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  1. Borna disease virus (BDV) is the type member of the Bornaviridae, a family of viruses that induce often fatal neurological diseases in horses, sheep and other animals, and have been proposed to have roles in c...

    Authors: Courtney E Garry and Robert F Garry
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:145
  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a causative agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of the selected two Th...

    Authors: Alongkorn Amonsin, Roongtham Kedkovid, Suphasawatt Puranaveja, Piya Wongyanin, Sanipa Suradhat and Roongroje Thanawongnuwech
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:143
  3. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is a Dependovirus associated with latent infection and mortality in geese. Currently, it severely affects geese production worldwide. The objective of this study was to develop a fluorescen...

    Authors: Jin-Long Yang, An-Chun Cheng, Ming-Shu Wang, Kang-Cheng Pan, Min Li, Yu-Fei Guo, Chuan-Feng Li, De-Kang Zhu and Xiao-Yue Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:142
  4. Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapoxvirus (PPV) have been associated with worldwide exanthematic outbreaks. Some species of these genera are able to infect humans and domestic animals, causing serious economic losses ...

    Authors: Jônatas S Abrahão, Larissa S Lima, Felipe L Assis, Pedro A Alves, André T Silva-Fernandes, Marcela MG Cota, Vanessa M Ferreira, Rafael K Campos, Carlos Mazur, Zélia IP Lobato, Giliane S Trindade and Erna G Kroon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:140
  5. Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. Because a suitable in vitro culture system for the human virus has yet to be developed, many basic details of the infection process are unknown. Murine ...

    Authors: Linnzi M Furman, Walid S Maaty, Lena K Petersen, Khalil Ettayebi, Michele E Hardy and Brian Bothner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:139
  6. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in children. We examined the diversity and molecular evolution of HMPV using 85 full-length F (fusion) gene sequences collected o...

    Authors: Chin-Fen Yang, Chiaoyin K Wang, Sharon J Tollefson, Rohith Piyaratna, Linda D Lintao, Marla Chu, Alexis Liem, Mary Mark, Richard R Spaete, James E Crowe Jr. and John V Williams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:138
  7. Type A influenza viruses are important pathogens of humans, birds, pigs, horses and some marine mammals. The viruses have evolved into multiple complicated subtypes, lineages and sublineages. Recently, the phy...

    Authors: Ji-Ming Chen, Ying-Xue Sun, Ji-Wang Chen, Shuo Liu, Jian-Min Yu, Chao-Jian Shen, Xiang-Dong Sun and Dong Peng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:137
  8. Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 populatio...

    Authors: Yixin Ji, Yan Zhang, Songtao Xu, Zhen Zhu, Shuyan Zuo, Xiaohong Jiang, Peishan Lu, Changyin Wang, Yong Liang, Huanying Zheng, Yang Liu, Naiying Mao, Xiaofeng Liang, David Alexander Featherstone, Paul A Rota, William J Bellini…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:135
  9. Torque teno virus (TTV) is a circular, single-stranded DNA virus that chronically infects healthy individuals of all ages worldwide. There is a lot of data on the prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of TTV in...

    Authors: Evgeny V Vasilyev, Dmitry Y Trofimov, Alexander G Tonevitsky, Valery V Ilinsky, Dmitriy O Korostin and Denis V Rebrikov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:134
  10. The epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is quite different in regions of Europe (biennial epidemics in alternating cycles of approximately 9 and 15 months) than in the Western Hemisphere (ann...

    Authors: Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic, Gordana Vojnovic, Jasna Cepin-Bogovic, Ana Bace, Jadranka Bozikov, Robert C Welliver, Ulrich Wahn and Ljiljana Cebalo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:133
  11. During the outbreak of SARS in 2002/3, a prototype virus was isolated from a patient in Frankfurt/Germany (strain Frankfurt-1). As opposed to all other SARS-Coronavirus strains, Frankfurt-1 has a 45-nucleotide...

    Authors: Susanne Pfefferle, Verena Krähling, Vanessa Ditt, Klaus Grywna, Elke Mühlberger and Christian Drosten
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:131
  12. The variability within the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome has formed the basis for several genotyping methods and used widely for HCV genotyping worldwide.

    Authors: Muhammad Idrees, Sadia Butt, Zunaira Awan, Mahwish Aftab, Bushra Khubaib, Irshad-ur Rehman, Madiha Akram, Sobia Manzoor, Haji Akbar, Shazia Rafiqe and Sheikh Riazuddin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:130
  13. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype appears to show varying geographic distribution. Molecular epidemiological study of HBV in particular areas in Indonesia is still limited. This study was aimed to identify the ...

    Authors: Andi Utama, Theresia I Octavia, Rama Dhenni, Upik A Miskad, Irawan Yusuf and Susan Tai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:128
  14. In general, enveloped viruses are highly dependent on their lipid envelope for entry into host cells. Here, we demonstrated that during the course of virus maturation, a significant proportion of human herpesv...

    Authors: Akiko Kawabata, Huamin Tang, Honglan Huang, Koichi Yamanishi and Yasuko Mori
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:127
  15. Avian influenza viruses of the H7 subtype have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry and represent a significant threat to public health due to their propensity to occasionally transmit directly from b...

    Authors: Haichen Song, Hongquan Wan, Yonas Araya and Daniel R Perez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:126
  16. Influenza virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality and has marked social and economic impacts throughout the world. The influenza surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (...

    Authors: Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Prapon Wilairat, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Tadanobu Takahashi, Takashi Suzuki, Morihiro Ito, Yasuhiko Ito, Masato Tashiro and Yasuo Suzuki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:124
  17. The complement system is one of the most potent weapons of innate immunity. It is not only a mechanism for direct protection against invading pathogens but it also interacts with the adaptive immunity to optim...

    Authors: Yuanyong Xu, Chuanfu Zhang, Leili Jia, Cuirong Wen, Huihui Liu, Yong Wang, Yansong Sun, Liuyu Huang, Yusen Zhou and Hongbin Song
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:123
  18. Infection of the lower airways by rhinovirus, a member of the picornavirus family, is an important cause of wheezing illnesses in infants, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rhinovirus-induced ...

    Authors: Louis A Rosenthal, Svetlana P Amineva, Renee J Szakaly, Robert F Lemanske Jr, James E Gern and Ronald L Sorkness
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:122
  19. On the epidemiology of influenza: reply to Radonovich LJ, Martinello RA, Hodgson M, Milton DK, Nardell EA. Influenza and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Virol J. 2008, 5:149

    Authors: John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg and Edward Giovannucci
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:121
  20. DNA was extracted from lamb lymphocytes that were infected in vivo with a BLV strain after inoculation with the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a persistently sero-indeterminate, low viral load, BLV-in...

    Authors: Syamalima Dube, Lynn Abbott, Dipak K Dube, Guillermina Dolcini, Silvina Gutierrez, Carolina Ceriani, Marcela Juliarena, Jorge Ferrer, Raisa Perzova and Bernard J Poiesz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:120
  21. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV) are the only paramyxoviruses requiring Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) containment. Thus, study of henipavirus entry at less than BSL-4 conditions necessitates the use of cel...

    Authors: Mike C Wolf, Yao Wang, Alexander N Freiberg, Hector C Aguilar, Michael R Holbrook and Benhur Lee
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:119
  22. Optimisation of genes has been shown to be beneficial for expression of proteins in a range of applications. Optimisation has increased protein expression levels through improved codon usage of the genes and a...

    Authors: Amanda J Williams, Lyn M O'Brien, Robert J Phillpotts and Stuart D Perkins
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:118
  23. The molecular characterization of isolates of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) from eight locations in Mexico was undertaken by analyzing five regions located at the opposite ends of the virus genome. Two regions h...

    Authors: Lisset Herrera-Isidrón, Juan Carlos Ochoa-Sánchez, Rafael Rivera-Bustamante and Juan Pablo Martínez-Soriano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:116
  24. As noted in other flaviviruses, the envelope (E) protein of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) interacts with a cellular receptor and mediates membrane fusion to allow viral entry into target cells, thus elicit...

    Authors: Hee Jung Lee, Kyung-Il Min, Jungeun Lee, Sin-Hyung Kang, Wonkyung Jeon, Jae Hwan Nam, Young Ran Ju and Young Bong Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:115
  25. As part of a continued search for more efficient anti-HIV-1 drugs, we are focusing on the possibility that small molecules could efficiently inhibit HIV-1 replication through the restoration of p53 and p21WAF1...

    Authors: Irene Guendel, Lawrence Carpio, Rebecca Easley, Rachel Van Duyne, William Coley, Emmanuel Agbottah, Cynthia Dowd, Fatah Kashanchi and Kylene Kehn-Hall
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:114
  26. Dengue is the most important arbovirus disease in tropical and subtropical countries. The viral envelope (E) protein is responsible for cell receptor binding and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. ...

    Authors: Alberto A Amarilla, Flavia T de Almeida, Daniel M Jorge, Helda L Alfonso, Luiza A de Castro-Jorge, Nadia A Nogueira, Luiz T Figueiredo and Victor H Aquino
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:113
  27. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and external genital warts. The purpose of this study is to document the genotype distribution of HPV in females aged between 18 and 34 who self-referred to an...

    Authors: John F Menton, Suzanne M Cremin, Lydie Canier, Mary Horgan and Liam J Fanning
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:112
  28. Reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) occurs frequently in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and is associated with bone-marrow suppression, enteritis, pneumonitis, pericarditis and als...

    Authors: Martin Bommer, Sandra Pauls and Jochen Greiner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:111
  29. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important public health problem worldwide. Its association with, and predisposing nature for diabetes mellitus (DM) has been long established. This research was carried ...

    Authors: Obinna O Nwankiti, James A Ndako, Georgebest ON Echeonwu, Atanda O Olabode, Chika I Nwosuh, Ema M Onovoh, Lilian A Okeke, Jumoke O Akinola, Boniface N Duru, Ijeoma O Nwagbo, Godwin O Agada and Anthony A Chukwuedo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:110
  30. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. The prevalence of antibodies to HEV in Ghana is not known. Therefore we evaluated the preva...

    Authors: Andrew A Adjei, Yao Tettey, John T Aviyase, Clement Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel Obed, Julius AA Mingle, Patrick F Ayeh-Kumi and Theophilus K Adiku
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:108
  31. HIV-1 intersubtype recombination is a very common phenomenon that has been shown to frequently affect different viral genomic regions. Vpr and Tat are viral proteins known to interact with viral promoter (LTR)...

    Authors: Mauricio G Carobene, Christian Rodríguez Rodrígues, Cristian A De Candia, Gabriela Turk and Horacio Salomón
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:107
  32. West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transm...

    Authors: Daniel M Chisenhall and Christopher N Mores
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:106
  33. Despite the demonstration that geminiviruses, like many other single stranded DNA viruses, are evolving at rates similar to those of RNA viruses, a recent study has suggested that grass-infecting species in th...

    Authors: Gordon W Harkins, Wayne Delport, Siobain Duffy, Natasha Wood, Adérito L Monjane, Betty E Owor, Lara Donaldson, Salem Saumtally, Guy Triton, Rob W Briddon, Dionne N Shepherd, Edward P Rybicki, Darren P Martin and Arvind Varsani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:104
  34. All viruses in the family Bunyaviridae possess a tripartite genome, consisting of a small, a medium, and a large RNA segment. Bunyaviruses therefore possess considerable evolutionary potential, attributable to bo...

    Authors: William C Black IV, Jeffrey B Doty, Mark T Hughes, Barry J Beaty and Charles H Calisher
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:102
  35. Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not b...

    Authors: Wendy Maury, Jason P Price, Melinda A Brindley, ChoonSeok Oh, Jeffrey D Neighbors, David F Wiemer, Nickolas Wills, Susan Carpenter, Cathy Hauck, Patricia Murphy, Mark P Widrlechner, Kathleen Delate, Ganesh Kumar, George A Kraus, Ludmila Rizshsky and Basil Nikolau
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:101
  36. Proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) is a fatal disorder of psittacine birds worldwide. The disease is characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the central and peripheral nervous systems, leading ...

    Authors: Ady Y Gancz, Amy L Kistler, Alexander L Greninger, Yigal Farnoushi, Sara Mechani, Shmuel Perl, Asaf Berkowitz, Noa Perez, Susan Clubb, Joseph L DeRisi, Don Ganem and Avishai Lublin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:100
  37. Glucose intolerance is observed more in patients with HCV infection compared with control subjects with liver disease, Initial studies suggested that Hepatitis C virus infection may be an additional risk facto...

    Authors: James A Ndako, Georgebest O Echeonwu, Nathaniel N Shidali, Iliyasu A Bichi, Grace A Paul, Ema Onovoh and Lilian A Okeke
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:98
  38. We report 4 chinese patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B achieving clearance of HBsAg by using pegylated interferon alpha-2a for less than 1 year, to provide one clinical clue for t...

    Authors: Jin Yang and Lian-san Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:97