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ramey, John M. Pearce, Andrew B. Reeves, Rebecca L. Poulson, Jennifer Dobson, Brian Lefferts, Kyle Spragens and David E. Stallknecht
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:55
  11. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequen...

    Authors: Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Kholosy, Mohammed K. Hassan, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth and Yilma J. Makonnen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:49
  12. An extensive outbreak of equine influenza occurred across multiple countries in South America during 2012. The epidemic was first reported in Chile then spread to Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, where both vacc...

    Authors: Edsel Alves Beuttemmüller, Alana Woodward, Adam Rash, Luis Eduardo dos Santos Ferraz, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri and Debra Elton
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:45
  13. Avian influenza virus H7N9 has jumped species barrier, causing sporadic human infections since 2013. We have previously isolated an H7N9 virus from a patient, and an H7N9 virus from a chicken in a live poultry...

    Authors: Kelvin K. W. To, Candy C. Y. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo, Susanna K. P. Lau, Jasper F. W. Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J. X. Zhang, Honglin Chen and Kwok-Yung Yuen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:42
  14. Previously, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study in BXD recombinant inbred mice to identify host genetic factors that confer resistance to influenza A virus infection. We found Lst1 (leukoc...

    Authors: Sarah R. Leist, Heike Kollmus, Bastian Hatesuer, Ruth L. O. Lambertz and Klaus Schughart
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:17
  15. Since the 1990s, influenza A viruses of the H9N2 subtype have been causing infections in the poultry population around the globe. This influenza subtype is widely circulating in poultry and human cases of AI H...

    Authors: A. Heidari, M. Mancin, H. Nili, G. H. Pourghanbari, K. B. Lankarani, S. Leardini, G. Cattoli, I. Monne and A. Piccirillo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:16
  16. This review provides for the first time an assessment of the current understanding about the occurrence and the clinical significance of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in influenza patients, and their correlat...

    Authors: Laetitia Minodier, Remi N. Charrel, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi, Sylvie van der Werf, Thierry Blanchon, Thomas Hanslik and Alessandra Falchi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:215
  17. Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and therefore it remains a high priority to develop more broadly protective vaccines. Adjuvation of current seasonal influenza vac...

    Authors: Freek Cox, Eirikur Saeland, Matthijs Baart, Martin Koldijk, Jeroen Tolboom, Liesbeth Dekking, Wouter Koudstaal, Karin Lövgren Bengtsson, Jaap Goudsmit and Katarina Radošević
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:210
  18. The prevalence of avian H9N2 viruses throughout Asia, along with their demonstrated ability to infect mammals, puts them high on the list of influenza viruses with pandemic potential for humans. In this study,...

    Authors: Chuanmei Zhang, Yang Xuan, Hu Shan, Haiyan Yang, Jianlin Wang, Ke Wang, Guimei Li and Jian Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:180
  19. Detection of specific respiratory viruses is important for surveillance programs, where nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs have traditionally been used. Our objective was to determine whether sampling with a throat...

    Authors: Mohsin Ali, Sangsu Han, Chris J. Gunst, Steve Lim, Kathy Luinstra and Marek Smieja
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:178
  20. The global outbreak of a novel swine-origin strain of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus and the sudden, worldwide increase in oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza A viruses highlight the urgent need for novel an...

    Authors: Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Ki Choi, Chul-Joong Kim, Moon-Hee Sung and Haryoung Poo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:160
  21. The H10 subtype avian influenza viruses (H10N4, H10N5 and H10N7) have been reported to cause disease in mammals, and the first human case of H10N8 subtype avian influenza virus was reported in 2013. Recently, ...

    Authors: Sisi Luo, Zhixun Xie, Liji Xie, Jiabo Liu, Zhiqin Xie, Xianwen Deng, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Tingting Zeng and Mazhar I. Khan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:145
  22. Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the...

    Authors: Qiaoyang Teng, Weixia Shen, Qinfang Liu, Guangyu Rong, Lin Chen, Xuesong Li, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang and Zejun Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:143
  23. Since avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) was first identified in South Korea in 2008, the novel influenza virus has been reported in several countries in Asia. Reverse zoonotic transmission of pand...

    Authors: Woonsung Na, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Eun-jung Song, Minki Hong, Minjoo Yeom, Hyoungjoon Moon, Bo-Kyu Kang, Doo-Jin Kim, Jeong-Ki Kim and Daesub Song
    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:134
  24. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important pathogens that affect the health of humans and many additional animal species. IAVs are enveloped, negative single-stranded RNA viruses whose genome encodes at least te...

    Authors: Alex Generous, Molly Thorson, Jeff Barcus, Joseph Jacher, Marc Busch and Heidi Sleister
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:228
  25. With the clinical development of several antiviral intervention strategies for influenza, it becomes crucial to explore viral load shedding in the nasal cavity as a biomarker for treatment success, but also to...

    Authors: Liesbeth Van Wesenbeeck, Hanne Meeuws, David D’Haese, Gabriela Ispas, Lieselot Houspie, Marc Van Ranst and Lieven J Stuyver
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:233
  26. The avian influenza virus (AIV) causes frequent disease with high morbidity and mortality. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to provide an effective antiviral defense in animals, and several studies have ...

    Authors: Shuang Wang, Peng Zhang, Fei He, Ji-Gui Wang, Jia-Zeng Sun, Zhi-Li Li, Bao Yi, Ji Xi, Ya-Ping Mao, Qiang Hou, Dao-Li Yuan, Zi-Ding Zhang and Wei-Quan Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:208
  27. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in poultry and can infect and cause mortality in birds and mammals; the genetic determinants of their increased virulence are largely...

    Authors: Kairat Tabynov, Abylay Sansyzbay, Nurlan Sandybayev and Muratbay Mambetaliyev
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:207
  28. Data about molecular diversity of commonly circulating type A influenza viruses in Ontario swine are scarce. Yet, this information is essential for surveillance of animal and public health, vaccine updates, an...

    Authors: Helena Grgić, Marcio Costa, Robert M Friendship, Susy Carman, Éva Nagy, Greg Wideman, Scott Weese and Zvonimir Poljak
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:194
  29. On 19 February 2013, the first patient infected with a novel influenza A H7N9 virus from an avian source showed symptoms of sickness. More than 349 laboratory-confirmed cases and 109 deaths have been reported ...

    Authors: Linlin Bao, Lili Xu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Ting Chen, Qi Lv, Fengdi Li, Jing Yuan, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yanhong Li, Jiangning Liu, Yanfeng Yao, Pin Yu, Honglin Chen and Chuan Qin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:185

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:140

  30. The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 v...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Jeong-Ki Kim, Kwonil Jung, Bo-Kyu Kang and Daesub Song
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:170
  31. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swin...

    Authors: Lasse E Pedersen, Solvej Ø Breum, Ulla Riber, Lars E Larsen and Gregers Jungersen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:163
  32. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) has caused disease outbreaks in horses across the world since its first isolation in 1963. However, unlike human, swine and avian influenza, there is relatively little sequenc...

    Authors: Adam Rash, Alana Woodward, Neil Bryant, John McCauley and Debra Elton
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:159
  33. Influenza is a segmented negative strand RNA virus. Each RNA segment is encapsulated by influenza nucleoprotein and bound by the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to form viral ribonucleoproteins respo...

    Authors: Sean Larsen, Steven Bui, Veronica Perez, Adeba Mohammad, Hilario Medina-Ramirez and Laura L Newcomb
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:154
  34. During the early phases of the 2009 pandemic, subjects with influenza-like illness only had laboratory testing specific for the new A(H1N1)pdm09 virus.

    Authors: Vigneswary Mala Ratnamohan, Janette Taylor, Frank Zeng, Kenneth McPhie, Christopher C Blyth, Sheena Adamson, Jen Kok and Dominic E Dwyer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:113
  35. Potent and safe adjuvants are needed to improve the efficacy of parenteral and mucosal vaccines. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors have all proven to be effective immunomodulatory adjuvants when adminis...

    Authors: Tila Khan, Connie L Heffron, Kevin P High and Paul C Roberts
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:78
  36. Wild waterfowl are recognized as the natural reservoir for influenza A viruses. Two distinct lineages, the American and Eurasian lineages, have been identified in wild birds. Gene flow between the two lineages...

    Authors: Yun Zhu, Shixiong Hu, Tian Bai, Lei Yang, Xiang Zhao, Wenfei Zhu, Yiwei Huang, Zhihong Deng, Hong Zhang, Zhiyong Bai, Mingdong Yu, Jianfei Huang and Yuelong Shu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:77
  37. H5 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection in domestic ducks is a major problem in duck producing countries. Their silent circulation is an ongoing source of potential highly pathogenic or zoono...

    Authors: Olivier Guionie, Éric Niqueux, Michel Amelot, Stéphanie Bougeard and Véronique Jestin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:74
  38. Convalescent plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins have been suggested as prophylactic or therapeutic interventions during an influenza pandemic.

    Authors: Christine Hohenadl, Walter Wodal, Astrid Kerschbaum, Richard Fritz, M Keith Howard, Maria R Farcet, Daniel Portsmouth, John K McVey, Donald A Baker, Hartmut J Ehrlich, P Noel Barrett and Thomas R Kreil
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:70
  39. We generated novel, effective candidate vaccine against Brucella abortus based on recombinant influenza viruses expressing the Brucella ribosomal protein L7/L12 or outer membrane protein (Omp)-16 from the NS1 ope...

    Authors: Kaissar Tabynov, Abylai Sansyzbay, Zhailaubay Kydyrbayev, Bolat Yespembetov, Sholpan Ryskeldinova, Nadezhda Zinina, Nurika Assanzhanova, Kulaisan Sultankulova, Nurlan Sandybayev, Berik Khairullin, Irina Kuznetsova, Boris Ferko and Andrej Egorov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:69
  40. Fatal influenza A virus infection is a major threat to public health throughout the world. Lung macrophages and neutrophils have critical roles for both the pathogenesis and viral clearance of fatal viral infe...

    Authors: Jin Lv, Yanhong Hua, Dan Wang, Aofei Liu, Juan An, Aimin Li, Yanfeng Wang, Xiliang Wang, Na Jia and Qisheng Jiang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:57
  41. Influenza A virus has a wide range of hosts. It has not only infected human, but also been reported interspecies transmission from humans to other animals, such as pigs, poultry, dogs and cats. However, preval...

    Authors: Fu-Rong Zhao, Chun-Guo Liu, Xin Yin, Dong-Hui Zhou, Ping Wei and Hui-Yun Chang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:49
  42. Acute respiratory infections represent a serious public health issue worldwide but virological aetiologies of Influenza Like Illnesses (ILIs) remain largely unknown in developing countries. This study represen...

    Authors: Julie Delangue, Yelin Roca Sanchez, Géraldine Piorkowski, Maël Bessaud, Cécile Baronti, Laurence Thirion-Perrier, Roxana Loayza Mafayle, Cinthia Avila Ardaya, Gabriela Añez Aguilera, Jimmy Revollo Guzman, Javier Lora Riera and Xavier de Lamballerie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:35
  43. Regular reformulation of currently available vaccines is necessary due to the unpredictable variability of influenza viruses. Therefore, vaccine based on a highly conserved antigen with capability of induction...

    Authors: Mohammed YE Chowdhury, Soo-Kyung Seo, Ho-Jin Moon, Melbourne R Talactac, Jae-Hoon Kim, Min-Eun Park, Hwa-Young Son, Jong-Soo Lee and Chul-Joong Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:21
  44. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. The outbreaks caused by HPAIV H5N1 of Asian origin...

    Authors: Hua Chang, Feiyan Dai, Zili Liu, Feizhou Yuan, Siyue Zhao, Xun Xiang, Fengcai Zou, Bangquan Zeng, YaTing Fan and Gang Duan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:18
  45. Following the 2009 swine flu pandemic, a cohort for pandemic influenza (CoPanFlu) study was established in Djibouti, the Horn of Africa, to investigate its case prevalence and risk predictors’ at household level.

    Authors: Fred Andayi, Pascal Crepey, Alexia Kieffer, Nicolas Salez, Ammar A Abdo, Fabrice Carrat, Antoine Flahault and Xavier de Lamballerie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:13
  46. The editors of Virology Journal would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 10 (2013). The success of any scientific journal depends on an effective and strict peer review ...

    Authors: Linfa Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:4
  47. Influenza A virus (IAV) neuraminidase (NA) cleaves sialic acids (Sias) from glycans. Inhibiting NA with oseltamivir suppresses both viral infection, and viral release from cultured human airway epithelial cell...

    Authors: Miriam Cohen, Xing-Quan Zhang, Hooman P Senaati, Hui-Wen Chen, Nissi M Varki, Robert T Schooley and Pascal Gagneux
    Citation: Virology Journal 2013 10:321