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Influenza viruses

Section Editor: Hualan Chen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China 
Deputy Section Editor: Chengjun Li, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

The Influenza viruses section of Virology Journal will publish articles on all aspects of influenza virus research, including molecular genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, immunology, morphology, and pathogenesis. The section will also welcome the case reports of influenza outbreaks in both human and animal populations, and development and evaluation of vaccines and antiviral compounds in humans and animals.​​​​​​​

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  1. Cationic derivatives of polyprenols (trimethylpolyprenylammonium iodides – PTAI) with variable chain length between 6 and 15 isoprene units prepared from naturally occurring poly-cis-prenols were tested as DNA va...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Monika Rak, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Zbigniew Madeja, Katarzyna Gawarecka, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Ewa Świeżewska, Marek Masnyk, Marek Chmielewski, Agnieszka Sirko and Anna Góra-Sochacka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:168

    Content type: Research

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  2. Influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein has been linked to viral virulence. Strains of the H3N2 subtype historically express full-length PB1-F2 proteins but during the 2010–2011 influenza seasons, nearly half o...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Yi-Mo Deng, Brad Gilbertson, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Ian Barr and Lorena Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:162

    Content type: Short Report

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  3. Defective interfering (DI) viruses are natural antivirals made by nearly all viruses. They have a highly deleted genome (thus being non-infectious) and interfere with the replication of genetically related inf...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Kirsten Bentley, Anthony C. Marriott, Paul D. Scott, Nigel J. Dimmock and Andrew J. Easton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  4. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the subtypes H5 and H7 are known to give rise to highly pathogenic (HP) phenotypes by spontaneous insertional mutations which convert a monobasic trypsin-sensi...

    Authors: Annika Graaf, Martin Beer and Timm Harder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:137

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Recently, avian influenza virus has caused repeated worldwide outbreaks in humans. Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) play an important role in the circulation and reassortment of novel Avian Influenza Virus (AIVs). ...

    Authors: Xiaoxu Zeng, Mingbin Liu, Heng Zhang, Jingwen Wu, Xiang Zhao, Wenbing Chen, Lei Yang, Fenglan He, Guoyin Fan, Dayan Wang, Haiying Chen and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:136

    Content type: Research

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  6. Yearly influenza virus mutations potentially affect the performance of molecular assays, if nucleic acid changes involve the sequences in the assay. Because individual patient viral loads depend on variables s...

    Authors: Kenneth H. Rand, Maura Pieretti, Rodney Arcenas, Stacy G. Beal, Herbert Houck, Emma Boslet and John A. Lednicky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:128

    Content type: Research

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  7. Various studies have shown that infants under the age of 6 months are especially vulnerable for complications due to influenza. Currently there are no vaccines licensed for use in this age group. Vaccination o...

    Authors: Joan E. M. van der Lubbe, Jessica Vreugdenhil, Sarra Damman, Joost Vaneman, Jaco Klap, Jaap Goudsmit, Katarina Radošević and Ramon Roozendaal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:123

    Content type: Research

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  8. Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particle...

    Authors: Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski and Wojciech Rozek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:120

    Content type: Short Report

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  9. On November 20, 2016 two novel strains of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIVs) were isolated from three whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) at Gangjin Bay in South Jeolla province, South Korea. Identif...

    Authors: Jipseol Jeong, Chanjin Woo, Hon S. Ip, Injung An, Youngsik Kim, Kwanghee Lee, Seong-Deok Jo, Kidong Son, Saemi Lee, Jae-Ku Oem, Seung-Jun Wang, Yongkwan Kim, Jeonghwa Shin, Jonathan Sleeman and Weonhwa Jheong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:60

    Content type: Short report

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  10. Influenza virus is still a huge threat to the world-wide public health. Host inosine-5’- monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) involved in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides, is known to be a potential target ...

    Authors: Jin Hu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Haiyan Yan, Dajun Zhang, Zhuorong Li, Jiandong Jiang and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:55

    Content type: Research

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  11. National surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in South Korea has been annually conducted for the early detection of AIV and responses to the introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viru...

    Authors: Eun-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Mi Kang, Byung-Min Song, Yu-NA Lee, Gyeong-Beum Heo, Hee-Soo Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee and Jae-Hong Kim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:54

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Vaccination of poultry to control highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 is used in several countries. HPAIV H5N1 of clade 2.2.1 which is endemic in Egypt has diversified into two genetic clades....

    Authors: Ahmed H. Salaheldin, Jutta Veits, Hatem S. Abd El-Hamid, Timm C. Harder, Davud Devrishov, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Hafez M. Hafez and Elsayed M. Abdelwhab

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:48

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Despite availability of annual influenza vaccines, influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This is at least in part a result of immunosenescence; the age-dependent decrease in immu...

    Authors: Tina Falkeborn, Jorma Hinkula, Marie Olliver, Alf Lindberg and Anna-Karin Maltais

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:44

    Content type: Short report

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  14. H6 subtype avian influenza viruses are globally distributed and, in recent years, have been isolated with increasing frequency from both domestic and wild bird species as well as infected humans. Many reports ...

    Authors: Ye Ge, Hongliang Chai, Zhiqiang Fan, Xianfu Wang, Qiucheng Yao, Jian Ma, Si Chen, Yuping Hua, Guohua Deng and Hualan Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:36

    Content type: Research

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  15. Influenza A virus is controlled with yearly vaccination while emerging global pandemics are kept at bay with antiviral medications. Unfortunately, influenza A viruses have emerged resistance to approved influe...

    Authors: Alicia M. Davis, Jose Ramirez and Laura L. Newcomb

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:22

    Content type: Research

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  16. The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ...

    Authors: Sahar Essa, Haya Al-tawalah, Sarah AlShamali and Widad Al-Nakib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:19

    Content type: Research

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  17. The essential role of copper in eukaryotic cellular physiology is known, but has not been recognized as important in the context of influenza A virus infection. In this study, we investigated the effect of cel...

    Authors: Jonathan C. Rupp, Manon Locatelli, Alexis Grieser, Andrea Ramos, Patricia J. Campbell, Hong Yi, John Steel, Jason L. Burkhead and Eric Bortz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:11

    Content type: Research

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  18. H9N2 influenza viruses circulate globally and are considered to have pandemic potential. The hyper-inflammatory response elicited by these viruses is thought to contribute to disease severity. Calcitriol plays...

    Authors: Boxiang Gui, Qin Chen, Chuanxia Hu, Caihui Zhu and Guimei He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:10

    Content type: Research

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  19. H5N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can infect individuals that are in frequent contact with infected birds. In 2013, we isolated a novel reassortant highly pathogenic H5N2 AIV strain [A/duck/Zhejiang/6DK19/20...

    Authors: Haibo Wu, Xiuming Peng, Xiaorong Peng and Nanping Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:159

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are a serious threat to domestic poultry and can be a source of new human pandemic and annual influenza strains. Vaccination is the main strategy of protection against...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Piotr Kosson, Anna Protasiuk, Anna Góra-Sochacka, Grzegorz Kudla and Agnieszka Sirko

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:143

    Content type: Research

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  21. H9N2 avian influenza viruses continue to spread in poultry and wild birds worldwide. Morocco just faced its first H9N2 influenza virus outbreaks early 2016 affecting different types of poultry production. Afte...

    Authors: Mohammed EL Houadfi, Siham Fellahi, Saadia Nassik, Jean-Luc Guérin and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:140

    Content type: Research

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  22. The nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A viruses can act as a viral replication enhancer by antagonizing type I interferon (IFN) induction and response in infected cells. We previously reported that A/...

    Authors: Challika Kaewborisuth, Mark Zanin, Hans Häcker, Richard J. Webby and Porntippa Lekcharoensuk

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:127

    Content type: Research

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  23. Severe acute respiratory infections in children can be fatal, rapid identification of the causative agent and timely treatment can be life saving. Multiplex real time RT-PCR helps in simultaneous detection of ...

    Authors: Bharti Malhotra, M. Anjaneya Swamy, P. V. Janardhan Reddy, Neeraj Kumar and Jitendra Kumar Tiwari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:91

    Content type: Research

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  24. Transportation into the host cell nucleus is crucial for replication and transcription of influenza virus. The classical nuclear import is regulated by specific cellular factor, importin-α. Seven isoforms of i...

    Authors: Khwansiri Ninpan, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Chompunuch Boonarkart, Peerayuht Phuangphung, Sakda Sathirareuangchai, Mongkol Uiprasertkul and Prasert Auewarakul

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:90

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ), an immunoregulatory cytokine, is known to control many microbial infections. In a previous study, chicken interferon gamma (chIFN-γ) was found to be up-regulated following avian influ...

    Authors: Seong-Su Yuk, Dong-Hun Lee, Jae-Keun Park, Erdene-Ochir Tseren-Ochir, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Joong-Bok Lee, Seung-Yong Park, In-Soo Choi and Chang-Seon Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:71

    Content type: Research

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  26. Cross-reactive immunity against heterologous strains of influenza virus has the potential to provide partial protection in individuals that lack the proper neutralizing antibodies. In particular, the boosting ...

    Authors: Giuseppina Di Mario, Bruno Garulli, Ester Sciaraffia, Marzia Facchini, Isabella Donatelli and Maria R. Castrucci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:56

    Content type: Research

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  27. Eurasian-origin and intercontinental reassortant highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A viruses (IAVs) were first detected in North America in wild, captive, and domestic birds during November–December 2014. Detec...

    Authors: Andrew M. Ramey, John M. Pearce, Andrew B. Reeves, Rebecca L. Poulson, Jennifer Dobson, Brian Lefferts, Kyle Spragens and David E. Stallknecht

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:55

    Content type: Short report

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  28. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequen...

    Authors: Abdelsatar Arafa, Ihab El-Masry, Shereen Kholosy, Mohammed K. Hassan, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Juan Lubroth and Yilma J. Makonnen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:49

    Content type: Research

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  29. An extensive outbreak of equine influenza occurred across multiple countries in South America during 2012. The epidemic was first reported in Chile then spread to Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, where both vacc...

    Authors: Edsel Alves Beuttemmüller, Alana Woodward, Adam Rash, Luis Eduardo dos Santos Ferraz, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri and Debra Elton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:45

    Content type: Research

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  30. Avian influenza virus H7N9 has jumped species barrier, causing sporadic human infections since 2013. We have previously isolated an H7N9 virus from a patient, and an H7N9 virus from a chicken in a live poultry...

    Authors: Kelvin K. W. To, Candy C. Y. Lau, Patrick C. Y. Woo, Susanna K. P. Lau, Jasper F. W. Chan, Kwok-Hung Chan, Anna J. X. Zhang, Honglin Chen and Kwok-Yung Yuen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:42

    Content type: Research

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  31. Previously, we performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping study in BXD recombinant inbred mice to identify host genetic factors that confer resistance to influenza A virus infection. We found Lst1 (leukoc...

    Authors: Sarah R. Leist, Heike Kollmus, Bastian Hatesuer, Ruth L. O. Lambertz and Klaus Schughart

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:17

    Content type: Short report

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  32. Since the 1990s, influenza A viruses of the H9N2 subtype have been causing infections in the poultry population around the globe. This influenza subtype is widely circulating in poultry and human cases of AI H...

    Authors: A. Heidari, M. Mancin, H. Nili, G. H. Pourghanbari, K. B. Lankarani, S. Leardini, G. Cattoli, I. Monne and A. Piccirillo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2016 13:16

    Content type: Research

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  33. This review provides for the first time an assessment of the current understanding about the occurrence and the clinical significance of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in influenza patients, and their correlat...

    Authors: Laetitia Minodier, Remi N. Charrel, Pierre-Emmanuel Ceccaldi, Sylvie van der Werf, Thierry Blanchon, Thomas Hanslik and Alessandra Falchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:215

    Content type: Review

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  34. Influenza virus infections are responsible for significant morbidity worldwide and therefore it remains a high priority to develop more broadly protective vaccines. Adjuvation of current seasonal influenza vac...

    Authors: Freek Cox, Eirikur Saeland, Matthijs Baart, Martin Koldijk, Jeroen Tolboom, Liesbeth Dekking, Wouter Koudstaal, Karin Lövgren Bengtsson, Jaap Goudsmit and Katarina Radošević

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:210

    Content type: Research

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  35. The prevalence of avian H9N2 viruses throughout Asia, along with their demonstrated ability to infect mammals, puts them high on the list of influenza viruses with pandemic potential for humans. In this study,...

    Authors: Chuanmei Zhang, Yang Xuan, Hu Shan, Haiyan Yang, Jianlin Wang, Ke Wang, Guimei Li and Jian Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:180

    Content type: Research

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  36. Detection of specific respiratory viruses is important for surveillance programs, where nasopharyngeal or nasal swabs have traditionally been used. Our objective was to determine whether sampling with a throat...

    Authors: Mohsin Ali, Sangsu Han, Chris J. Gunst, Steve Lim, Kathy Luinstra and Marek Smieja

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:178

    Content type: Short report

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  37. The global outbreak of a novel swine-origin strain of the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus and the sudden, worldwide increase in oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza A viruses highlight the urgent need for novel an...

    Authors: Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Ki Choi, Chul-Joong Kim, Moon-Hee Sung and Haryoung Poo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:160

    Content type: Research

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  38. The H10 subtype avian influenza viruses (H10N4, H10N5 and H10N7) have been reported to cause disease in mammals, and the first human case of H10N8 subtype avian influenza virus was reported in 2013. Recently, ...

    Authors: Sisi Luo, Zhixun Xie, Liji Xie, Jiabo Liu, Zhiqin Xie, Xianwen Deng, Li Huang, Jiaoling Huang, Tingting Zeng and Mazhar I. Khan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:145

    Content type: Research

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  39. Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the...

    Authors: Qiaoyang Teng, Weixia Shen, Qinfang Liu, Guangyu Rong, Lin Chen, Xuesong Li, Hongjun Chen, Jianmei Yang and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:143

    Content type: Short report

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  40. Since avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus (CIV) was first identified in South Korea in 2008, the novel influenza virus has been reported in several countries in Asia. Reverse zoonotic transmission of pand...

    Authors: Woonsung Na, Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Eun-jung Song, Minki Hong, Minjoo Yeom, Hyoungjoon Moon, Bo-Kyu Kang, Doo-Jin Kim, Jeong-Ki Kim and Daesub Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2015 12:134

    Content type: short report

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  41. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are important pathogens that affect the health of humans and many additional animal species. IAVs are enveloped, negative single-stranded RNA viruses whose genome encodes at least te...

    Authors: Alex Generous, Molly Thorson, Jeff Barcus, Joseph Jacher, Marc Busch and Heidi Sleister

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:228

    Content type: Research

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  42. With the clinical development of several antiviral intervention strategies for influenza, it becomes crucial to explore viral load shedding in the nasal cavity as a biomarker for treatment success, but also to...

    Authors: Liesbeth Van Wesenbeeck, Hanne Meeuws, David D’Haese, Gabriela Ispas, Lieselot Houspie, Marc Van Ranst and Lieven J Stuyver

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:233

    Content type: Short report

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  43. The avian influenza virus (AIV) causes frequent disease with high morbidity and mortality. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to provide an effective antiviral defense in animals, and several studies have ...

    Authors: Shuang Wang, Peng Zhang, Fei He, Ji-Gui Wang, Jia-Zeng Sun, Zhi-Li Li, Bao Yi, Ji Xi, Ya-Ping Mao, Qiang Hou, Dao-Li Yuan, Zi-Ding Zhang and Wei-Quan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:208

    Content type: Research

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  44. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in poultry and can infect and cause mortality in birds and mammals; the genetic determinants of their increased virulence are largely...

    Authors: Kairat Tabynov, Abylay Sansyzbay, Nurlan Sandybayev and Muratbay Mambetaliyev

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:207

    Content type: Research

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  45. Data about molecular diversity of commonly circulating type A influenza viruses in Ontario swine are scarce. Yet, this information is essential for surveillance of animal and public health, vaccine updates, an...

    Authors: Helena Grgić, Marcio Costa, Robert M Friendship, Susy Carman, Éva Nagy, Greg Wideman, Scott Weese and Zvonimir Poljak

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:194

    Content type: Research

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  46. On 19 February 2013, the first patient infected with a novel influenza A H7N9 virus from an avian source showed symptoms of sickness. More than 349 laboratory-confirmed cases and 109 deaths have been reported ...

    Authors: Linlin Bao, Lili Xu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Ting Chen, Qi Lv, Fengdi Li, Jing Yuan, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yanhong Li, Jiangning Liu, Yanfeng Yao, Pin Yu, Honglin Chen and Chuan Qin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:185

    Content type: Research

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  47. The predominant subtypes of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Korea swine population are H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2. The viruses are genetically close to the classical U.S. H1N1 and triple-reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 v...

    Authors: Kwang-Soo Lyoo, Jeong-Ki Kim, Kwonil Jung, Bo-Kyu Kang and Daesub Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:170

    Content type: Short report

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  48. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swin...

    Authors: Lasse E Pedersen, Solvej Ø Breum, Ulla Riber, Lars E Larsen and Gregers Jungersen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:163

    Content type: Short report

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  49. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) has caused disease outbreaks in horses across the world since its first isolation in 1963. However, unlike human, swine and avian influenza, there is relatively little sequenc...

    Authors: Adam Rash, Alana Woodward, Neil Bryant, John McCauley and Debra Elton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2014 11:159

    Content type: Methodology

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