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  1. Glucose intolerance is observed more in patients with HCV infection compared with control subjects with liver disease, Initial studies suggested that Hepatitis C virus infection may be an additional risk facto...

    Authors: James A Ndako, Georgebest O Echeonwu, Nathaniel N Shidali, Iliyasu A Bichi, Grace A Paul, Ema Onovoh and Lilian A Okeke
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:98
  2. We report 4 chinese patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B achieving clearance of HBsAg by using pegylated interferon alpha-2a for less than 1 year, to provide one clinical clue for t...

    Authors: Jin Yang and Lian-san Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:97
  3. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a notorious plant fungal pathogen which spreads across the world. Hypovirulence is a phenomenon where the virulence of fungal pathogens is decreased, even lost, due to mycovirus infect...

    Authors: Liyan Zhang, Yanping Fu, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Guoqing Li and Xianhong Yi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:96
  4. The presence of DNA sequences integrated from a new flavivirus related to Cell Fusing Agent and Kamiti River Virus was identified in wild Aedes albopictus mosquito populations from the provinces of Trentino and P...

    Authors: David Roiz, Ana Vázquez, Mari Paz Sánchez Seco, Antonio Tenorio and Annapaola Rizzoli
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:93
  5. Knowledge of the subcellular localization of a protein can provide useful insights about its function. While the subcellular localization of many alphaherpesvirus UL51 proteins has been well characterized, lit...

    Authors: Chanjuan Shen, Yufei Guo, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Yi Zhou, Dan Lin, Hongyi Xin and Na Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:92
  6. Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an aquatic orthomyxovirus and the causative agent of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a disease of great importance in the Atlantic salmon farming industry. In vitro, ISAV ...

    Authors: Berit L Schiøtz, Espen S Bækkevold, Lene C Poulsen, Siri Mjaaland and Tor Gjøen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:91
  7. Human Papillomavirus-32 (HPV-32) has traditionally been associated with focal-epithelial-hyperplasia (FEH). It is also present in 58% of oral warts of HIV-positive individuals whose prevalence is increasing. C...

    Authors: Nicholas R Herrel, Nadia L Johnson, Jennifer E Cameron, Janet Leigh and Michael E Hagensee
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:90
  8. Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. Information on viral etiology in ALRI from India is limited. The aim of the present s...

    Authors: Preeti Bharaj, Wayne M Sullender, Sushil K Kabra, Kalaivani Mani, John Cherian, Vikas Tyagi, Harendra S Chahar, Samander Kaushik, Lalit Dar and Shobha Broor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:89
  9. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV) is a pathogen of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar); a disease first diagnosed in Norway in 1984. For over 25 years ISAV has caused major disease outbreaks in...

    Authors: Frederick SB Kibenge, Marcos G Godoy, Yingwei Wang, Molly JT Kibenge, Valentina Gherardelli, Soledad Mansilla, Angelica Lisperger, Miguel Jarpa, Geraldine Larroquete, Fernando Avendaño, Marcela Lara and Alicia Gallardo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:88
  10. Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens su...

    Authors: Nyasha Chin'ombe, William R Bourn, Anna-Lise Williamson and Enid G Shephard
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:87
  11. Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, a...

    Authors: Lori R Holtz, Stacy R Finkbeiner, Guoyan Zhao, Carl D Kirkwood, Rosina Girones, James M Pipas and David Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:86
  12. The viral genome of hepatitis C virus constitutes a 9.6-kb single-stranded positive-sense RNA which encodes altogether 11 viral proteins. In order to study the humoral immune responses against different HCV pr...

    Authors: Maarit Sillanpää, Krister Melén, Päivi Porkka, Riku Fagerlund, Kaisu Nevalainen, Maija Lappalainen and Ilkka Julkunen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:84
  13. The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA) in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The ...

    Authors: Renato L Rombaldi, Eduardo P Serafini, Jovana Mandelli, Edineia Zimmermann and Kamille P Losquiavo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:83
  14. Diarrhea kills 2 million children worldwide each year, yet an etiological agent is not found in approximately 30–50% of cases. Picornaviral genera such as enterovirus, kobuvirus, cosavirus, parechovirus, hepat...

    Authors: Alexander L Greninger, Charles Runckel, Charles Y Chiu, Thomas Haggerty, Julie Parsonnet, Donald Ganem and Joseph L DeRisi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:82
  15. Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid proteins can self-assemble into pentamers (capsomeres) that are immunogenic and can elicit neutralizing antibodies. Structural modelling of L1 inter-pentameric interactions...

    Authors: Yoshihiko Murata, Paula M Lightfoote, Robert C Rose and Edward E Walsh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:81
  16. Correction to Ramírez-Rodríguez VR, Frías-Treviño G, Aviña-Padilla K, Silva-Rosales L, Martínez-Soria JP: Presence of necrotic strains of Potato virus Y in Mexican potatoes. Virology Journal 2009, 6:48

    Authors: Victoriano Roberto Ramírez-Rodríguez, Gustavo Frías-Treviño, Katia Aviña-Padilla and Juan Pablo Martínez-Soriano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:80

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2009 6:48

  17. The glycosylated membrane protein M of the severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the main structural component of the virion and mediates assembly and budding of viral particle...

    Authors: Daniel Voß, Susanne Pfefferle, Christian Drosten, Lea Stevermann, Elisabetta Traggiai, Antonio Lanzavecchia and Stephan Becker
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:79
  18. The genetic diversity of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to lay the groundwork for the design of successful drugs or vaccine. In this study we aimed to characterize and define the m...

    Authors: Sabri Saeed Sanabani, Évelyn Reginade Souza Pastena, Walter Kleine Neto, Claudia C Barreto, Kelly T Ferrari, Erika MN Kalmar, Suzete Ferreira and Ester Cerdeira Sabino
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:78
  19. Chikungunya fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of CHIKV virus infected Aedes mosquitoes. During monsoon outbreak of chikungunya fever, we carried out the genetic predisposition to chikungu...

    Authors: Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy, Vemula Sarojamma and Vadde Ramakrishna
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:77
  20. Avian influenza viruses continue to threaten globally with pandemic potential. The first step in a potential pandemic is the ability of the virus to enter human cells which is mediated by the viral surface gly...

    Authors: Emily Rumschlag-Booms, Ying Guo, Jizhen Wang, Michael Caffrey and Lijun Rong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:76
  21. Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause high morbidity and mortality among the poultry worldwide. Their highly mutative nature often results in the emergence of drug resistant strains, which have the potential of ...

    Authors: Mohamed Rajik, Fatemeh Jahanshiri, Abdul Rahman Omar, Aini Ideris, Sharifah Syed Hassan and Khatijah Yusoff
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:74
  22. Outbreaks of Dengue impose a heavy economic burden on developing countries in terms of vector control and human morbidity. Effective vaccines against all four serotypes of Dengue are in development, but popula...

    Authors: Pruksa Nawtaisong, James Keith, Tresa Fraser, Velmurugan Balaraman, Andrey Kolokoltsov, Robert A Davey, Stephen Higgs, Ahmed Mohammed, Yupha Rongsriyam, Narumon Komalamisra and Malcolm J Fraser Jr
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:73
  23. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality of hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical fe...

    Authors: Skender Telaku, Hajrullah Fejza, Ymer Elezi and Teuta Bicaj
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:72
  24. Anatid herpesvirus 1 (AHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus associated with latent infection and mortality in ducks and geese and is currently affecting the world-wide waterfowl production severely. Here we describe a...

    Authors: Yufei Guo, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Chanjuan Shen, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen and Na Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:71
  25. Pegylated interferon alpha 2 (a or b) plus ribavirin is the most effective treatment of chronic hepatitis C but a large proportion of patients do not respond to therapy. So, it is interesting to improve the tr...

    Authors: Aurelie Dubois, Catherine François, Veronique Descamps, Carole Fournier, Czeslaw Wychowski, Jean Dubuisson, Sandrine Castelain and Gilles Duverlie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:70
  26. Early in infection, the genome of the influenza A virus, consisting of eight complexes of RNA and proteins (termed viral ribonucleoproteins; vRNPs), enters the nucleus of infected cells for replication. Incomi...

    Authors: Winco WH Wu and Nelly Panté
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:68
  27. Influenza A virus infects not only humans, but also other species including avian and swine. If a novel influenza A subtype acquires the ability to spread between humans efficiently, it could cause the next pa...

    Authors: Yuki Furuse, Akira Suzuki, Taro Kamigaki and Hitoshi Oshitani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:67
  28. The reason(s) why human antibodies raised against hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 epitopes do not offer protection against multiple viral infections may be related to either genetic variations among viral strains p...

    Authors: Mostafa K El-Awady, Ashraf A Tabll, Yasmine S El-Abd, Hassan Yousif, Mohsen Hegab, Mohamed Reda, Reem El Shenawy, Rehab I Moustafa, Nabila Degheidy and Noha G Bader El Din
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:66
  29. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE) gene expression is stimulated by the vir...

    Authors: Iain P Nicholson, Jane S Sutherland, Tanya N Chaudry, Earl L Blewett, Peter A Barry, Mary Jane Nicholl and Chris M Preston
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:65
  30. The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical...

    Authors: Seraina Tester, Valerie Juillerat, Marcus G Doherr, Bianca Haase, Miroslaw Polak, Felix Ehrensperger, Tosso Leeb, Andreas Zurbriggen and Torsten Seuberlich
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:64
  31. Currently, there is no evidence on the combination of lamivudine and thymosin alpha-1 on chronic hepatitis B patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of lamivudine monotherapy with that of lam...

    Authors: Yuan-Yuan Zhang, En-Qiang Chen, Jin Yang, Yu-Rong Duan and Hong Tang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:63
  32. Pancreatic islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus, but current immunosuppressive strategies do not consistently provide long-term survival of transplanted islets. We are th...

    Authors: Anthony T Craig, Oksana Gavrilova, Nancy K Dwyer, William Jou, Stephanie Pack, Eric Liu, Klaus Pechhold, Michael Schmidt, Victor J McAlister, John A Chiorini, E Joan Blanchette-Mackie, David M Harlan and Roland A Owens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:61
  33. Porcine circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA viruses that infect swine and wild boars. Two species of porcine circoviruses exist. Porcine circovirus type 1 is non pathogenic contrary to porcine circov...

    Authors: Florence Faurez, Daniel Dory, Béatrice Grasland and André Jestin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:60
  34. The genome of measles virus consists of a non-segmented single-stranded RNA molecule of negative polarity, which is encapsidated by the viral nucleoprotein (N) within a helical nucleocapsid. The N protein poss...

    Authors: Matteo Colombo, Jean-Marie Bourhis, Celia Chamontin, Carine Soriano, Stéphanie Villet, Stéphanie Costanzo, Marie Couturier, Valérie Belle, André Fournel, Hervé Darbon, Denis Gerlier and Sonia Longhi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:59
  35. Hepatitis E is an increasingly diagnosed human disease in Central Europe. Besides domestic pigs, in which hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is highly prevalent, wild boars have been identified as a possible so...

    Authors: Anika Schielke, Katja Sachs, Michael Lierz, Bernd Appel, Andreas Jansen and Reimar Johne
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:58
  36. Current small animal models for studying HIV-1 infection are very limited, and this continues to be a major obstacle for studying HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis, as well as for the urgent development and eva...

    Authors: Jorge CG Blanco, Lioubov M Pletneva, Lindsay Wieczorek, Dimple Khetawat, Tzanko S Stantchev, Christopher C Broder, Victoria R Polonis and Gregory A Prince
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:57
  37. Macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in host defense against HSV-1 infection. Although macrophages and DCs can be infected by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), both cell types are resistant ...

    Authors: Kevin R Mott, David UnderHill, Steven L Wechsler, Terrence Town and Homayon Ghiasi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:56
  38. Poxvirus-vectored vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer are currently under development. We hypothesized that the extensive use of poxvirus-vectored vaccine in future might result in co-infection and...

    Authors: Malachy Ifeanyi Okeke, Øivind Nilssen, Ugo Moens, Morten Tryland and Terje Traavik
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:55
  39. An unprecedented high proportion of oseltamivir resistant influenza A(H1N1) viruses emerged in the 2007–08 influenza season. In Norway, two thirds of all tested A(H1N1) viruses were resistant to the antiviral ...

    Authors: Siri H Hauge, Hege S Blix, Katrine Borgen, Olav Hungnes, Susanne G Dudman and Preben Aavitsland
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:54
  40. The frequent oral shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the absence of clinical disease suggests that symptomatic HSV-1 recurrences may be inhibited by the mucosal environment. Indeed, saliva has ...

    Authors: Hannamari Välimaa, Jorma Tenovuo, Matti Waris and Veijo Hukkanen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:53
  41. Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus, a novel Avipoxvirus isolated from African penguins, reveals its relationship to other poxviruses. The genes corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1...

    Authors: Olivia Carulei, Nicola Douglass and Anna-Lise Williamson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:52
  42. The triple-gene-block protein 2 (TGBp2) of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) is a transmembrane protein which was proposed to be involved in viral RNA binding during virus transport. Here, we report on the RNA-binding p...

    Authors: Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Yang-Hao Tseng, Yuan-Lin Chou, Shiaw-Hwa Su, Yau-Heiu Hsu and Ban-Yang Chang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:50
  43. As part of a routine screening for the possible presence of the necrotic strains of potato virus Y affecting potatoes in Mexico, five PVY isolates were submitted to biological and molecular analysis. Consideri...

    Authors: Victoriano Roberto Ramírez-Rodríguez, Katia Aviña-Padilla, Gustavo Frías-Treviño, Laura Silva-Rosales and Juan Pablo Martínez-Soriano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2009 6:48