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  1. Content type: Research

    Interleukin (IL)-35 regulates imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, leading to an important modulator in autoimmune disorder, cancer, and infectious diseases. Our previous st...

    Authors: Lanlan Yang, Shengnan Jia, Xue Shao, Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Jie Song, Wudong Wang and Zhenjing Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:48

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  2. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cancer, creating enormous economic and social burdens. The Chinese government recommends routine screening of inpatients for HCV before i...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Hongqin Xu, Yue Hu, Jia Shang, Jianning Jiang, Lei Yu, Caiyan Zhao, Dazhi Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Junfeng Li, Wei Li, Yanan Wu, Diefei Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Qian Zhao, Qiongfang Zhang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:47

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  3. Content type: Research

    Compared with chickens, ducks are normally resistant to avian influenza virus without clinical signs while they habor almost all subtypes of influenza A viruses. To date, however the mechanism for duck anti-in...

    Authors: Jianmei Yang, Hongrui Cui, Qiaoyang Teng, Wenjun Ma, Xuesong Li, Binbin Wang, Dawei Yan, Hongjun Chen, Qinfang Liu and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:46

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  4. Content type: Research

    VP1 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a structural protein that is required for virus encapsulation. VP1 proteins are present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, the functional nuclear localization ...

    Authors: Jai-Hong Cheng, Guan-Hua Lai, Yi-Yang Lien, Fang-Chun Sun, Shan-Ling Hsu, Pei-Chin Chuang and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:45

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  5. Content type: Research

    Since H7N9 influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in 2013, five waves of outbreaks have occurred, posing a huge threat to human health. In preparation for a potential H7N9 epidemic, it is essential to eva...

    Authors: Ai-jun Chen, Jie Dong, Xin-hui Yuan, Hong Bo, Shu-zhen Li, Chao Wang, Zhao-jun Duan and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:44

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  6. Content type: Research

    Although vaccines for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly effective, HBV infections in vaccinees occur. Index samples of breakthrough infections are typically anti-HBc negative but HBV DNA positive with protect...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Anne L. McNamara, Vera Holzmayer and Gavin A. Cloherty

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:43

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  7. Content type: Research

    HIV integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors, including lens-epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), Ku70, p300, and Rad52, are subject to small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification. In addition ...

    Authors: Yingfeng Zheng, Kallesh Danappa Jayappa, Zhujun Ao, Xiangguo Qiu, Ruey-Chyi Su and Xiaojian Yao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:42

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  8. Content type: Research

    Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emergent virus in salmon aquaculture belonging to the family Reoviridae. PRV is associated with a growing list of pathological conditions including heart and skeletal inflammatio...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:41

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  9. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus C96 (EV-C96) is a newly named type of enterovirus belonging to species C, and the prototype strain (BAN00–10488) was firstly isolated in 2000 from a stool specimen of a patient with acute flaccid p...

    Authors: Lan Hu, Yong Zhang, Mei Hong, Qin Fan, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:40

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  10. Content type: Research

    The aim of our study was to determine which diagnostic course is best to identify women at risk of CIN2+ among post-menopausal women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Angela Coco, Salvatore Di Pasqua and Giulia Bonanno

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:39

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  11. Content type: Short report

    Tobacco production in China has been affected by plant viruses with Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) as a recent invader posing serious concern. According to most of the studies, MDV mainly infects hosts from Faba...

    Authors: Ali Kamran, Han Hou, Yi Xie, Cunxiao Zhao, Xiaomin Wei, Chaoqun Zhang, Xiangwen Yu, Fenglong Wang and Jinguang Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:38

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  12. Content type: Research

    Porcine sapelovirus (PSV), a species of the genus Sapelovirus within the family Picornaviridae, are a significant cause of enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis and reproductive disorders in pigs. Howev...

    Authors: Tingting Zhao, Li Cui, Xiangqian Yu, Zhonghai Zhang, Xiaojuan Shen and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:37

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  13. Content type: Research

    Cross protection is a promising alternative to control plant viral diseases. One critical factor limiting the application of cross protection is the availability of attenuated mutants or mild strains. Potato viru...

    Authors: Q. Q. Cong, Y. Wang, J. Liu, Y. F. Lan, Z. K. Guo, J. G. Yang, X.-D. Li and Y. P. Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:36

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  14. Content type: Research

    Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only o...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Ye Qiu, Cheng Xing, Ji-Hua Zhou, Wei-Hong Yang, Qiong Wang, Jin-Yan Li, Xi Han, Yun-Zhi Zhang and Xing-Yi Ge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:35

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  15. Content type: Research

    Whether sofosbuvir is suitable for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with severe renal impairment is inconclusive. This systematic review aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of SOF-based regi...

    Authors: Mingshu Li, Jun Chen, Zhixiong Fang, Yi Li and Qian Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:34

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  16. Content type: Research

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause an acute highly fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), both ex situ and in situ. Amongst eight EEHV types described so far, ...

    Authors: Taweepoke Angkawanish, Mirjam Nielen, Hans Vernooij, Janine L. Brown, Peter J. S. van Kooten, Petra B. van den Doel, Willem Schaftenaar, Kannika Na Lampang and Victor P. M. G. Rutten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:33

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  17. Content type: Research

    Viruses in the genus Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae) include many important economic plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex. In general, different begomoviruses may be ac...

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Yao Chi, Xin-Jia Zhang, Teng Lei, Xiao-Wei Wang and Shu-Sheng Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:32

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  18. Content type: Research

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus belonging to the Novirhabdovirus genus, causes severe disease and mortality in many marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. VHSV isolates are cl...

    Authors: Shamila Yusuff, Gael Kurath, Min Sun Kim, Tarin M. Tesfaye, Jie Li, Douglas G. McKenney and Vikram N. Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:31

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  19. Content type: Review

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), currently termed Canine morbillivirus, is an extremely contagious disease that affects dogs. It is identified as a multiple cell tropism pathogen, and its host range includes a vast ...

    Authors: Santiago Rendon-Marin, Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Cláudio Wageck Canal and Julian Ruiz-Saenz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:30

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  20. Content type: Research

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mRNA maturation step that allows increased variability and diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. AS is dysregulated in numerous diseases, and its implication in the car...

    Authors: Simon Boudreault, Victoria E. S. Armero, Michelle S. Scott, Jean-Pierre Perreault and Martin Bisaillon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:29

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  21. Content type: Short report

    HCV exhibits a high genetic diversity and is classified into 7 genotypes which are further divided into 86 confirmed subtypes. However, there are multiple isolates with unassigned subtypes. We aimed to amplify...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Luise Krüger, Patrycja Machnowska, Amare Eshetu, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Viviane Bremer, Andrea Hauser, Norbert Bannert and C.-Thomas Bock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:28

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  22. Content type: Research

    Recent studies have shown a 13-fold increase of oropharyngeal cancer in the presence of HPV, while α-HPV detection seems to be rare in oral cavity in comparison to anal or cervical district, many novel β and γ...

    Authors: Catia Sias, Leonidas Salichos, Daniele Lapa, Franca Del Nonno, Andrea Baiocchini, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Anna Rosa Garbuglia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:27

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  23. Content type: Research

    Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted fr...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Joon Joon Khoo, Amreeta Dhanoa and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:26

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  24. Content type: Research

    Porcine circovirus 3 is a newly described circovirus circulating worldwide. PCV3 may play an etiologic role in different pig diseases. Two different genotypes of PCV3 were described, PCV3a and PCV3b. In order ...

    Authors: Carolin Prinz, Milena Stillfried, Lena Katharina Neubert and Joachim Denner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:25

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  25. Content type: Research

    As a low pathogenic influenza virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) often induces high morbidity in association with secondary bacterial infections in chickens or mammals. To explore this phenom...

    Authors: Haoran Lu, Luxuan Zhang, Junfang Xiao, Che Wu, Huanmin Zhang, Yihu Chen, Zhengyong Hu, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie and Hongxin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:24

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  26. Content type: Short report

    Polyadenylation influences many aspects of mRNA as well as viral RNA. variable polyadenylation at the 3' end have been reported in RNA viruses. It is interesting to identify the characteristic and potential ro...

    Authors: Guowei Geng, Chengming Yu, Xiangdong Li and Xuefeng Yuan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:23

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  27. Content type: Research

    The regulatory cyclin, Cyclin T1 (CycT1), is a host factor essential for HIV-1 replication in CD4 T cells and macrophages. The importance of CycT1 and the Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) co...

    Authors: Jacob Couturier, Aaron F. Orozco, Hongbing Liu, Sona Budhiraja, Edward B. Siwak, Pramod N. Nehete, K. Jagannadha Sastry, Andrew P. Rice and Dorothy E. Lewis

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:22

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  28. Content type: Research

    As a leading cause of respiratory disease, influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a pandemic threat in annual seasonal outbreaks. Given the limitation of existing anti-influenza therapeutic drugs, developme...

    Authors: Ming Zhong, Huiqiang Wang, Linlin Ma, Haiyan Yan, Shuo Wu, Zhengyi Gu and Yuhuan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:21

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  29. Content type: Research

    Haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant (haplo-HSCT) recipients are at high risk for Epstein Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. EBV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells can control EBV-infected B cell expans...

    Authors: Ling Zhou and Dao-pei Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:19

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  30. Content type: Research

    Infectious cDNA clones are a powerful tool for studies on RNA viruses using reverse genetics. Potato virus S (PVS) is a carlavirus with a worldwide distribution. Although the complete genome sequences of many ...

    Authors: Xin Li and Tatsuji Hataya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:18

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  31. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication of this article [1], two grants from National Science Foundation of China and Yunnan Provincial Government (U1602226) and by National Science Foundation of China (2016YFC1200404) we...

    Authors: Benxia Hu, Yongxia Huo, Liping Yang, Guijun Chen, Minhua Luo, Jinlong Yang and Jumin Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:17

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2017 14:217

  32. Content type: Research

    To examine the epidemiological trends and changes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and the potential risk factors for severe infection in the Zhejiang eastern coastal area of China.

    Authors: Jun Tan, Yijuan Chen, Lin Wang, Ta-Chien Chan, Said Amer, Xiaobin Xu, Jian Cai, Wei Li, Xiaoqing Zheng, Mi Zhou, Shuwen Qin, Na Zhao, Ziping Miao and Shelan Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:16

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  33. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication of this article [1], the author found the legends of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 were incorrect.

    Authors: Xin Tang, Xiaobin Shi, Deyong Zhang, Fan Li, Fei Yan, Youjun Zhang, Yong Liu and Xuguo Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:14

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2017 14:169

  34. Content type: Research

    Autophagy is an essential process in eukaryotic cells in which autophagosomes form to deliver cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Many studies have recently identified the...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Keren Chen, Yang Guo, Yaosheng Chen and Xiaohong Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:13

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  35. Content type: Correction

    In the original publication of this article [1], Table 1 has some errors.

    Authors: Elif Nurtop, Paola Mariela Saba Villarroel, Boris Pastorino, Laetitia Ninove, Jan Felix Drexler, Yelin Roca, Bouba Gake, Audrey Dubot-Peres, Gilda Grard, Christophe Peyrefitte, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie and Pierre Gallian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:12

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2018 15:192

  36. Content type: Research

    Data on the treatment of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection remains limited. A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ombi...

    Authors: Jingjing Wu, Peng Huang, Haozhi Fan, Ting Tian, Xueshan Xia, Zuqiang Fu, Yan Wang, Xiangyu Ye, Ming Yue and Yun Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:11

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  37. Content type: Research

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) infection manifests with burn-like symptoms on leaves, leaflets and upper stem parts of susceptible infected plants. The symptoms caused by ToTV may be considered as one of the most se...

    Authors: Przemysław Wieczorek, Barbara Wrzesińska, Patryk Frąckowiak, Arnika Przybylska and Aleksandra Obrępalska-Stęplowska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:9

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  38. Content type: Research

    Yokose virus was first isolated from bats (Miniopterus fuliginosus) collected in Yokosuka, Japan, in 1971, and is a new member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. In this study, we isolated a Yokose vir...

    Authors: Yun Feng, Xiaojie Ren, Ziqian Xu, Shihong Fu, Xiaolong Li, Hailin Zhang, Weihong Yang, Yuzhen Zhang and Guodong Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:8

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  39. Content type: Research

    Tospoviruses (genus Tospovirus, family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales) cause significant losses to a wide range of agronomic and horticultural crops worldwide. Identification and characterization of specifi...

    Authors: Cristian Olaya, Badri Adhikari, Gaurav Raikhy, Jianlin Cheng and Hanu R. Pappu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:7

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  40. Content type: Short report

    Waterfowl parvoviruses, including goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV), can cause seriously diseases in geese and ducks. Developing a fast and precise diagnosis assay for these two parvovi...

    Authors: Su Lin, Shao Wang, Xiaoxia Cheng, Shifeng Xiao, Xiuqin Chen, Shilong Chen, Shaoying Chen and Fusong Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:6

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  41. Content type: Research

    Understanding the prevalence and evolution of HIV-1 drug resistance (DR) and associated mutation patterns is critical to implementing free antiretroviral therapy in Yunnan, the first antiretroviral treatment l...

    Authors: Jianjian Li, Yawen Xu, Jiafa Liu, Bihui Yang, Cuixian Yang, Mi Zhang and Xingqi Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:5

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  42. Content type: Research

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of food production worldwide. However, one of the major reasons limiting its effectiveness are infectious diseases among aquatic organisms resulting in vast economic l...

    Authors: Joanna Kazimierczak, Ewelina Agnieszka Wójcik, Jolanta Witaszewska, Arkadiusz Guziński, Elżbieta Górecka, Małgorzata Stańczyk, Edyta Kaczorek, Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki and Jarosław Dastych

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:4

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  43. Content type: Research

    Avian influenza A H7N9 virus has caused five outbreak waves of human infections in China since 2013 and posed a dual challenge to public health and poultry industry. The number of reported H7N9 virus human cas...

    Authors: Jianru Qin, Ouyang Peng, Xiaoting Shen, Lang Gong, Chunyi Xue and Yongchang Cao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:3

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  44. Content type: Research

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes...

    Authors: Amanda L. Phelps, Lyn M. O’Brien, Lin S. Eastaugh, Carwyn Davies, Mark S. Lever, Jane Ennis, Larry Zeitlin, Alejandro Nunez and David O. Ulaeto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:2

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  45. Content type: Short report

    Flaviviruses are important pathogens for humans and animals (Dengue viruses, Yellow fever virus, Zika virus and West Nile virus). Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific virus of the genus Flavivirus, detec...

    Authors: Jorge Miranda, Salim Mattar, Marco Gonzalez, Richard Hoyos-López, Ader Aleman and Jose Aponte

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:1

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  46. Content type: Short report

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) of the family Herpesviridae is the causative agent of Aujeszky’s disease. Attenuation of PRV by serial passaging in vitro is a well-established method; however, the dynamic variations occ...

    Authors: Chao Ye, Jiqiang Wu, Wu Tong, Tongling Shan, Xuefei Cheng, Jingjing Xu, Chao Liang, Hao Zheng, Guoxin Li and Guangzhi Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:195

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  47. Content type: Research

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are considered to be at significant risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and bloodborne viruses including viral hepatitis types B, C, and D (HBV, HCV, and HDV) and hum...

    Authors: Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Seni Kouanda, Ashley Grosso, Rebecca Compaoré, Modibo Camara, Charlemagne Dabire, Rasmata Ouedraogo, Yves Traore, Stefan Baral and Nicolas Barro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2018 15:194

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