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  1. Aim of this study was to investigate the molecular diversity of human astroviruses (HAstV) in Germany. A follow-up study was performed with human stool samples collected in 2018–2019, which were genotyped retr...

    Authors: Sandra Niendorf, Andreas Mas Marques, Claus-Thomas Bock and Sonja Jacobsen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:221
  2. Emergence of new variants mainly variants of concerns (VOC) is caused by mutations in main structural proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, we aimed to investigat...

    Authors: Mohammad Abavisani, Karim Rahimian, Bahar Mahdavi, Samaneh Tokhanbigli, Mahsa Mollapour Siasakht, Amin Farhadi, Mansoor Kodori, Mohammadamin Mahmanzar and Zahra Meshkat
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:220
  3. Viral pathogens causing significant economic losses in lilies (Lilium spp. and hybrids) include Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Lily mottle virus (LMoV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), and Plantago asiatica mosaic vi...

    Authors: Leifeng Xu and Jun Ming
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:219
  4. Clinical data on patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant are limited, especially on clinical status after the application of antibody therapy.

    Authors: Xuejiao Liao, Dapeng Li, Jie Liu, Zhi Liu, Zhenghua Ma, Jingke Dong, Xiangyi Yang, Dan Shu, Jing Yuan, Lei Liu and Zheng Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:218
  5. We report a case of hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in a renal transplant recipient. Reactivation manifested as an occult infection with detectable HBV-DNA and negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (...

    Authors: Lili Jiang, Huiqi Wang, Yaping Huang, Hanying Liang, Xiaodong Wang and Jun Fan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:216
  6. Since the onset of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the prevalence of respiratory infectious diseases, particularly, the flu epidemic, has considerably decreased. The low detection rate and de...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Jee Eun Rhee, Nam-Joo Lee, Sang Hee Woo, Ae Kyung Park, Jaehee Lee, Cheon Kwon Yoo and Eun-Jin Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:215
  7. A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic of coronavirus disease 19. Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, use RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...

    Authors: Mitsuhiro Machitani, Junko Takei, Mika K. Kaneko, Saori Ueki, Hirofumi Ohashi, Koichi Watashi, Yukinari Kato and Kenkichi Masutomi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:213
  8. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants, has posed unprecedented challenges worldwide. Existing vaccines have limited effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Therefore, novel ...

    Authors: Guochao Liao, Hungyan Lau, Zhongqiu Liu, Chinyu Li, Zeping Xu, Xiaoxiao Qi, Yu Zhang, Qian Feng, Runze Li, Xinyu Deng, Yebo Li, Qing Zhu, Sisi Zhu, Hua Zhou, Hudan Pan, Xingxing Fan…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:212
  9. In recent years, the traditional cognition of immunological memory being specific to adaptive immunity has been challenged. Innate immunity can mount enhanced responsiveness upon secondary stimulation, and a p...

    Authors: Shiwei Hu, Danhong Xiang, Xinlu Zhang, Lan Zhang, Shengjie Wang, Keyi Jin, Liangshun You and Jian Huang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:210
  10. Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is potentiated through the interplay of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. To better understand EBV’s biology and role in eBL, we characterized ...

    Authors: Eddy O. Agwati, Cliff I. Oduor, Cyrus Ayieko, John Michael Ong’echa, Ann M. Moormann and Jeffrey A. Bailey
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:208
  11. In December 2019, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Comprehensive strategies for quick identification, prevention, control, and remedy of COVID-19 have been implemented until to...

    Authors: Omid Gholizadeh, Saman Yasamineh, Parya Amini, Hamed Afkhami, Abbasali Delarampour, Sama Akbarzadeh, Rasool Karimi Matloub, Mahlagha Zahedi, Parastoo Hosseini, Mehrnaz Hajiesmaeili and Vahdat Poortahmasebi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:206
  12. Swine influenza viruses (SIV), considered the “mixing vessels” of influenza viruses, posed a significant threat to global health systems and are dangerous pathogens. Eurasian avian-like H1N1(EA-H1N1) viruses h...

    Authors: Hechao Zhu, Xiangmin Li, Huanchun Chen and Ping Qian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:205
  13. Senecavirus A (SVA) is a pathogen that has recently caused porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). The clinical signs are similar to those of foot-and-mouth disease, porcine vesicular disease, and vesicul...

    Authors: Zhongyuan Ma, Jianliang Lv, Zhongwang Zhang and Li Pan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:204
  14. Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is a leading cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). It is necessary to identify neutralizing epitopes to investigate and develop an epitope-based vaccine against CV-A10. The...

    Authors: Hanyu Zhu, Xin Liu, Yue Wu, Yunyi He, Huanying Zheng, Hongbo Liu and Qiliang Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:203
  15. The objective of our investigation was to better understand barriers to implementation of self-administered antigen screening testing for SARS-CoV-2 at institutions of higher education (IHE).

    Authors: Sarah C. Tinker, Jessica L. Prince-Guerra, Kelly Vermandere, Jenna Gettings, Cherie Drenzik, Gary Voccio, Tonia Parrott, Jan Drobeniuc, Tonya Hayden, Stephen Briggs, Debbie Heida, Natalie Thornburg, Lisa C. Barrios, John C. Neatherlin, Sabrina Madni, Catherine N. Rasberry…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:202
  16. Classical swine fever (CSF), African swine fever (ASF), and atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) are acute, virulent, and contagious viral diseases currently hampering the pig industry in China, which result in ...

    Authors: Ying-ju Xia, Lu Xu, Jun-jie Zhao, Yuan-xi Li, Rui-zhi Wu, Xiang-peng Song, Qi-zu Zhao, Ye-bing Liu, Qin Wang and Qian-yi Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:201
  17. Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) is a common virus that infects children early and is accompanied by lifelong latency in cells, which is easy to reactivate in immunodeficient adults, but the underlying pathological...

    Authors: Yi Li, Tianhao Qu, Dandan Li, Juanjuan Jing, Qiuming Deng and Xianyao Wan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:200
  18. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to major public health crises worldwide. Several studies have reported the comprehensive mRNA expression ana...

    Authors: Hiroshi Ito, Masakazu Ishikawa, Hisatake Matsumoto, Fuminori Sugihara, Daisuke Okuzaki, Haruhiko Hirata and Hiroshi Ogura
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:198
  19. Currently, the majority of the global population has been vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and characterization studies of antibodies in vivo from Omicron breakthrough infection and naive infection popula...

    Authors: Huan Zhang, Yushan Jiang, Hanqing Tan, Lirong Zou, Zhonghua Zheng, Yushi Huang, Shujian Lin, Lebin Su, Jianxiang Yu, Xiaoling Deng, Jianfeng He, Chang Liu, Chenguang Shen and Baisheng Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:197
  20. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a wide-spread human herpesvirus that is highly associated with infectious mononucleosis and several malignancies. Evaluation of EBV neutralizing antibody titers is important for ser...

    Authors: Ling Zhong, Claude Krummenacher, Wanlin Zhang, Junping Hong, Qisheng Feng, Qinjian Zhao, Yixin Chen, Mu-Sheng Zeng, Yi-Xin Zeng, Miao Xu and Xiao Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:196
  21. Foamy viruses (FVs) are retroviruses with unique replication strategies that cause lifelong latent infections in their hosts. FVs can also produce foam-like cytopathic effects in vitro. However, the effect of ...

    Authors: Zhaohuan Wang, Xiaopeng Tuo, Junshi Zhang, Keli Chai, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:195
  22. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is one of the prevalent oncogenic HPV genotypes in East Asia. Chinese women have the highest susceptibility to the HPV52 type, but research data on HPV52 genetic variability and i...

    Authors: Zhi Yang, Zhe-Hang He, Yang Zhang, Xing-Hong Di, Die-Fei Zheng and Hui-Hui Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:194
  23. A global pandemic is underway caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 genome, like its predecessor SARS-CoV, contains open reading frames that encode accessor...

    Authors: Wahyu Surya, Maria Queralt-Martin, Yuguang Mu, Vicente M. Aguilella and Jaume Torres
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:193
  24. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disorder caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which had rapidly spread all over the world and caused public health emerge...

    Authors: Wei Dai, Aifang Zhong, Qinghua Qiao, Jian Wu, Weiwei Li, Qiuyue Wu, Hongjian Zhou, Shijie Qin, Weijun Jiang, Jing Zhang and Xinyi Xia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:192
  25. The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to the development of multiple detection kits by national manufacturers for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral nucleic acid...

    Authors: Yiting Wang, Xuewen Li, Yifei Wang, Zheyu Tu, Jiancheng Xu, Junqi Pan and Qi Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:191
  26. Aedes albopictus is a public health threat for its worldwide spread and ability to transmit arboviruses. Understanding mechanisms of mosquito immunity can provide new tools to control arbovirus spread. The genome...

    Authors: Umberto Palatini, Niccolò Alfano, Rebeca Carballar-Lejarazu, Xiao-Guang Chen, Helene Delatte and Mariangela Bonizzoni
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:190

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:211

  27. The term, "aerosol-generating procedures” (AGPs), was proposed during the prior SARS-CoV-1 epidemic in order to maximise healthcare worker and patient protection. The concept of AGPs has since expanded to incl...

    Authors: Andrew Silvers, David J. Brewster, Alister Ford, Ana Licina, Cassandra Andrews and Mark Adams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:189
  28. We investigated the performance of the cobas® 6800 system and cobas SARS-CoV-2 & Influenza A/B, a fully automated molecular testing system for influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviru...

    Authors: Kosuke Kosai, Norihito Kaku, Michiko Horie, Hina Kodama, Norihiko Akamatsu, Yusuke Narita, Yasushi Matsumoto, Tetsuro Matsushita, Yohei Mizuta, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae and Katsunori Yanagihara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:188
  29. Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) is a newly emerging virus and has been found associated with porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome in pigs. Compared with PCV2, research into PCV3 cap gene sequencing is defic...

    Authors: Xugang Ku, Chengjun Zhang, Panpan Li, Xuexiang Yu, Qi Sun, Fengqin Xu, Ping Qian and Qigai He
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:187
  30. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is currently a worldwide pandemic. There are limited available treatments for severe ...

    Authors: Gang Wang, Zebao He, Fengtian Wu, Zhengming Ge, Jiansheng Zhu and Zhi Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:186
  31. Equine influenza is an important cause of respiratory disease in equids. The causative virus; EIV, is highly variable and can evolve by accumulation of mutations, particularly in the haemagglutinin (HA) gene. ...

    Authors: Basem Mohamed Ahmed, Mahmoud Mohamed Bayoumi, Mohamed Ali Farrag, Mahmoud Aly Elgamal, Janet Mary Daly and Haitham Mohamed Amer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:185
  32. Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease that is mainly caused by the rabies virus (RABV). Although effective vaccines have long existed, current vaccines take both time and cost to produce. Messenger RNA (mRNA) te...

    Authors: Jianglong Li, Qi Liu, Jun Liu, Xiaohong Wu, Yixin Lei, Shuang Li, Danhua Zhao, Zhi Li, Liping Luo, Sophia Peng, Yingrao Ou, Hong Yang, Jing Jin, Yuhua Li and Yucai Peng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:184
  33. CMV gastroenteritis is common in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and it is difficult to distinguish from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD), which has very similar sy...

    Authors: Jia Gu, Hongyan Ji, Tongyuan Liu, Caixia Chen, Siye Zhao, Yang Cao, Na Wang, Min Xiao, Liting Chen and Haodong Cai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:183
  34. Chrysanthemum virus B (CVB), a key member of the genus Carlavirus, family Betaflexiviridae, causes severe viral diseases in chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants worldwide. However, information on the m...

    Authors: Xueting Zhong, Lianlian Yang, Jiapeng Li, Zhaoyang Tang, Choufei Wu, Liqin Zhang, Xueping Zhou, Yaqin Wang and Zhanqi Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:182
  35. Among hospitalized children suffering from community-acquired pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is one of the most common pathogens. MP often exists as a co-infection with bacteria or viruses, which can exace...

    Authors: Qiong Guo, Lili Li, Chao Wang, Yiman Huang, Fenlian Ma, Shanshan Cong, Jingjing Tan, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen and Lishu Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:181
  36. The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) have been linked to new waves of COVID-19 epidemics occurring in different regions of the world. The VOC have acquired adaptive mutations ...

    Authors: Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi, Silvanos Opanda, Samwel Lifumo Symekher, Samson Konongoi Limbaso, Solomon Langat, Josyline Kaburi Cirindi, Milkah Mwangi, Nicholas Mwikwabe, Seth Okeyo, Edith Koskei, James Mutisya, Samwel Owaka, Albert Nyunja, Hellen Koka, Meshack Wadegu, Esther Chitechi…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:178
  37. Human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test was applied in cervical cancer screening as an effective cancer prevention strategy. The viral load of HPV generated by different assays attracted increasing attention on i...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Guibin Li, Zhengyu Zeng, Baowen Zheng, Yuyue Xia, Chen Li, Minyu Li, Hairong Wang, Yuelong Song and Shihui Yu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:177
  38. Avian influenza A H7N9 emerged in 2013, threatening public health and causing acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death, in the human population. However, the underlying mechanism by which H7N9 virus...

    Authors: Wei Su, Xian-Tian Lin, Shuai Zhao, Xiao-Qin Zheng, Yu-Qing Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Hui Chen, Zheng-Yu Zhang, Li-Jun Zhang and Xiao-Xin Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:176
  39. Theiler’s disease, a.k.a. equine serum hepatitis, is a devastating, highly fatal disease of horses. Equine parvovirus-hepatitis (EqPV-H) has been identified as the likely cause of this disease. While the incid...

    Authors: Mason C. Jager, Joy E. Tomlinson, Caitlin E. Henry, Megan J. Fahey and Gerlinde R. Van de Walle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:175
  40. Since its discovery in the 1990s, the DNA vaccine has been of great interest because of its ability to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses while showing relative advantages regarding producibilit...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Xian Tang, Yun He, Bin Ju and Hui Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:174
  41. Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a heterogeneous entity with an increasing number of late diagnoses. Besides infections, inflammatory manifestations are a growing part of the clinical landscape of IEI. Thes...

    Authors: Grégoire Martin de Frémont, Maud Salmona, François Maillet, Margaux Garzaro, Rémi Bertinchamp, Arthur Simonnet, Linda Feghoul, Guitta Maki, Marie Roelens, Emilie Chotard, Capucine Picard, Eric Oksenhendler, Jérôme LeGoff and David Boutboul
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:172