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  1. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed significant threats to international health. The genetic traits as well as evol...

    Authors: Wei Hou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:138

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Recent study has shown that the C-terminal portion of 3A (amino acids (aa) 81–153) is not essential for foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cell culture, however, the complete C-terminal portion (aa 77...

    Authors: Pinghua Li, Xueqing Ma, Xingwen Bai, Pu Sun, Hong Yuan, Yimei Cao, Kun Li, Huifang Bao, Yuanfang Fu, Jing Zhang, Yingli Chen, Dong Li, Zhiyong Li, Zengjun Lu and Zaixin Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:137

    Content type: Research

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  3. Coronaviruses (CoVs) were long thought to only cause mild respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in humans but outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)-CoV, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SA...

    Authors: Johanna Signer, Hulda R. Jonsdottir, Werner C. Albrich, Marc Strasser, Roland Züst, Sarah Ryter, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Nicole Lenz, Denise Siegrist, Andreas Suter, Roland Schoop and Olivier B. Engler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:136

    Content type: Research

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  4. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and severe hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The analysis of variable regions of African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome led to more genotypic and ser...

    Authors: Patrick N. Bisimwa, Juliette R. Ongus, Christian K. Tiambo, Eunice M. Machuka, Espoir B. Bisimwa, Lucilla Steinaa and Roger Pelle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:135

    Content type: Research

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  5. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Renxian Tang, Fanyun Kong, Lina Hu, Hongjuan You, Peng Zhang, Weidong Du and Kuiyang Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:134

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2012 9:163

  6. Sheeppox and goatpox are both economically important animal diseases in which pathogens are goatpox virus (GTPV) and sheeppox virus (SPPV). They can’t cause cross-species infection between sheep and goats in g...

    Authors: Chuanchuan He, Jianjun Tong, Xueping Zhang, Milikaimu Tuohetiniyazi, Yu Zhang and Youwen Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:133

    Content type: Research

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  7. Chronic hepatitis B has become a major public health problem in China. An accurate depiction of the disease burden has not yet been thoroughly conducted. We aimed to project the disease burden of chronic hepat...

    Authors: Yang Zheng, Jie Wu, Cheng Ding, Kaijin Xu, Shigui Yang and Lanjuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:132

    Content type: Research

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  8. The Covid19 infection is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, a novel member of the coronavirus (CoV) family. CoV genomes code for a ORF1a / ORF1ab polyprotein and four structural proteins widely studied as major d...

    Authors: Christian Jean Michel, Claudine Mayer, Olivier Poch and Julie Dawn Thompson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:131

    Content type: Research

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  9. New strategies are urgently needed to deal with the growing problem of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. As the natural viruses against bacteria, recently, bacteriophages have received particular attent...

    Authors: Feng Wang, Yan Xiong, Yao Xiao, Jian Han, Xianyu Deng and Lianbing Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:130

    Content type: Short report

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  10. Currently, one of the most reliable methods for viral infection detection are polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays. This process is time and resource heavy, requiring multiple steps of lysis, extractio...

    Authors: Zachary P. Morehouse, Caleb M. Proctor, Gabriella L. Ryan and Rodney J. Nash

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:129

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Heterozygosity at HLA class I loci is generally considered beneficial for host defense. We report here an element of HLA class I homozygosity that may or may not help preserve its existence in populations but ...

    Authors: Eliana E. Ochoa, Ruksana Huda, Steven F. Scheibel, Joan E. Nichols, David J. Mock, Nayef El-Daher, Frank M. Domurat and Norbert J. Roberts Jr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:128

    Content type: Research

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  12. There has been little published data on estimates of HBV and/or HCV coinfection in HIV-positive patients in China or an understanding of how this coinfection varies with different factors. Therefore, this stud...

    Authors: Songxia Yu, Chengbo Yu, Jian Li, Shiming Liu, Haowen Wang and Min Deng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:127

    Content type: Review

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  13. The incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) has been dramatically reduced in China after sufficient vaccine coverage. The live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine SA14–14-2 is believed to have...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Zheng, Xiaozheng Yu, Yan Wang, Lance Turtle, Min Cui, Ran Wang and Chenghong Yin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:126

    Content type: Research

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  14. We recently reported the development of the first African green monkey (AGM) model for COVID-19 based on a combined liquid intranasal (i.n.) and intratracheal (i.t.) exposure to severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Robert W. Cross, Krystle N. Agans, Abhishek N. Prasad, Viktoriya Borisevich, Courtney Woolsey, Daniel J. Deer, Natalie S. Dobias, Joan B. Geisbert, Karla A. Fenton and Thomas W. Geisbert

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:125

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are increasing in prevalence, with current estimates suggesting that over 100,000 people in the United States are affected each year. It is unclear how certain spe...

    Authors: Cody Glickman, Sara M. Kammlade, Nabeeh A. Hasan, L. Elaine Epperson, Rebecca M. Davidson and Michael Strong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:124

    Content type: Research

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  16. Bilateral herpes zoster (BHZ) is an atypical presentation of herpes zoster (HZ), with few cases reported before. Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) is an uncommon complication of VZV infection. Cases of BHZ with RHS i...

    Authors: Siqi Dai, Xiaowen Huang, Yuxiang Chen, Menglei Wang, Huanxin Zheng, Kang Zeng and Li Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:123

    Content type: Case Report

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  17. Severe fever and thrombocytopenia bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection causes severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome with high mortality. It is extremely rare that a transmitting tick can be directly captured in b...

    Authors: Yongxi Tong, Qiujing Wang, Yongfeng Fu, Shibo Li, Zhao Zhang, Zheen Zhang and Xuewen Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:122

    Content type: Case Report

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  18. The protective efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines is unsatisfactory due to the presence of various serotypes generated by genetic reassortment. Thus, immunization with a polyantigen chimeric epit...

    Authors: Lei Yu, Jun Pan, Guangli Cao, Mengsheng Jiang, Yunshan Zhang, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Xing Zhang, Xiaolong Hu, Renyu Xue and Chengliang Gong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:121

    Content type: Research

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  19. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes asymptomatic infections, but also causes congenital infections when women were infected with HCMV during pregnancy, and life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised patien...

    Authors: Miho Shibamura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Takuya Inagaki, Phu Hoang Anh Nguyen, Hikaru Fujii, Shizuko Harada, Shuetsu Fukushi, Akira Oka, Masashi Mizuguchi and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:120

    Content type: Research

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  20. Acute respiratory infections are a common disease in children with high mortality and morbidity. Multiple pathogens can cause acute respiratory infections. A 2-year survey of hospitalized children was conducte...

    Authors: Min Gao, Xing Yao, Wei Mao, Cuifen Shen, Zongxin Zhang, Qiuling Huang, Dawei Cui, Haiyan Sun and Weihua Zou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:119

    Content type: Research

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  21. Dengue fever (DF) is an arthropod-borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Recently, DENV has been reported as an important emerging infect...

    Authors: Mawahib H. Eldigail, Hazem A. Abubaker, Fatima A. Khalid, Tajeldin M. Abdallah, Hassan H. Musa, Mohamed E. Ahmed, Gamal K. Adam, Mustafa I. Elbashir and Imadeldin E. Aradaib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:118

    Content type: Research

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  22. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting the pork industry globally. PRRS is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). Currently there are no effe...

    Authors: Chang Huang, Denzil Bernard, Jiaqi Zhu, Radha Charan Dash, Alexander Chu, Alec Knupp, Anna Hakey, M. Kyle Hadden, Antonio Garmendia and Young Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:116

    Content type: Research

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  23. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronav...

    Authors: Yicheng Yang, Zhiqiang Xiao, Kaiyan Ye, Xiaoen He, Bo Sun, Zhiran Qin, Jianghai Yu, Jinxiu Yao, Qinghua Wu, Zhang Bao and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:117

    Content type: Review

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  24. The oxygen levels organ and tissue microenvironments vary depending on the distance of their vasculature from the left ventricle of the heart. For instance, the oxygen levels of lymph nodes and the spleen are ...

    Authors: Esther Shuyi Gan and Eng Eong Ooi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:115

    Content type: Review

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  25. Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy ...

    Authors: Billal Musah Obeng, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, Gifty Mawuli, Christopher Zaab-Yen Abana and Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:114

    Content type: Research

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  26. eIF2α is a regulatory node that controls protein synthesis initiation by its phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. General control nonderepressible-2 (GCN2), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase ...

    Authors: Yuanzhi Liu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Shaqiu Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhao, Juan Huang, Sai Mao, Xumin Ou, Qun Gao, Yin Wang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:112

    Content type: Review

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  27. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are highly contagious, pathogenic Novirhabdoviruses affecting fish and are thusly notifiable diseases with the World...

    Authors: Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Jeffery L. Ringiesn, Loc H. Pham, Brian S. Shepherd and Douglas W. Leaman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:110

    Content type: Research

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  28. HIV-infected patients have immunological and clinical features that might affect the pathogenesis, as well as the outcome of the HIV/HEV co-infection. The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of...

    Authors: Reza Shahriarirad, Amirhossein Erfani, Mohammad Rastegarian, Ali Zeighami, Nasir Arefkhah, Fariba Ghorbani, Jamal Sarvari and Bahador Sarkari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:109

    Content type: Research

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  29. H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following...

    Authors: Abdelheq Barberis, Amine Boudaoud, Angelina Gorrill, Josianne Loupias, Abdeljelil Ghram, Jihene Lachheb, Nadir Alloui and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:108

    Content type: Research

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  30. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) is a key player in inhibiting antiviral response in host cells, thereby facilitating its replication. However, other roles of NS1, which are indepe...

    Authors: Tim Wai Sha, Michaela Weber, Dacquin M. Kasumba, Takeshi Noda, Masahiro Nakano, Hiroki Kato and Takashi Fujita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:107

    Content type: Research

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  31. Long control region (LCR) of human papillomavirus (HPV) has shown multiple functions on regulating viral transcription. The variations of LCR related to different lineages/sub-lineages have been found to affec...

    Authors: Liyuan Fang, Xiaoli Lin, Yasi Yang, Zhilin Song, Xianping Ding, Liping Tan and Peng Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:106

    Content type: Research

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  32. Liao ning virus (LNV) is a member of the genus Seadornavirus, family Reoviridae and has been isolated from kinds of vectors in Asia and Australia. However, there are no systematic studies describe the molecular g...

    Authors: Jun Zhang, Hong Liu, Jiahui Wang, Jiheng Wang, Jianming Zhang, Jiayue Wang, Xin Zhang, Hongfang Ji, Zhongfeng Ding, Han Xia, Chunyang Zhang, Qian Zhao and Guodong Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:105

    Content type: Research

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  33. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women. Early detection and diagnosis play an important role in secondary prevention of cervical cancer. This study aims to provide more information to develo...

    Authors: Yidi Liu, Qing Ang, Huan Wu, Jingjiang Xu, Defu Chen, Hongyou Zhao, Haolin Liu, Xianghuan Guo, Ying Gu and Haixia Qiu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:104

    Content type: Research

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  34. Notwithstanding the efforts of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, concerns exist regarding the emergence of resistance-associated substi...

    Authors: Valeria Caputo, Roberta Antonia Diotti, Enzo Boeri, Hamid Hasson, Michela Sampaolo, Elena Criscuolo, Sabrina Bagaglio, Emanuela Messina, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Matteo Castelli, Roberto Burioni, Nicasio Mancini, Massimo Clementi and Nicola Clementi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:103

    Content type: Research

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  35. Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) is an important ssDNA virus which causes yellowing, stunting and leaf rolling symptoms on legumes. In China, the virus causes great economic losses and has recently been found to i...

    Authors: Yuhao Cao, Dankan Yan, Xinyang Wu, Ziqiang Chen, Yuchao Lai, Lanqing Lv, Fei Yan, Jianping Chen, Hongying Zheng and Xuemei Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:102

    Content type: Methodology

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  36. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause encephalitis. Its infected cell polypeptide 47 (ICP47), encoded by immediate-early gene US12, promotes immune escape. ICP47 was modified in the clinically approved oncolytic H...

    Authors: Jun-Ting Cheng, Ying-Ying Wang, Lin-Zhong Zhu, Ying Zhang, Wen-Qi Cai, Zi-Wen Han, Yang Zhou, Xian-Wang Wang, Xiao-Chun Peng, Ying Xiang, Hui-Yu Yang, Shu-Zhong Cui, Zhaowu Ma, Bing-Rong Liu and Hong-Wu Xin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:101

    Content type: Research

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  37. HPV persistent infection is a strong carcinogenic factor that can induce cervical cancer. Investigation of HPV epidemiology and genotype distribution is of great meaning for the development of cervical cancer ...

    Authors: Qing Luo, Ni Jiang, Qiaoyuan Wu, Jiaqiang Wang and Jialing Zhong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

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  38. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), a group of non-enveloped small viruses with double-stranded circular DNA which lead to multiple skin diseases such as benign warts, are commonly seen in clinics. The current HPV ...

    Authors: Yining Wang, Ge Ge, Rui Mao, Zhuo Wang, Yu-Zhe Sun, Yu-Guang Du, Xing-Hua Gao, Rui-Qun Qi and Hong-Duo Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

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  39. Enteric infections caused by Salmonella spp. remain a major public health burden worldwide. Chickens are known to be a major reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Salmonella in poultry farms and a...

    Authors: Robert Joseph Atterbury, Adriano Marcelo Gigante, María de la Salud Rubio Lozano, Ruben Danilo Méndez Medina, Gareth Robinson, Habib Alloush, Paul Andrew Barrow and Vivien Mary Allen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

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  40. Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of pa...

    Authors: Dongyu Guo, Jianhua Xia, Yang Wang, Xuhong Zhang, Ye Shen and Jian-Ping Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Case Report

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  41. Coronaviruses are large family-RNA viruses that belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae. The novel COVID-19 infection, caused by a beta coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, is a n...

    Authors: Endeshaw Chekol Abebe, Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie, Mestet Yibeltal Shiferaw and Tabarak Malik

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Review

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  42. Following acute infection, Herpes Simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency and recurrent reactivation in the sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG). Infected tree shrew differs from mouse and s...

    Authors: Erlin Wang, Yunshuang Ye, Ke Zhang, Jinlong Yang, Daohua Gong, Jianhua Zhang, Renjun Hong, Huan Zhang, Lihong Li, Guijun Chen, Liping Yang, Jianmei Liu, Hanyu Cao, Ting Du, Nigel W. Fraser, Le Cheng…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

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  43. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

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  44. More than 3 years since the last Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil, researchers are still deciphering the molecular mechanisms of neurovirulence and vertical transmission, as well as the best way to control...

    Authors: Paula A. Faria Waziry, Aarti Raja, Chloe Salmon, Nathalia Aldana, Sruthi Damodar, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima and Bindu S. Mayi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:93

    Content type: Research

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  45. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  46. SLC10A1 gene codes NTCP, a receptor through which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) gets access into hepatocytes - a stage of the viral cycle necessary for replication. Polymorphism variants of SLC10A1 play roles in...

    Authors: Eric Nyarko, Christian Obirikorang, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Acheampong, Freeman Aidoo, Emmanuel Ofori, Bright Selorm Addy and Henry Asare-Anane

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Research

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  47. Three different genotypes of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been classified: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Previously, a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Ralph Huits, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E. Nakayama, Riemsdijk van den Berg, Barbara Barbé, Lieselotte Cnops, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Marjan van Esbroeck, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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