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  1. The numbers of confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 related deaths are still increasing, so it is very important to determine the risk factors of COVID-19. Dyslipidemia is a comm...

    Authors: Yanli Liu, Yilong Pan, Yuyao Yin, Wenhao Chen and Xiaodong Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:157

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Limited data is available on the efficacy of direct acting anti-viral drugs on hepatitis C in drug users. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively analyze the efficacy and safety of LDV/SOF in drug...

    Authors: Xue Yang, Yang Tang, Di Xu, Guang Zhang, Peng Xu, Houlin Tang and Lin Pang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:156

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  3. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance was conducted as part of the World Health Organization’s strategy for completely eradicating poliomyelitis and leaving non-polio enteroviruses NPEVs as one of the mai...

    Authors: Napa Onvimala, Nathamon Kosoltanapiwat, Pornpan Pumirat, Muthita Vanaporn, Suchitra Nimmanitya, Ratana Tacharoenmuang, Ratigorn Guntapong and Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:153

    Content type: Research

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  4. The data with regards to the regional variants of distinct HPV types is of great value. Accordance with this, this study aimed to investigate the sequence variations of E6 gene and long control region of HPV 3...

    Authors: Neda Hosseini, Zabihollah Shoja, Arash Arashkia, Amir-Hossein Khodadadi and Somayeh Jalilvand

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:152

    Content type: Research

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  5. Zika virus is becoming one of the most widely transmitted arboviruses in the world. Development of antiviral inhibitor and vaccine requires an experimental system that allows rapid monitoring of the virus infe...

    Authors: Jing Gao, Jiayi Chen, Weizhi Lu, Jintai Cai, Linjuan Shi, Wei Zhao and Bao Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:151

    Content type: Research

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  6. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are prime pathogens and have been a major hazard to humans and animals. They comprise several arthropod-borne viruses, including dengue virus, yellow fever virus, Japanese encephali...

    Authors: Shilpa Chatterjee, Choon-Mee Kim, Na Ra Yun, Dong-Min Kim, Hyeon Je Song and Kyeoung A Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:150

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of COVID-19. This virus has become one of the most dangerous in recent times with a very high rate of transmission. At present, several publications sh...

    Authors: Brian Mondeja, Odalys Valdes, Sonia Resik, Ananayla Vizcaino, Emilio Acosta, Adelmo Montalván, Amira Paez, Mayra Mune, Roberto Rodríguez, Juan Valdés, Guelsys Gonzalez, Daisy Sanchez, Viviana Falcón, Yorexis González, Vivian Kourí, Angelina Díaz…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:149

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  8. On the detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in children with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil: reply to Luchs, A. Comments on Detection and identification of enteroviruses circulating in ch...

    Authors: Raiana Scerni Machado, Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr., Jacqueline Cortinhas Monteiro, James Lima Ferreira, Jainara Cristina dos Santos Alves and Fernando Neto Tavares

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:148

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    The Short report to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

  9. The clinical and virological course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. We aimed to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of COVID-19 patients from 10 designated h...

    Authors: Rui Huang, Li Zhu, Leyang Xue, Xuebing Yan, Jian Wang, Songping Huang, Biao Zhang, Tianmin Xu, Fang Ji, Chunyang Li, Fang Ming, Yun Zhao, Yang Li, Juan Cheng, Yinling Wang, Huaping Shao…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:147

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Prevalence and incidence of hepatitis caused by HEV infection are usually higher in developing countries. This study demonstrated the HEV seroprevalence and incidence of HEV infection in patients with clinical...

    Authors: Atiporn Boonyai, Anchalee Thongput, Thidarat Sisaeng, Parisut Phumchan, Navin Horthongkham, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Chutikarn Chaimayo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:145

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  11. Regard to this fact that the main transmission route of HPV and HHV-8 is via sexual activity, it is reasonable to speculate that coinfection of HPV and HHV-8 may have been played an important role in the devel...

    Authors: Sara Chavoshpour-Mamaghani, Zabihollah Shoja, Yaghoub Mollaei-Kandelous, Kimia Sharifian and Somayeh Jalilvand

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:144

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of antiviral drugs in reducing the risk of developing severe illness in patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.

    Authors: Peng Yin, Juan Meng, Jincheng Chen, Junxiao Gao, Dongqi Wang, Shuyan Liu, Qinglong Guo, Muchun Zhu, Gengwei Zhang, Yingxia Liu, Ye Li and Guoliang Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:142

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a nonenveloped RNA virus causing hepatitis E worldwide. The increase in transfusion-transmitted cases of HEV infections from asymptomatic blood donors causing serious illnesses among...

    Authors: Ping Fu, Baochai Lin, Bingting Wu, Ling Ke, Tianfu Yang, Yue’e Du, Lishan Cheng, Zhou Li, Tiancheng Li and Yu Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:141

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  14. Approximately 15% of human cancers are attributed to viruses. Numerous studies have shown that high-risk human polyomaviruses (HR-HPV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) are two human tumor viruses associate...

    Authors: Kashif Rasheed, Baldur Sveinbjørnsson and Ugo Moens

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:139

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  15. The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophic global phenomenon, affecting human life in a way unseen since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Effective management of this threat requires halting transmission, a strategy ...

    Authors: Majid Mahmood, Noor-ul-ain Ilyas, Muhammad Faraz Khan, Muhammad Naseem Hasrat and Nicholas Richwagen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:138

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. All commercial Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) assays use a combination of recombinant antigens to detect antibody response. Antibody responses to individual antigenic regions (core, NS3/4 and NS5) used ...

    Authors: Xinyi Jiang, Le Chang, Ying Yan, Huimin Ji, Huizhen Sun, Fei Guo and Lunan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:137

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. The persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the body fluids of patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may increase the potential risk of viral tr...

    Authors: Farahnaz Joukar, Tofigh Yaghubi Kalurazi, Mahmoud Khoshsorour, Sonbol Taramian, Lida Mahfoozi, Heydar Ali Balou, Alireza Jafarinezhad, Aydin Pourkazemi, Ezat Hesni, Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Mohammad Shenagari, Issa Jahanzad, Mohammadreza Naghipour, Saman Maroufizadeh and Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:134

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Investigation of human enterovirus (EV) in diarrheic fecal specimens is valuable to address EV diversity circulating worldwide. However, the detection of EV strains exclusively in fecal specimens must be inter...

    Authors: Adriana Luchs

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:133

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:156

    The Commentary to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:148

  19. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) gene and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD).

    Authors: Xia Wang, Hong Liu, Ying Li, Rui Su, Yamin Liu and Kunyan Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:132

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. Certification of seed potato as free of viruses is essential for stable potato production. Among more than 30 virus species infecting potato, potato leafroll virus (PLRV), potato virus S (PVS), potato virus X ...

    Authors: Nobuya Onozuka, Takehiro Ohki, Norikuni Oka and Tetsuo Maoka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:131

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  21. Since last year, COVID-19, the disease caused by the novel Sars-Cov-2 virus, has been globally spread to all the world. COVID-19 infection among pregnant women has been described. However, transplacental trans...

    Authors: Maria Chiara De Nardo, Anna Rita Bellomo, Francesca Perfetti, Francesco Antonino Battaglia, Miriam Lichtner and Riccardo Lubrano

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:130

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  22. Circularization of RNA mediated by association of translation factors and RNA elements in 5′ and 3′ UTRs is a common feature for translation control in eukaryotes. There is no information about translation in ...

    Authors: Ghobad Babaei, Amir Massah and Mina Koohi Habibi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:129

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Dajun Zhang, Bo Yang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Chaochao Shen, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu and Keshan Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:128

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:69

  24. In COVID-19 patients, undetected co-infections may have severe clinical implications associated with increased hospitalization, varied treatment approaches and mortality. Therefore, we investigated the implica...

    Authors: Bandar Alosaimi, Asif Naeem, Maaweya E. Hamed, Haitham S. Alkadi, Thamer Alanazi, Sanaa Saad Al Rehily, Abdullah Z. Almutairi and Adnan Zafar

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:127

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Tens of million cases of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) have occurred globally. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) attacks the respiratory system, causing pneumonia and lymph...

    Authors: Shi-Wei Yin, Zheng Zhou, Jun-Ling Wang, Yun-Feng Deng, Hui Jing and Yi Qiu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:126

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Recent studies suggest that lncRNAs may play significant roles in the development of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, as a special stage of HBV infection, the lncRNA expression in occult HBV infecti...

    Authors: Qingqin Hao, Zheng Wang, Qinghui Wang, Bo Chen, Huizhong Qian, Xiao Liu, Hong Cao, Wei Xia, Jian Jiang and Zhonghua Lu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:125

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. The vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, Guarani P1 virus (GP1V) and Passatempo virus (PSTV), were isolated during zoonotic outbreaks in Brazil. Each one of them belongs to two different VACV clades, defined by biolog...

    Authors: Karine Lima Lourenço, Leandro Andrade Chinália, Lethícia Ribeiro Henriques, Rodrigo Araújo Lima Rodrigues and Flávio Guimarães da Fonseca

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:124

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. The international SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has resulted in an urgent need to identify new anti-viral drugs for treatment of COVID-19. The initial step to identifying potential candidates usually involves in vitro s...

    Authors: Kexin Yan, Daniel J. Rawle, Thuy T. Le and Andreas Suhrbier

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:123

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  29. Using viral metagenomics, viral nucleic acid in 30 respiratory secretion samples collected from children with unknown etiological acute respiratory disease were investigated. Sequences showing similarity to hu...

    Authors: Ying Liu, Hao Wang, Jie Yang, Jian Zeng and Guang-Ming Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:122

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  30. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread to many countries around the world. In addition to lung disease, severe cases also displayed varying degrees of liver injury. This articl...

    Authors: Dongdong Yu, Qingru Du, Shengguang Yan, Xu-Guang Guo, Yehao He, Guodong Zhu, Kewei Zhao and Shi Ouyang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:121

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  31. Since its outbreak in 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, affecting more than 52 million people and causing more than 1 million mortalities globally till date. Current research reve...

    Authors: Baila Shakaib, Tanzeel Zohra, Aamer Ikram, Muhammad Bin Shakaib, Amna Ali, Adnan Bashir, Muhammad Salman, Mumtaz Ali khan and Jamil Ansari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:120

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  32. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) which is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), is an acute, contagious disease. In spite of the use of vaccines and elimination projects, BVDV still causes severe economic l...

    Authors: Yaxin Li, Tao Guo, Xiaokui Wang, Wei Ni, Ruirui Hu, Yuying Cui, Taotao Mi and Shengwei Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:119

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. To date, specific cytokines associated with development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and extrapulmonary multiple organ dysfunction (MOD) in COVID-19 patients have not been systematically descr...

    Authors: Jiajia Wang, Xinjing Yang, Yongsheng Li, Jian-an Huang, Junhong Jiang and Nan Su

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:117

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic life-threatening viral infection endemic across sub-Saharan African countries and the Arabian Peninsula; however, there is a growing panic of its spread to non-ende...

    Authors: Raymond Tshepiso Makola, Joe Kgaladi, Garland Kgosi More, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz Tadeusz Paweska and Thabe Moses Matsebatlela

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. It is important to recognize the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in severe conditions from moderate ones, thus more effective predictors should be developed.

    Authors: Yingjie Qi, Jian-an Jia, Huiming Li, Nagen Wan, Shuqin Zhang and Xiaoling Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:115

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The advent of whole genome sequencing has revealed that common laboratory strains of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have major genetic deficiencies resulting from serial passage in fibroblasts. In particular, tr...

    Authors: Ahmed Al Qaffas, Salvatore Camiolo, Mai Vo, Alexis Aguiar, Amine Ourahmane, Myrna Sorono, Andrew J. Davison, Michael A. McVoy and Laura Hertel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:112

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  37. The reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 has become one of the most important contributions to COVID-19 crisis management. With the publication of the first sequences of SARS-CoV-2, several diagnostic PCR assays h...

    Authors: Janine Michel, Markus Neumann, Eva Krause, Thomas Rinner, Therese Muzeniek, Marica Grossegesse, Georg Hille, Franziska Schwarz, Andreas Puyskens, Sophie Förster, Barbara Biere, Daniel Bourquain, Cristina Domingo, Annika Brinkmann, Lars Schaade, Livia Schrick…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:110

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has spread rapidly worldwide and disease prevention is more important than ever. In the absence of a vaccine, knowledge of the transmission routes and risk areas of infection re...

    Authors: Janina Krambrich, Dario Akaberi, Jiaxin Ling, Tove Hoffman, Lennart Svensson, Marie Hagbom and Åke Lundkvist

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:109

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Chuanchuan He, Jianjun Tong, Xueping Zhang, Milikaimu Tuohetiniyazi, Yu Zhang and Youwen Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:108

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:133