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  1. Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups globally. The problem is magnified in developing countries including Africa. These viruses are highly prevalent with high genetic di...

    Authors: Dessie Tegegne Afework, Mulu Kebede Shumie, Getachew Ferede Endalew, Aschalew Gelaw Adugna and Baye Gelaw Tarekegn
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:115
  2. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been proved highly associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Authors: Jian-an Jia, Shuqin Zhang, Xin Bai, Meng Fang, Shipeng Chen, Xiaotao Liang, Shanfeng Zhu, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Anye Zhang, Jianfeng Feng, Fengzhu Sun and Chunfang Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:114
  3. The H9N2 virus can infect not only birds but also humans. The pathogenicity of H9N2 virus infection is determined by an excessive immune response in the lung. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the active metabol...

    Authors: Xiaofei Niu, Hongyan Wang, Lihong Zhao, Pengjing Lian, Yu Bai, Jingyun Li and Jian Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:113
  4. Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most serious pathogens endangering the duck industry. However, there are few studies on the regulation of the cell cycle by DHAV-1.

    Authors: Yuanzhi Liu, Yanglin Li, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Di Sun, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Renyong Jia, Bin Tian, Shaqiu Zhang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:111
  5. Hepatitis B virus can induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing a host immune response against infected hepatocytes. C-terminally truncated middle surface protein (MHBSt) has been reported to contribut...

    Authors: Bin Cheng, Qiong Wang, Zhiqiang Wei, Yulin He, Ruiming Li, Guohua Liu, Shaobo Zeng and Zhongji Meng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:110
  6. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory condition with uncontrolled activation of lymphocytes and macrophages. Besides a primary (genetic) form, HLH can also be triggered by malignant, ...

    Authors: Hans Martin Orth, Andre Fuchs, Nadine Lübke, Björn-Erik Ole Jensen and Tom Luedde
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:107
  7. MDA-7/IL-24 cytokine has shown potent antitumor properties in various types of cancer without exerting any significant toxicity on healthy cells. It has also been proved to encompass pro-immune Th1 cytokine-li...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Miri, Behzad Pourhossein, Seyed Younes Hosseini, Mohsen Keshavarz, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Ali Gorji and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:106
  8. As a new epi-center of COVID-19 in Asia and a densely populated developing country, Indonesia is facing unprecedented challenges in public health. SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.466.2 was reported to be an indigenous ...

    Authors: Mingjian Zhu, Qianli Zeng, Bryanna Infinita Laviashna Saputro, Sien Ping Chew, Ian Chew, Holie Frendy, Joanna Weihui Tan and Lanjuan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:103
  9. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin for COVID-19 patients based on current peer-reviewed RCTs and to address disputes over the existing evidence.

    Authors: Arman Shafiee, Mohammad Mobin Teymouri Athar, Omid Kohandel Gargari, Kyana Jafarabady, Sepehr Siahvoshi and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:102
  10. Certain clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mimic those associated with human herpesvirus (HHV) infection. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of herpesvirus in patients with COVID...

    Authors: Vanessa Cristine de Souza Carneiro, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Dmitry José de Santana Sarmento, Wagner Luis da Costa Nunes Pimentel Coelho, Otacilio da Cruz Moreira, Andreza Lemos Salvio, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Ramos, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Ramos Filho, Carla Augusta Barreto Marques, João Paulo da Costa Gonçalves, Luciane Almeida Amado Leon and Vanessa Salete de Paula
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:101
  11. Mosquito-borne viruses pose a serious threat to humans worldwide. There has been an upsurge in the number of mosquito-borne viruses in Europe, mostly belonging to the families Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus (Sindb...

    Authors: Ruchika Shakya, Morten Tryland, Rose Vikse, Javier Sánchez Romano, Kjetil Åsbakk, Ingebjørg H. Nymo, Reidar Mehl, Magnus Evander, Clas Ahlm, Olli Vapalahti, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Niina Putkuri, Wenche Johansen, Arnulf Soleng, Kristin S. Edgar and Åshild K. Andreassen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:99
  12. Echovirus 9 (E9) is associated with a wide variety of diseases and medical conditions, and the clinical symptoms of sporadic cases caused by E9 often are severe. With a high global prevalence, E9 has caused mu...

    Authors: Fenfen Si, Tianjiao Ji, Dongyan Wang, Yong Zhang, Shuangli Zhu, Junhan Li, Wenbo Xu and Dongmei Yan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:98
  13. The aim of this study was to characterize the genome of a recombinant Enterovirus associated with severe and fatal nosocomial infection; it was typed as Echovirus 11 (E-11) according to the VP1 gene. Enterovir...

    Authors: Martina Rueca, Simone Lanini, Emanuela Giombini, Francesco Messina, Concetta Castilletti, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Maria Beatrice Valli
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:97
  14. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) is an important indicator for the virus infection, highlighting the crucial role of NP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in multiple biochemical assays and cli...

    Authors: Bing Zhou, Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Huimin Guo, Senlin Shen, Haiyan Wang, Xiangyang Ge, Lei Liu, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:96
  15. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regression rate of CIN2 p16 positive lesions in women over 25 years of age and identify possible predictors of regression.

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Nazario Cassaro, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Arianna Guaita and Sara Boemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:95
  16. The thermal stability of viruses in gelatin liquid formulations for medical research and application is poorly understood and this study aimed to examine the thermal stability of 4 enveloped and nonenveloped D...

    Authors: Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Kazuki Kotani, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Yosuke Hiraoka and Katsuro Hagiwara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:94
  17. Phylogenetic studies indicate bats as original hosts of SARS-CoV-2. However, it remains unclear whether other animals, including pets, are crucial in the spread and maintenance of COVID-19 worldwide.

    Authors: Rodrigo Lima Carneiro, Jéssica Pires Farias, Josilene Ramos Pinheiro, Jackson Farias, André Carloto Vielmo, Alexander Birbrair, Aline Belmok, Fernando Lucas Melo, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Gepoliano Chaves, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Wilson Barros Luiz and Jaime Henrique Amorim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:93
  18. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global health. This virus affects the respiratory tract and usua...

    Authors: Soheila Montazersaheb, Seyed Mahdi Hosseiniyan Khatibi, Mohammad Saeid Hejazi, Vahideh Tarhriz, Afsaneh Farjami, Faramarz Ghasemian Sorbeni, Raheleh Farahzadi and Tohid Ghasemnejad
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:92
  19. A variety of cis-acting RNA elements with structures in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of viral genomes play key roles in viral translation. Cherry virus A (CVA) is a member of the genus Capillovirus in ...

    Authors: Deya Wang, Chen Yang, Yanmei Deng, Xue Cao, Wei Xu, Zishuo Han, Qingliang Li, Yang Yang and Xuefeng Yuan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:91
  20. Persistent HPV16 infection is the leading risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Anti-L1 antibodies against HPV16 produced in HPV16 infections play diverse roles in the clearance of virus infection and pr...

    Authors: Meiying Li, Jianmei Huang, Yi Zhu, Ziyi Huang, Guonan Zhang and Jianming Huang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:90
  21. Bovine adenovirus 7 (BAdV-7) is an unclassified member of the genus Atadenovirus with a worldwide distribution and has been reported to induce clinical disease of varying severity in infected cattle, ranging f...

    Authors: Sonja T. Jesse, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Ute Siesenop, Ingo Spitzbarth, A. D. M. E. Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner and Martin Ludlow
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:89
  22. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection remains a serious public health threat. Due to drug resistance and side effects of the conventional antiviral drugs, repurposing the available natural compounds with high tole...

    Authors: Hadiseh Shokouhi Targhi, Parvaneh Mehrbod, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Mehriar Amininasab
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:88

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:105

  23. The new coronavirus (COVID-19) has been transmitted exponentially. Numerous studies have been performed in recent years that have shown the inhibitory effect of plant extracts or plant-derived compounds on the...

    Authors: Mina Mobini Kesheh, Sara Shavandi, Niloofar Haeri Moghaddam, Moazzameh Ramezani and Fatemeh Ramezani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:87
  24. To investigate the protective efficacy and mechanism of ZF2001 (a protein subunit vaccine with conditional approval in China) to SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant-induced severe pneumonia, the lethal challenge model of...

    Authors: Lianlian Bian, Yu Bai, Fan Gao, Mingchen Liu, Qian He, Xing Wu, Qunying Mao, Miao Xu and Zhenglun Liang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:86
  25. In research questions such as in resistance breeding against the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus it is of interest to compare the virus concentrations of samples from different groups. The enzyme-linked immunosor...

    Authors: Thomas M. Lange, Maria Rotärmel, Dominik Müller, Gregory S. Mahone, Friedrich Kopisch-Obuch, Harald Keunecke and Armin O. Schmitt
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:85
  26. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to reduce pain, fever, and inflammation but have been associated with complications in community-acquired pneumonia. Observations shortly after ...

    Authors: Justin T. Reese, Ben Coleman, Lauren Chan, Hannah Blau, Tiffany J. Callahan, Luca Cappelletti, Tommaso Fontana, Katie R. Bradwell, Nomi L. Harris, Elena Casiraghi, Giorgio Valentini, Guy Karlebach, Rachel Deer, Julie A. McMurry, Melissa A. Haendel, Christopher G. Chute…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:84
  27. The C4 sub-genotype of Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been identified as the most dominant sub-genotype circulating in the Chinese mainland since 1998. The circulation situation of EV71 before 1998 is not well esta...

    Authors: Fenfen Si, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Yong Zhang, Shuangli Zhu, Junhan Li, Wenbo Xu, Zexin Tao and Dongmei Yan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:83
  28. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HnRNP) F is a member of HnRNP family proteins that participate in splicing of cellular newly synthesized mRNAs by specifically recognizing tandem guanine-tracts (G-trac...

    Authors: Aiguo Zhang, Yanting Sun, Huiyuan Jing, Jie Liu, Erzhen Duan, Wenting Ke, Ran Tao, Yang Li, Jinhe Wang, Sufang Cao, Pandeng Zhao, Haihua Wang and Yan Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:82
  29. Human rhinovirus C (HRV-C) accounts for a large proportion of HRV-related illnesses, but the immune response to HRV-C infection has not been elucidated. Our objective was to assess the effect of HRV-C on cytok...

    Authors: Xin-hui Yuan, Li-li Pang, Jing Yang and Yu Jin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:81
  30. Torquetenovirus (TTV), a widespread anellovirus recognized as the main component of the healthy human virome, displays viremia that is highly susceptible to variations in immune competence. TTV possesses micro...

    Authors: Maria Alfreda Stincarelli, Andreina Baj, Bernardo Guidotti, Pietro Giorgio Spezia, Federica Novazzi, Ersilia Lucenteforte, Silvia Tillati, Daniele Focosi, Fabrizio Maggi and Simone Giannecchini
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:79
  31. To retain the spread of SARS-CoV-2, fast, sensitive and cost-effective testing is essential, particularly in resource limited settings (RLS). Current standard nucleic acid-based RT-PCR assays, although highly ...

    Authors: Kathleen Gärtner, Harry Meleke, Mercy Kamdolozi, David Chaima, Lyson Samikwa, Mary Paynter, Maggie Nyirenda Nyang’Wa, Elaine Cloutman-Green, Eleni Nastouli, Nigel Klein, Tonney Nyirenda, Chisomo Msefula and Dagmar G. Alber
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:77
  32. During the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic caused by the emerging virus SARS-CoV-2, research in the field of coronaviruses has expanded tremendously. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly acquired numerous mutations,...

    Authors: Lena Mautner, Mona Hoyos, Alexandra Dangel, Carola Berger, Anja Ehrhardt and Armin Baiker
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:76
  33. Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are prone to complicate viral infection. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement caused by the viruses is rare but with poor progno...

    Authors: Enyi Liu, Shuhe Lv, Panpan Yi, Li Feng, Xiaolu Deng, Han Xia and Yajing Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:75
  34. Selectively replicating herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) vector is a promising treatment for cancer therapy. The insertion of multiple transgenes into the viral genome has been performed to improve its oncolytic...

    Authors: Han Hu, Siqi Zhang, Linkang Cai, Haixiao Duan, Yuying Li, Junhan Yang, Yang Wang, Biao Liu, Shuang Dong, Zhizheng Fang and Binlei Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:74
  35. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a blood borne infection that remains potentially transmissible through blood transfusions. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a common inheritable haemoglobinopathy in Ghana that...

    Authors: Gifty Mawuli, Bartholomew Dzudzor, Kenneth Tachi, Amma Anima Benneh-Akwasi Kuma, James Odame-Aboagye, Billal Musah Obeng, Anthony Twumasi Boateng, Elijah Paa Edu-Quansah, Keren Okyerebea Attiku, Esinam Agbosu, Augustina Arjarquah and Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:73
  36. Rhinovirus is a common viral aetiology of upper respiratory infection and is mostly associated with common cold or flu-like illness. Although rhinovirus has been recognized as a pathogen for lower respiratory ...

    Authors: Jun Liu, Hongwei Zhao, Ziheng Feng, Yingchao Liu, Qianyu Feng, Suyun Qian, Lili Xu, Hengmiao Gao and Zhengde Xie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:72
  37. Cervical cancer is a common malignant tumor in women, with a high mortality rate, has great harm to women’s health. Long-term and persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the main rea...

    Authors: Zhiping Yang, Chunlin Zhang, Ping Luo, Mengxia Ye, Quan Gong and Bing Mei
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:71
  38. Enterovirus (EV), parechovirus (HPeV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1/2) are common viruses leading to viral central nervous system (CNS) infections which are increasingly predominant but exhibit deficienc...

    Authors: Xunhua Zhu, Pengcheng Liu, Lijuan Lu, Huaqing Zhong, Menghua Xu, Ran Jia, Liyun Su, Lingfeng Cao, Yameng Sun, Meijun Guo, Jianyue Sun and Jin Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:70
  39. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) has emerged as an active pathogen in myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and pancreatitis, and is a heavy burden on public health. However, CVB3 has ...

    Authors: Qian Yang, Dongmei Yan, Yang Song, Shuangli Zhu, Yun He, Zhenzhi Han, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Yong Zhang and Wenbo Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:69
  40. The onset and progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are closely associated with the persistent infection of high-risk HPV (especially type16), which is mainly caused by immune escape. Natural...

    Authors: You Nie, Dandan Liu, Wen Yang, Yazhuo Li, Lihua Zhang, Xia Cheng, Ruyu Chen, Bingbing Yuan, Guangzheng Zhang and Hongwei Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:68
  41. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a macrophage-tropic arterivirus with extremely high genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity that causes significant economic losses in the swine indu...

    Authors: Seung-Chai Kim, Sung-Hyun Moon, Chang-Gi Jeong, Gyeong-Seo Park, Ji-Young Park, Hye-Young Jeoung, Go-Eun Shin, Mi-Kyeong Ko, Seoung-Hee Kim, Kyoung-Ki Lee, Ho-Seong Cho and Won-Il Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:66
  42. Seneca Valley virus (SVV) is a picornavirus that causes vesicular disease in swine. Clinical characteristics of the disease are similar to common viral diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine ve...

    Authors: Wei Wen, Xinghua Chen, Qiang Lv, Huanchun Chen, Ping Qian and Xiangmin Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:65