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  1. The separation of exfoliated cells from the brushes used during cervico-vaginal smears is difficult, a problem which may affect the quality of ribonucleic acid (RNA) extracted. We compared the results of RNA e...

    Authors: Gun Oh. Chong, Hyung Soo Han, Seon Duk Lee and Yoon Hee Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:8

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  2. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. In the 2017, a dengue epidemic occurred in Hanoi in a short time interval and many cases were serious with associated mortality. ...

    Authors: Thuy Thi Dang, My Ha Pham, Huy Vu Bui and Duyet Van Le

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  3. Pneumonia and stomatitis represent severe and often fatal diseases in different captive snakes. Apart from bacterial infections, paramyxo-, adeno-, reo- and arenaviruses cause these diseases. In 2014, new viru...

    Authors: Silvia Blahak, Maria Jenckel, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann and Kore Schlottau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  4. BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes premature graft failure in 1 to 15% of kidney transplant (KT) recipients. High-level BKPyV-viruria and BKPyV-DNAemia precede polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), and guid...

    Authors: Elias Myrvoll Lorentzen, Stian Henriksen, Amandeep Kaur, Grete Birkeland Kro, Clara Hammarström, Hans H. Hirsch, Karsten Midtvedt and Christine Hanssen Rinaldo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:5

    Content type: Case Report

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  5. A previously isolated a bacteriophage, vB_EcoS_AKFV33 of T5virus, demonstrated great potential in biocontrol of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157. This study further evaluated its potential as a biocon...

    Authors: Yan D. Niu, Hui Liu, Roger P. Johnson, Tim A. McAllister and Kim Stanford

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

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  6. Bufavirus is a newly discovered zoonotic virus reported in numerous mammals and humans. However, the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of porcine bufaviruses (PBuVs) in China remain unclear.

    Authors: Yan-Kuo Sun, Yong-Jie Chen, Yu Cai, Di-Hua Zhu, Hao-Ming Pan, Ying-Fang Wei, Xiao-Liang Han, Chi-Hai Ji, Gang Lu, Heng Wang, Chun-Quan Ma and Gui-Hong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:2

    Content type: Research

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  7. Sanitary quality of recreational waters worldwide is assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as Escherichia coli and enterococci. However, fate and transport characteristics of FIB in aquatic habitats...

    Authors: Brian R. McMinn, Eric R. Rhodes, Emma M. Huff and Asja Korajkic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:1

    Content type: Research

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  8. Developing African countries face health problems that they struggle to solve. The major causes of this situation are high therapeutic and logistical costs. Plant-made therapeutics are easy to produce due to t...

    Authors: Pingdwende Kader Aziz Bamogo, Christophe Brugidou, Drissa Sérémé, Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore and Séverine Lacombe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:167

    Content type: Review

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  9. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...

    Authors: Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ming-hui Li, Ju-ju Qi, Rui-huan Wang, Qing-xia Duan, Rui-qing Zhang, Tao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Guo-hao Fan, Yao Xie and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

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  10. The paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a multifunctional protein that is responsible for attachment to receptors, removal of receptors from infected cells to prevent viral self-aggregation (neu...

    Authors: Yaqing Liu, Miaomiao Chi, Ying Liu, Hongling Wen, Li Zhao, Yanyan Song, Na Liu and Zhiyu Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:164

    Content type: Research

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  11. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

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  12. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Adenovirus (AdV) infection is ubiquitous in the human population and causes acute infection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In addition to lytic infections in epithelial cells, AdV can persist ...

    Authors: Megan L. Dickherber and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:161

    Content type: Research

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  14. EOS plays an important role in maintaining the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induces a regulated transformation of Tregs into T helper-like cells, which are capable of secreting proin...

    Authors: Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:160

    Content type: Research

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  15. Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool for visualization of the spatio-temporal dynamics of moving signals in living cells. Although this technique can be utilized to visualize nucleocapsid transport in Marburg ...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Olga Dolnik, Takeshi Noda and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

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  16. After the isolation of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the study and search for new giant viruses has been intensified. Most giant viruses are associated with free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeb...

    Authors: Fernanda Souza, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Erik Reis, Maurício Lima, Bernard La Scola and Jônatas Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:158

    Content type: Research

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  17. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus, is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly prolonged course involving persis...

    Authors: Lanlan Bai, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Masaaki Sato, William C. Davis, Satoshi Wada, Junko Kohara and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:157

    Content type: Short report

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  18. The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is classified into seven serotypes, of which the South African types have South African Territories (SAT)1, SAT2, and SAT3 that are prevalent in Africa. Especially SAT2 h...

    Authors: Hye-Eun Jo, Su-Hwa You, Joo-Hyung Choi, Mi-Kyeong Ko, Sung Ho Shin, Jisoo Song, Hyundong Jo, Min Ja Lee, Su-Mi Kim, Byounghan Kim and Jong-Hyeon Park

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:156

    Content type: Research

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  19. Porcine circovirus (PCV) disease caused by PCV type 2 (PCV2) is mainly attributed to immunosuppression and immune damage. PCV2 can infect vascular endothelial cells and induce high expression of endothelial IL...

    Authors: Shiyu Liu, Qiuming Li, Jinzeng Qiao, Jianfang Wang, Defeng Cui, Kewei Gu, Shuanghai Zhou and Huanrong Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:154

    Content type: Research

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  20. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a virulence factor encoded by influenza A virus (IAV) that is expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of host cells during the earliest stages of infection. NS1 is a multifuncti...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:152

    Content type: Research

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  21. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an emerging insect vector mediated pathogen affecting both wild ruminants and livestock, has a genome consisting of 10 linear double-stranded RNA genome segments. BTV has a severe econo...

    Authors: Qingyuan Xu, Jinying Ge, Maolin Li, Encheng Sun, Yawei Zhou, Yunze Guo, Donglai Wu and Zhigao Bu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:151

    Content type: Methodology

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  22. Commercially available antiviral drugs, when used in the treatment of viral infections, do not always result in success. This is an urgent problem currently that needs to be addressed because several viruses i...

    Authors: Vladimir Berezin, Diyora Abdukhakimova, Lyudmila Trenozhnikova, Andrey Bogoyavlenskiy, Aizhan Turmagambetova, Alpamys Issanov and Azliyati Azizan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:150

    Content type: Research

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  23. Vaccination and the use of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are currently the front lines of defense against seasonal influenza. The activity of influenza vaccines and antivirals drugs such as the NAIs can be a...

    Authors: Natalia A. Ilyushina, Takashi E. Komatsu, William L. Ince, Eric F. Donaldson, Nicolette Lee, Julian J. O’Rear and Raymond P. Donnelly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:149

    Content type: Research

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  24. About 23% of patients develop CIN2+ after LEEP treatment due to residual or recurrent lesions. The majority of patients with HPV infection were HPV negative before treatment, but 16,4% were still HPV 16 positi...

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Nazzario Cassaro, Salvatore Garofalo and Sara Boemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:148

    Content type: Research

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  25. Adenoviruses play an important role as human pathogens, though most infections are believed to be asymptomatic. The over 100 human adenovirus types are classified into seven species (A-G), some of which includ...

    Authors: Christian E. Lange, Fabien R. Niama, Kenneth Cameron, Sarah H. Olson, Rock Aime Nina, Alain Ondzie, Gerard Bounga, Brett R. Smith, Jasmine Pante, Patricia Reed, Ubald Tamufe, Anne Laudisoit, Tracey Goldstein, Romain Bagamboula MPassi and Damien O. Joly

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:147

    Content type: Research

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  26. This study was performed to evaluate the use of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) viral load in screening tests for cervical cancer to predict persistent infection and presence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade ...

    Authors: Malin Berggrund, Inger Gustavsson, Riina Aarnio, Julia Hedlund-Lindberg, Karin Sanner, Ingrid Wikström, Stefan Enroth, Matts Olovsson and Ulf Gyllensten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:146

    Content type: Research

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  27. Rice stripe mosaic virus (RSMV) is a tentative new Cytorhabdovirus species in family Rhabdoviridae transmitted by the leafhopper Recilia dorsalis. Although the virus was first detected in southern China in 2015, ...

    Authors: Siping Chen, Weilin Li, Xiuqin Huang, Biao Chen, Tong Zhang and Guohui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) is increasingly recognized as an important element in regulating virus-host interactions. Our previous results showed that cellular miR-30a-5p was significantly downregulated after duck ente...

    Authors: Xianglong Wu, Renyong Jia, Mingshu Wang, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Zhongqiong Yin, Shaqiu Zhang, Juan Huang, Ling Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:144

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. We evaluated the prognostic and diagnostic ability of p16/Ki-67 immunocytochemistry, HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing and HPV DNA assay in triaging ASCUS to find a way to manage cervical lesions more effectively.

    Authors: Chenchen Ren, Yuanhang Zhu, Li Yang, Xiaoan Zhang, Ling Liu, Zhaoxin Wang and Dongyuan Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:143

    Content type: Research

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  30. Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) has been associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS) in chickens along with asymptomatic subclinical infection in many cases. So far, four genotypes have been described...

    Authors: Tahir Iqbal, Umer Rashid, Muhammad Idrees, Amber Afroz, Saleem Kamili and Michael A. Purdy

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:142

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes one of the most important rice virus diseases of plants in East Asia. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling rice resistance to RSV infection are largely unknown. Recently, s...

    Authors: Rongfei Lu, Zhiyang Liu, Yudong Shao, Feng Sun, Yali Zhang, Jin Cui, Yijun Zhou, Wenbiao Shen and Tong Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:141

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  32. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is becoming widely used among diagnostics and research laboratories, and nowadays it is applied to a variety of disciplines, including veterinary virology. The NGS workflow com...

    Authors: Gianpiero Zamperin, Pierrick Lucas, Irene Cano, David Ryder, Miriam Abbadi, David Stone, Argelia Cuenca, Estelle Vigouroux, Yannick Blanchard and Valentina Panzarin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:140

    Content type: Research

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  33. HIV-1 hijacks the cellular machinery for its own replication through protein-protein interactions between viral and host cell factors. One strategy against HIV-1 infection is thus to target these key protein c...

    Authors: Fadila Larguet, Clément Caté, Benoit Barbeau, Eric Rassart and Elsy Edouard

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:138

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Goose parvovirus (GPV) is the etiological agent of Derzsy’s disease and is fatal for gosling. Research on the molecular basis of GPV pathogenicity has been hampered by the lack of a reliable reverse genetics s...

    Authors: Peng Liu, Liqin Yang, Jingyue Zhang, Tao Wang, Yuanyuan Wu, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Ling Zhang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:136

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. H9N2 influenza viruses continuously circulate in multiple avian species and are repeatedly transmitted to humans, posing a significant threat to public health. To investigate the adaptation ability of H9N2 avi...

    Authors: Zhe Hu, Yiran Zhang, Zhen Wang, Jingjing Wang, Qi Tong, Mingyang Wang, Honglei Sun, Juan Pu, Changqing Liu, Jinhua Liu and Yipeng Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:135

    Content type: Short report

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  36. Duck tembusu virus (DTMUV, genus Flaviviruses, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging flavivirus that can infect a wide range of cells and cell lines in vitro, though the initial step of virus invasion remains ob...

    Authors: Shaoxiong Wu, Zhen Wu, Yuanyuan Wu, Tao Wang, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Leichang Pan…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:134

    Content type: Research

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  37. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is the most prevalent internal modification of eukaryotic mRNA modulating gene expression. m6A modification is a dynamic reversible process regulated by three protein grou...

    Authors: Fang Wu, Wenzhao Cheng, Feiyuan Zhao, Mingqing Tang, Yong Diao and Ruian Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:133

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  38. Human pegivirus (HPgV) is structurally similar to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and was discovered 20 years ago. Its distribution, natural history and exact rule of this viral group in human hosts remain unclear. Ou...

    Authors: Hany K. Soliman, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Mahmoud N. El Rouby, Ola S. Ahmed, G. Esmat, Zeinab K. Hassan, Mohammed M. Hafez, Dina Ahmed Mehaney, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Rania Kamal Darwish, Yehia A. Osman and Abdel-Rahman N. Zekri

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:132

    Content type: Case Report

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  39. In Oman tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; family Solanaceae) is a minor crop, which is produced only for local consumption. In 2015, tobacco plants exhibiting severe downward leaf curling, leaf thickening, vein swellin...

    Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq, Amir Raza, Abdullah M. Al-Sadi and Rob W. Briddon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:131

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide endogenous non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in plant development and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Tobacco curly shoot viru...

    Authors: Jiang Du, Gentu Wu, Zhongpiao Zhou, Jiayuan Zhang, Mingjun Li, Miao Sun, Kairong Jiang and Ling Qing

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:130

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever that was first described in China in 2011. We report a patient who died of Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SF...

    Authors: Yi Sun, Bin Guo, Hao Yan, Ai Lan Wu, Wen Wu Yao, Kang Chen, Jun Hang Pan, Zhao Xia Li, Hai Yan Mao and Yan Jun Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:129

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  42. Capsid (C) protein plays an important role in the replication of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) involves in replication of many viruses via modulation of viral protei...

    Authors: Yuming Chen, Erpeng Zhu, Shuangqi Fan, Hongxing Ding, Shengming Ma, Mengjiao Zhu, Shaofeng Deng, Jinding Chen and Mingqiu Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Since the discovery of mimivirus, numerous giant viruses associated with free-living amoebae have been described. The genome of giant viruses can be more than 2.5 megabases, and virus particles can exceed the ...

    Authors: Graziele Oliveira, Bernard La Scola and Jônatas Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:126

    Content type: Review

    Published on: