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  1. There are eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (A-H) and subgenotypes are recognized. Genotyping can be accomplished based on a partial sequence of HBV genome such as the pre-S or S gene. Several methods have ...

    Authors: Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Mohamed M Hafez, Nahed I Mohamed, Zeinab K Hassan, Manal H El-Sayed, Mohsen M Khaled and Tarek Mansour
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:74
  2. To elucidate the relationship between resistance to HRSV neutralizing antibodies directed against the F protein and the fusion activity of the F protein, a recombinant approach was used to generate a panel of ...

    Authors: Changbao Liu, Nicole D Day, Patrick J Branigan, Lester L Gutshall, Robert T Sarisky and Alfred M Del Vecchio
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:71
  3. The binding of viral-specific antibodies to cell-surface antigens usually results in down modulation of the antigen through redistribution of antigens into patches that subsequently may be internalized by endo...

    Authors: Rosa E Sarmiento, Rocio G Tirado, Laura E Valverde and Beatriz Gómez-Garcia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:68
  4. Two recombinant, live attenuated human parainfluenza virus type 1 (rHPIV1) mutant viruses have been developed, using a reverse genetics system, for evaluation as potential intranasal vaccine candidates. These ...

    Authors: Emmalene J Bartlett, Adam Castaño, Sonja R Surman, Peter L Collins, Mario H Skiadopoulos and Brian R Murphy
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:67
  5. HTLV-1 Gag protein is a matrix protein that contains the PTAP and PPPY sequences as L-domain motifs and which can be released from mammalian cells in the form of virus-like particles (VLPs). The cellular facto...

    Authors: Shuzo Urata, Hideyoshi Yokosawa and Jiro Yasuda
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:66
  6. PCR-based detection and identification of viruses assumes a known, relatively stable genome. Unfortunately, high mutation rates may lead to extensive changes in viral nucleic acid sequences making dedicated PC...

    Authors: Amy L Clem, Jonathan Sims, Sucheta Telang, John W Eaton and Jason Chesney
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:65
  7. Lysogenic mode of life cycle of a temperate bacteriophage is generally maintained by a protein called 'repressor'. Repressor proteins of temperate lambdoid phages bind to a few symmetric operator DNAs in order...

    Authors: Tridib Ganguly, Amitava Bandhu, Partho Chattoraj, Palas K Chanda, Malabika Das, Nitai C Mandal and Subrata Sau
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:64
  8. The epidemiological significance of Hepatitis B virus genotypes has been well established and becoming an essential concern day by day however, much little is known about the mixed infection with more than one...

    Authors: Muhammad Masroor Alam, Sohail Zahoor Zaidi, Shehzad Shaukat, Salmaan Sharif, Mehar Angez, Asif Naeem, Shamim Saleha, Javed Aslam Butt and Salman Akbar Malik
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:63
  9. The purposes of the study were to assess the usefulness of simultaneously amplifying herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6 DNA in var...

    Authors: Georgia Vrioni, Christos Kalogeropoulos, Constantina Gartzonika, Efthalia Priavali and Stamatina Levidiotou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:59
  10. Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has frequently been associated with the presence of HCV-specific cellular immunity. However, there had been also reports in chimpanzees demonstrating clearance ...

    Authors: Manuela F Meyer, Marc Lehmann, Markus Cornberg, Johannes Wiegand, Michael P Manns, Christoph Klade and Heiner Wedemeyer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:58
  11. HIV-1 Vpr is a viral accessory protein that activates ATR through the induction of DNA replication stress. ATR activation results in cell cycle arrest in G2 and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we in...

    Authors: Jason L DeHart, Erik S Zimmerman, Orly Ardon, Carlos MR Monteiro-Filho, Enrique R Argañaraz and Vicente Planelles
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:57
  12. During primary infection of its human host, Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons where the viral genome is maintained in a circular form associated with nucleosomes in a chromatin...

    Authors: Rajeswara C Pinnoji, Gautam R Bedadala, Beena George, Thomas C Holland, James M Hill and Shao-chung V Hsia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:56
  13. Cyclooxygenases (COXs) play a significant role in many different viral infections with respect to replication and pathogenesis. Here we investigated the role of COXs in the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) in...

    Authors: Matthijs Raaben, Alexandra WC Einerhand, Lucas JA Taminiau, Michel van Houdt, Janneke Bouma, Rolien H Raatgeep, Hans A Büller, Cornelis AM de Haan and John WA Rossen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:55
  14. Nipah virus (NiV), a recently discovered zoonotic virus infects and replicates in several human cell types. Its replication in human neuronal cells, however, is less efficient in comparison to other fully susc...

    Authors: Li-Yen Chang, AR Mohd Ali, Sharifah Syed Hassan and Sazaly AbuBakar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:54
  15. Signal-Mediated Amplification of RNA Technology (SMART) is an isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, developed for the detection of specific target sequences, either RNA (for expression) or DNA. Cya...

    Authors: Susan D Wharam, Matthew J Hall and William H Wilson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:52
  16. Proteins of human and animal viruses are frequently expressed from RNA polymerase II dependent expression cassettes to study protein function and to develop gene-based vaccines. Initial attempts to express the...

    Authors: Nicola Ternette, Daniela Stefanou, Seraphin Kuate, Klaus Überla and Thomas Grunwald
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:51
  17. Resonant microwave absorption has been proposed in the literature to excite the vibrational states of microorganisms in an attempt to destroy them. But it is extremely difficult to transfer microwave excitatio...

    Authors: KT Tsen, Shaw-Wei D Tsen, Chih-Long Chang, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu and Juliann G Kiang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:50
  18. The influenza A virus replicates in the nucleus of its host cell. Thus, entry of the influenza genome into the cell nucleus is necessary for establishing infection. The genome of the influenza A virus consists...

    Authors: Winco WH Wu, Ying-Hua B Sun and Nelly Panté
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:49
  19. Pneumonia virus of mice (PVM; family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily Pneumovirinae) is a natural respiratory pathogen of rodent species and an important new model for the study of severe viral bronchiolitis and pneumo...

    Authors: Kimberly D Dyer, Ingrid MM Schellens, Cynthia A Bonville, Brittany V Martin, Joseph B Domachowske and Helene F Rosenberg
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:48
  20. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known to be the most important etiologic factor of cervical cancer. There is no HPV specific therapy available for treatment of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the c...

    Authors: Ilkka Kari, Stina Syrjänen, Bo Johansson, Piritta Peri, Bin He, Bernard Roizman and Veijo Hukkanen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:47
  21. Since 2005 highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have spread from Asia to Africa and Europe infecting poultry, humans and wild birds. HP H5N1 virus was isolated in Denmark for the first time in...

    Authors: Karoline Bragstad, Poul H Jørgensen, Kurt Handberg, Anne S Hammer, Susanne Kabell and Anders Fomsgaard
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:43
  22. Human influenza viruses are known to bind to sialic acid linked α2-6 to galactose, but the binding specificity beyond that linkage has not been systematically examined. H3N2 human influenza isolates lost bindi...

    Authors: Kshama Kumari, Shelly Gulati, David F Smith, Upma Gulati, Richard D Cummings and Gillian M Air
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:42
  23. La Crosse virus (LACV), family Bunyaviridae, is a mosquito-borne virus recognized as a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in North America with 70–130 symptomatic cases each year. The virus was first identifie...

    Authors: Richard S Bennett, David R Ton, Christopher T Hanson, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:41
  24. The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genom...

    Authors: Amy L Kistler, Dale R Webster, Silvi Rouskin, Vince Magrini, Joel J Credle, David P Schnurr, Homer A Boushey, Elaine R Mardis, Hao Li and Joseph L DeRisi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:40
  25. Chloroquine is a 4-aminoquinoline previously used in malaria therapy and now becoming an emerging investigational antiviral drug due to its broad spectrum of antiviral activities. To explore whether the low pH...

    Authors: Livia Di Trani, Andrea Savarino, Laura Campitelli, Sandro Norelli, Simona Puzelli, Daniela D'Ostilio, Edoardo Vignolo, Isabella Donatelli and Antonio Cassone
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:39
  26. Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. gra...

    Authors: Jeanmarie Verchot Lubicz, Charles M Rush, Mark Payton and Terry Colberg
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:37
  27. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication has been reported to be involved in many extrahepatic viral disorders; however, the mechanism by which HBV is trans-infected into extrahepatic tissues such as HBV associated...

    Authors: Qifei Rong, Jun Huang, Enben Su, Jun Li, Jianyong Li, Lili Zhang and Kejiang Cao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:36
  28. The role of humoral immunity in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is poorly understood. Nevertheless, there is increasing interest in characterizing the neutralizing antibodies in the serum of HCV-infected pat...

    Authors: Carole Fournier, Gilles Duverlie, Catherine François, Aurelie Schnuriger, Sarah Dedeurwaerder, Etienne Brochot, Dominique Capron, Czeslaw Wychowski, Vincent Thibault and Sandrine Castelain
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:35
  29. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), an important pathogen of fish that causes disease accompanied by high mortality in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is the only species in the genus Isavirus, one of th...

    Authors: Frederick SB Kibenge, Hongtao Xu, Molly JT Kibenge, Biao Qian and Tomy Joseph
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:34
  30. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a causal role in cervical cancer with almost half a million new cases occurring each year. Presence of the carcinogenic HPV is necessary for the development of the invasive carci...

    Authors: Manuel Angulo and Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:33
  31. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused a large outbreak of pneumonia in Beijing, China, in 2003. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect and quantify SARS-CoV in 93...

    Authors: Zhongping He, Hui Zhuang, Chunhui Zhao, Qingming Dong, Guoai Peng and Dominic E Dwyer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:32
  32. The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb) bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly bioc...

    Authors: Philip Serwer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:30
  33. Human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) infects mucosal epithelium and is the most common type found in cervical cancer. HPV-5 infects cornified epithelium and is the most common type found on normal skin and be...

    Authors: Nitesh Mistry, Monika Simonsson and Magnus Evander
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:27