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  1. Induction of broad immune responses at mucosal site remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosal pathogens. Abundance of evidence indicates that the co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants, including cyto...

    Authors: Xianliang Sun, Han Zhang, Shuiling Xu, Lili Shi, Jingjian Dong, Dandan Gao, Yan Chen and Hao Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:163

    Content type: Research

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  2. Influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein has been linked to viral virulence. Strains of the H3N2 subtype historically express full-length PB1-F2 proteins but during the 2010–2011 influenza seasons, nearly half o...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Yi-Mo Deng, Brad Gilbertson, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Ian Barr and Lorena Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:162

    Content type: Short Report

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  3. The existing literature about HCV association with, and replication in mosquitoes is extremely poor. To fill this gap, we performed cellular investigations aimed at exploring (i) the capacity of HCV E1E2 glyco...

    Authors: Catherine Fallecker, Alban Caporossi, Yassine Rechoum, Frederic Garzoni, Sylvie Larrat, Olivier François, Pascal Fender, Patrice Morand, Imre Berger, Marie-Anne Petit and Emmanuel Drouet

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:161

    Content type: Research

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  4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and frequently progresses towards liver cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV gen...

    Authors: Nausheen Nazir, Muhammad Rasul Jan, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Idrees, Mohammad Nisar, Muhammad Zahoor and Naser M. Abd El-Salam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:160

    Content type: Research

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  5. Currently, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most economically important viral pathogens in swine in most countries, especially China. Two PRRSV attenuated live vaccine ...

    Authors: Chaoliang Leng, Wuchao Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, Yunchao Kan, Lunguang Yao, Hongyue Zhai, Mingliang Li, Zhen Li, Chunxiao Liu, Tongqing An, Jinmei Peng, Qian Wang, Yumin Leng, Xuehui Cai, Zhijun Tian and Guangzhi Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:159

    Content type: Research

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  6. Adenoviruses are common pathogens infecting animals and humans. They are classified based on serology, or genome sequence information. These methods have limitations due to lengthy procedures or lack of infect...

    Authors: Martin Pacesa, Rodinde Hendrickx, Manuela Bieri, Justin W. Flatt, Urs F. Greber and Silvio Hemmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:158

    Content type: Research

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  7. Host proteases have been shown to play important roles in many viral activities such as entry, uncoating, viral protein production and disease induction. Therefore, these cellular proteases are putative target...

    Authors: Winke Van der Gucht, Annelies Leemans, Marjorie De Schryver, Annick Heykers, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Paul Cos and Peter L. Delputte

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:157

    Content type: Research

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  8. Astroviruses (AstVs) have been reported to infect and cause gastroenteritis in most animal species. Human AstVs were regarded the causative agent of viral diarrhea in children. In dogs, little is known about t...

    Authors: Huabo Zhou, Lin Liu, Ruikai Li, Yifeng Qin, Qingli Fang, Vinod RMT Balasubramaniam, Guojun Wang, Zuzhang Wei, Kang Ouyang, Weijian Huang and Ying Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:156

    Content type: Short Report

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  9. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of tradi...

    Authors: Lu Yu, Jing Shi, Lianlian Cao, Guoping Zhang, Wenli Wang, Deyu Hu and Baoan Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:155

    Content type: Research

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  10. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arthropod-borne bunyavirus that can cause serious and fatal disease in humans and animals. RVFV is a negative-sense RNA virus of the Phlebovirus genus in the Bunyaviridae fami...

    Authors: Abdelrahman Said, Mona Elmanzalawy, Guanggang Ma, Armando Mario Damiani and Nikolaus Osterrieder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:154

    Content type: Short Report

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  11. Tomato zonate spot virus (TZSV), a dominant species of thrips-transmitted orthotospoviruses in Yunnan and Guangxi provinces in China, causes significant loss of yield in lots of crops ...

    Authors: Changjun Huang, Yupeng Cun, Haiqin Yu, Zhijun Tong, Bingguang Xiao, Zhongbang Song, Bingwu Wang, Yongping Li and Yong Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:153

    Content type: Research

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  12. The function of p53 in cancer biology has been studied extensively, but its role in anti-retrovirus infection has been elusive for many years. The restriction of retrovirus early stage replication by p53 was i...

    Authors: Michaela Kinnetz, Faris Alghamdi, Michael Racz, Wenwei Hu and Binshan Shi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:151

    Content type: Research

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  13. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) not only aggravates disease symptoms but also enhances their vector acquisition efficiencies by increasing...

    Authors: Shu Li, Tong Zhang, Yingzhi Zhu and Guohui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:150

    Content type: Research

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  14. Conditionally replicative oncolytic adenoviruses (CRAds) display significant anti-tumor effects. However, the traditional adenovirus of serotype 5 (Ad5) entering cancer cells via coxsackie virus and adenovirus...

    Authors: Wenjuan Cao, Junqiang Tian, Chong Li, Yanjun Gao, Xingchen Liu, Jianzhong Lu, Yuhan Wang, Zhiping Wang, Robert S. Svatek and Ronald Rodriguez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:149

    Content type: Research

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  15. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains an important public health issue. A20, a ubiquitin-editing protein encoded by tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene, is complicated in HB...

    Authors: Na Li, Ying Shi, Pingping Zhang, Jiao Sang, Fang Li, Huan Deng, Yi Lv, Qunying Han and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:148

    Content type: Research

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  16. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHF is typicall...

    Authors: Hajer M. Suliman, Ibrahim A. Adam, Shamseldin I. Saeed, Sanaa A. Abdelaziz, Eltahir M. Haroun and Imadeldin E. Aradaib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:147

    Content type: Research

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  17. In Africa and Asia, sugarcane is the host of at least seven different virus species in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae. However, with the exception of Sugarcane white streak virus in Barbados, n...

    Authors: Wardatou Boukari, Ricardo I. Alcalá-Briseño, Simona Kraberger, Emmanuel Fernandez, Denis Filloux, Jean-Heinrich Daugrois, Jack C. Comstock, Jean-Michel Lett, Darren P. Martin, Arvind Varsani, Philippe Roumagnac, Jane E. Polston and Philippe C. Rott

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:146

    Content type: Research

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  18. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary causative agents for cervical cancer, and HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 are known to be the main reason for the onset and maintenance of the malignancies. Therefore, ...

    Authors: Fang Han, Yanping Li, Qiaoni Lu, Linlin Ma, Huiqiang Wang, Jiandong Jiang, Zhuorong Li and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:145

    Content type: Research

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  19. Echovirus 30 (E30) causes acute aseptic meningitis. Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. The effect of viral infection within a h...

    Authors: Sarika Tiwari and Tapan N. Dhole

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:144

    Content type: Research

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:182

  20. Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia.

    Authors: Shimos A. Alshareef, Ahmed M. Eltom, Abubakr M. Nasr, Hamdan Z. Hamdan and Ishag Adam

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:142

    Content type: Research

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  21. Echovirus 6 (E6) infections are associated with aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). But some infections, sometimes most of them, are asymptomatic. The mechanism of E6 virulence is unknown. An...

    Authors: Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Keqin Lin, Kai Huang, Jiayou Chu, Zhaoqing Yang and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:140

    Content type: Research

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  22. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has leaded to an enormous loss per year to the swine industry, its etiology porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly mutated ...

    Authors: Linyang Yu, Pandeng Zhao, Jianguo Dong, Yanling Liu, Leyi Zhang, Pengshuai Liang, Lei Wang and Changxu Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:139

    Content type: Research

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  23. Defective interfering (DI) viruses are natural antivirals made by nearly all viruses. They have a highly deleted genome (thus being non-infectious) and interfere with the replication of genetically related inf...

    Authors: Bo Meng, Kirsten Bentley, Anthony C. Marriott, Paul D. Scott, Nigel J. Dimmock and Andrew J. Easton

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:138

    Content type: Research

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  24. Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) of the subtypes H5 and H7 are known to give rise to highly pathogenic (HP) phenotypes by spontaneous insertional mutations which convert a monobasic trypsin-sensi...

    Authors: Annika Graaf, Martin Beer and Timm Harder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:137

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Recently, avian influenza virus has caused repeated worldwide outbreaks in humans. Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) play an important role in the circulation and reassortment of novel Avian Influenza Virus (AIVs). ...

    Authors: Xiaoxu Zeng, Mingbin Liu, Heng Zhang, Jingwen Wu, Xiang Zhao, Wenbing Chen, Lei Yang, Fenglan He, Guoyin Fan, Dayan Wang, Haiying Chen and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:136

    Content type: Research

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  26. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted via mosquito bite and potentially by aerosol, causing chikungunya fever and arthritic disease in humans. There are currently no licensed vaccines or antiviral therapeut...

    Authors: Chris M. Cirimotich, Eric M. Vela, Jennifer Garver, Roy E. Barnewall, Brian D. Miller, Gabriel T. Meister and James V. Rogers

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:135

    Content type: Research

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  27. Hantaan and Seoul viruses, in the Hantavirus genus, are known to cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), as conventional neutralization test for han...

    Authors: Weihong Li, Shouchun Cao, Quanfu Zhang, Jiandong Li, Shuo Zhang, Wei Wu, Jing Qu, Chuan Li, Mifang Liang and Dexin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:133

    Content type: Research

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  28. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs frequently and is widespread globally. Numerous studies have shown that various types of immune cells play roles in mediating the response to CMV infection. CD11c, a comm...

    Authors: Yi Liao, Xinglou Liu, Yuan Huang, Heyu Huang, Yuanyuan Lu, Yanan Zhang, Sainan Shu and Feng Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:132

    Content type: Research

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  29. Goatpox virus (GTPV) and sheeppox virus (SPPV), which belong to the Capripoxvirus (CaPV), are economically important pathogens of small ruminants. Therefore, a sensitive, specific and rapid diagnostic assay for d...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Xiaodong Qin, Xiangle Zhang, Zhixun Zhao, Wei Zhang, Xueliang Zhu, Guozheng Cong, Yanmin Li and Zhidong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:131

    Content type: Methodology

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  30. Detection of specific immune responses against cancer/testis antigen NY-ESO-1 was recently reported in patients with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infecte...

    Authors: Yasuo Shiohama, Tadasuke Naito, Toshio Matsuzaki, Reiko Tanaka, Takeaki Tomoyose, Hiroshi Takashima, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:130

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Potato virus Y (PVY) is one of the most economically important pathogen of potato that is present as biologically distinct strains. The virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) f...

    Authors: Lindani Moyo, Shunmugiah V. Ramesh, Madhu Kappagantu, Neena Mitter, Vidyasagar Sathuvalli and Hanu R. Pappu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:129

    Content type: Research

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  32. Yearly influenza virus mutations potentially affect the performance of molecular assays, if nucleic acid changes involve the sequences in the assay. Because individual patient viral loads depend on variables s...

    Authors: Kenneth H. Rand, Maura Pieretti, Rodney Arcenas, Stacy G. Beal, Herbert Houck, Emma Boslet and John A. Lednicky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:128

    Content type: Research

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  33. Because of shared modes of transmission, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are often co-infected with other types of hepatitis viruses and/or HIV. We studied HCV viral load and its genotype patte...

    Authors: Marzieh Jamalidoust, Mandana Namayandeh, Mohsen Moghadami and Mazyar Ziyaeyan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:127

    Content type: Research

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  34. Borna disease virus (BoDV), which has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, causes persistent infection in the cell nucleus. The nuclear export signal (NES) of the viral nucleoprotein (N) consisting of...

    Authors: Mako Yanai, Madoka Sakai, Akiko Makino and Keizo Tomonaga

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:126

    Content type: Short Paper

    Published on:

  35. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes reproductive failures in sows and respiratory diseases in growing pigs, resulting in huge economic loss for the pig production worldwide. The ...

    Authors: Xuexia Wen, Ting Bian, Zhibang Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Jun Han, Xin Guo, Hanchun Yang and Kangzhen Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:125

    Content type: Research

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  36. Canine distemper (CD) is a widespread infectious disease that can severely impact a variety of species in the order Carnivora, as well as non-carnivore species such as non-human primates. Despite large-scale v...

    Authors: Otávio Valério de Carvalho, Daniele Mendes Félix, Claudia de Camargo Tozato, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Márcia Rogéria de Almeida, Gustavo Costa Bressan, Lindomar José Pena and Abelardo Silva-Júnior

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:124

    Content type: Research

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  37. Various studies have shown that infants under the age of 6 months are especially vulnerable for complications due to influenza. Currently there are no vaccines licensed for use in this age group. Vaccination o...

    Authors: Joan E. M. van der Lubbe, Jessica Vreugdenhil, Sarra Damman, Joost Vaneman, Jaco Klap, Jaap Goudsmit, Katarina Radošević and Ramon Roozendaal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:123

    Content type: Research

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  38. Rabies is an important viral zoonosis that causes acute encephalitis and death in mammals. To date, several recombinant vaccines have been developed based on G protein, which is considered to be the main antig...

    Authors: Ha-Hyun Kim, Dong-Kun Yang, Jin-Ju Nah, Jae-Young Song and In-Soo Cho

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:122

    Content type: Research

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  39. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with hematopoietic malignancies, such as Burkitt’s lymphoma, post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The current approach fo...

    Authors: Qinyan Yin, Mark Sides, Christopher H. Parsons, Erik K. Flemington and Joseph A. Lasky

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:121

    Content type: Research

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  40. Influenza virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) is not applicable for rapid diagnosis, however it allows the recovery and propagation of the viable virus. A low number of infectious virus particle...

    Authors: Ilona Marcelina Gora, Malgorzata Kwasnik, Jan Franciszek Zmudzinski and Wojciech Rozek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:120

    Content type: Short Report

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  41. Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) is an infectious disease of mink (Neovison vison) and globally a major cause of economic losses in mink farming. The disease is caused by Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) that belong...

    Authors: P. Ryt-Hansen, C.K. Hjulsager, E.E. Hagberg, M. Chriél, T. Struve, A.G. Pedersen and L.E. Larsen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:119

    Content type: Research

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  42. Cassava brown streak disease is emerging as the most important viral disease of cassava in Africa, and is consequently a threat to food security. Two distinct species of the genus Ipomovirus (family Potyviridae) ...

    Authors: Willard Mbewe, Fred Tairo, Peter Sseruwagi, Joseph Ndunguru, Siobain Duffy, Ssetumba Mukasa, Ibrahim Benesi, Samar Sheat, Marianne Koerbler and Stephan Winter

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:118

    Content type: Short Report

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  43. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), the causative agent of PRRS, has two distinct and highly diverse genotypes (genotype 1 and genotype 2) in the field. Accurate diagnosis and differen...

    Authors: Zhibang Zhang, Xuexia Wen, Jianguo Dong, Xinna Ge, Lei Zhou, Hanchun Yang and Xin Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) belong to the genus Betacoronavirus of the family Coronaviridae. BCoV are widespread around the world and cause enteric or respiratory infections among cattle, leading to important econo...

    Authors: Matías Castells, Matías Victoria, Rodney Colina, Héctor Musto and Juan Cristina

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:115

    Content type: Research

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  45. Viruses interact with host cellular factors to construct a more favourable environment for their efficient replication. Expression of cyclophilin B (CypB), a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase),...

    Authors: Kui Zhao, Jida Li, Wenqi He, Deguang Song, Ximu Zhang, Di Zhang, Yanlong Zhou and Feng Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:114

    Content type: Research

    Published on: