Blome S, Franzke K, Beer M. African swine fever - A review of current knowledge. Virus Res. 2020;287:198099.
Galindo I, Alonso C. African swine fever virus: a review. Viruses. 2017;9:103.
Sánchez-Cordón PJ, Montoya M, Reis AL, Dixon LK. African swine fever: a re-emerging viral disease threatening the global pig industry. Vet J. 2018;233:41–8.
Revilla Y, Pérez-Núñez D, Richt JA. African swine fever virus biology and vaccine approaches. Adv Virus Res. 2018;100:41–74.
Alonso C, Borca M, Dixon L, Revilla Y, Rodriguez F, Escribano JM, Ictv Report C. ICTV virus taxonomy profile: asfarviridae. J Gen Virol. 2018;99:613–4.
Karger A, Pérez-Núñez D, Urquiza J, Hinojar P, Alonso C, Freitas FB, Revilla Y, Le Potier MF, Montoya M. An update on african swine fever virology. Viruses. 2019;11:864.
Quembo CJ, Jori F, Vosloo W, Heath L. Genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks at the wildlife/domestic interface in Mozambique and identification of a novel genotype. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2018;65:420–31.
Gallardo MC, Reoyo AT, Fernández-Pinero J, Iglesias I, Muñoz MJ, Arias ML. African swine fever: a global view of the current challenge. Porcine Health Manag. 2015;1:21.
Ge S, Li J, Fan X, Liu F, Li L, Wang Q, Ren W, Bao J, Liu C, Wang H, et al. Molecular characterization of African swine fever virus, China, 2018. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24:2131–3.
Kim HJ, Cho KH, Lee SK, Kim DY, Nah JJ, Kim HJ, Kim HJ, Hwang JY, Sohn HJ, Choi JG, et al. Outbreak of African swine fever in South Korea, 2019. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67:473–5.
Arias M, de la Torre A, Dixon L, Gallardo C, Jori F, Laddomada A, Martins C, Parkhouse RM, Revilla Y, Rodriguez FAJ. Approaches and perspectives for development of african swine fever virus vaccines. Vaccines (Basel). 2017;5:35.
Rock DL. Thoughts on African swine fever vaccines. Viruses. 2021;13:943.
Sánchez EG, Pérez-Núñez D, Revilla Y. Development of vaccines against African swine fever virus. Virus Res. 2019;265:150–5.
Mebus CA. African swine fever. Adv Virus Res. 1988;35:251–69.
Blome S, Gabriel C, Beer M. Modern adjuvants do not enhance the efficacy of an inactivated African swine fever virus vaccine preparation. Vaccine. 2014;32:3879–82.
Mebus CA, Dardiri AH. Western hemisphere isolates of African swine fever virus: asymptomatic carriers and resistance to challenge inoculation. Am J Vet Res. 1980;41:1867–9.
O’Donnell V, Holinka LG, Sanford B, Krug PW, Carlson J, Pacheco JM, Reese B, Risatti GR, Gladue DP, Borca MV. African swine fever virus Georgia isolate harboring deletions of 9GL and MGF360/505 genes is highly attenuated in swine but does not confer protection against parental virus challenge. Virus Res. 2016;221:8–14.
Borca MV, Ramirez-Medina E, Silva E, Vuono E, Rai A, Pruitt S, Holinka LG, Velazquez-Salinas L, Zhu J, Gladue DP. Development of a highly effective African swine fever virus vaccine by deletion of the I177L gene results in sterile immunity against the current epidemic eurasia strain. J Virol. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02017-19.
Muñoz-Pérez C, Jurado C, Sánchez-Vizcaíno JM. African swine fever vaccine: turning a dream into reality. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021;68:2657–68.
Borca MV, Ramirez-Medina E, Silva E, Vuono E, Rai A, Pruitt S, Espinoza N, Velazquez-Salinas L, Gay CG, Gladue DP. ASFV-G-∆I177L as an effective oral nasal vaccine against the eurasia strain of Africa swine fever. Viruses. 2021;13:765.
Tran XH, Le TTP, Nguyen QH, Do TT, Nguyen VD, Gay CG, Borca MV, Gladue DP. African swine fever virus vaccine candidate ASFV-G-ΔI177L efficiently protects European and native pig breeds against circulating Vietnamese field strain. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.14329.
Zhang Y, Ke J, Zhang J, Yang J, Yue H, Zhou X, Qi Y, Zhu R, Miao F, Li Q, et al. African swine fever virus bearing an I226R gene deletion elicits robust immunity in pigs to African swine fever. J Virol. 2021;95:e0119921.
Velazquez-Salinas L, Ramirez-Medina E, Rai A, Pruitt S, Vuono EA, Espinoza N, Gladue DP, Borca MV. Development real-time PCR assays to genetically differentiate vaccinated pigs from infected pigs with the eurasian strain of African swine fever virus. Front Vet Sci. 2021;8:768869.
Dixon LK, Sun H, Roberts H. African swine fever. Antiviral Res. 2019;165:34–41.
Kollnberger SD, Gutierrez-Castaneda B, Foster-Cuevas M, Corteyn A, Parkhouse RME. Identification of the principal serological immunodeterminants of African swine fever virus by screening a virus cDNA library with antibody. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1331–42.
Gómez-Puertas P, Rodríguez F, Oviedo JM, Ramiro-Ibáñez F, Ruiz-Gonzalvo F, Alonso C, Escribano JM. Neutralizing antibodies to different proteins of African swine fever virus inhibit both virus attachment and internalization. J Virol. 1996;70:5689–94.
Barderas MG, Rodríguez F, Gómez-Puertas P, Avilés M, Beitia F, Alonso C, Escribano JM. Antigenic and immunogenic properties of a chimera of two immunodominant African swine fever virus proteins. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1681–91.
Gómez-Puertas P, Rodríguez F, Oviedo JM, Brun A, Alonso C, Escribano JM. The African swine fever virus proteins p54 and p30 are involved in two distinct steps of virus attachment and both contribute to the antibody-mediated protective immune response. Virology. 1998;243:461–71.
Argilaguet JM, Pérez-Martín E, Nofrarías M, Gallardo C, Accensi F, Lacasta A, Mora M, Ballester M, Galindo-Cardiel I, López-Soria S, et al. DNA vaccination partially protects against African swine fever virus lethal challenge in the absence of antibodies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40942.
Lacasta A, Ballester M, Monteagudo PL, Rodríguez JM, Salas ML, Accensi F, Pina-Pedrero S, Bensaid A, Argilaguet J, López-Soria S. Expression library immunization can confer protection against lethal challenge with African swine fever virus. J Virol. 2014;88:13322–32.
Basto AP, Piedade J, Ramalho R, Alves S, Soares H, Cornelis P, Martins C, Leitão A. A new cloning system based on the OprI lipoprotein for the production of recombinant bacterial cell wall-derived immunogenic formulations. J Biotechnol. 2012;157:50–63.
Leitão A, Malur A, Cornelis P, Martins CLV. Identification of a 25-aminoacid sequence from the major African swine fever virus structural protein VP72 recognised by porcine cytotoxic T lymphocytes using a lipoprotein based expression system. J Virol Methods. 1998;75:113–9.
Cote-Sierra J, Bredan A, Toldos CM, Stijlemans B, Brys L, Cornelis P, Segovia M, de Baetselier P, Revets H. Bacterial lipoprotein-based vaccines induce tumor necrosis factor-dependent type 1 protective immunity against Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 2002;70:240–8.
Leng CH, Chen HW, Chang LS, Liu HH, Liu HY, Sher YP, Chang YW, Lien SP, Huang TY, Chen MY, et al. A recombinant lipoprotein containing an unsaturated fatty acid activates NF-kappaB through the TLR2 signaling pathway and induces a differential gene profile from a synthetic lipopeptide. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2015–21.
Aguado-Martinez A, Basto AP, Mueller J, Balmer V, Manser V, Leitao A, Hemphill A. N-terminal fusion of a toll-like receptor 2-ligand to a Neospora caninum chimeric antigen efficiently modifies the properties of the specific immune response. Parasitology. 2016;143:606–16.
Aguado-Martínez A, Basto AP, Tanaka S, Ryser LT, Nunes TP, Ortega-Mora L-M, Arranz-Solís D, Leitão A, Hemphill A. Immunization with a cocktail of antigens fused with OprI reduces Neospora caninum vertical transmission and postnatal mortality in mice. Vaccine. 2019;37:473–83.
Carrascosa AL, Santarén JF, Viñuela E. Production and titration of African swine fever virus in porcine alveolar macrophages. J Virol Methods. 1982;3:303–10.
Li L, Wu J, Liu D, Du G, Liu Y, Shang Y, Liu X. Transcriptional profiles of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in response to peste des petits ruminants virus. Vet Sci. 2019;6:95.
Gómez-Puertas P, Oviedo JM, Rodríguez F, Coll J, Escribano JM. Neutralization susceptibility of African swine fever virus is dependent on the phospholipid composition of viral particles. Virology. 1997;228:180–9.
Neilan JG, Zsak L, Lu Z, Burrage TG, Kutish GF, Rock DL. Neutralizing antibodies to African swine fever virus proteins p30, p54, and p72 are not sufficient for antibody-mediated protection. Virology. 2004;319:337–42.
Teklue T, Sun Y, Abid M, Luo Y, Qiu HJ. Current status and evolving approaches to African swine fever vaccine development. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2020;67:529–42.
Rau H, Revets H, Cornelis P, Titzmann A, Ruggli N, McCullough KC, Summerfield A. Efficacy and functionality of lipoprotein OprI from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as adjuvant for a subunit vaccine against classical swine fever. Vaccine. 2006;24:4757–68.
Leitão A, Malur A, Cartaxeiro C, Vasco G, Cruz B, Cornelis P, Martins CL. Bacterial lipoprotein based expression vectors as tools for the characterisation of African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens. Arch Virol. 2000;145:1639–57.
Tarkowski A, Lue C, Moldoveanu Z, Kiyono H, McGhee JR, Mestecky J. Immunization of humans with polysaccharide vaccines induces systemic, predominantly polymeric IgA2-subclass antibody responses. J Immunol. 1990;144:3770–8.
Franke ED, Corradin G, Hoffman SL. Induction of protective CTL responses against the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein by immunization with peptides. J Immunol. 1997;159:3424–33.
Wen X, Wen K, Cao D, Li G, Jones RW, Li J, Szu S, Hoshino Y, Yuan L. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4(+) T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit parenteral vaccines. Vaccine. 2014;32:4420–7.
Cui B, Liu X, Zhou P, Fang Y, Zhao D, Zhang Y, Wang Y. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins consisting of multiple epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus fused with flagellin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019;103:3367–79.
Kumar A, Arora R, Kaur P, Chauhan VS, Sharma P. “Universal” T helper cell determinants enhance immunogenicity of a Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen peptide. J Immunol. 1992;148:1499–505.
Basto AP, Morais J, Marcelino E, Leitão A, Santos DM. An efficient depyrogenation method for recombinant bacterial outer membrane lipoproteins. Protein Expr Purif. 2014;98:10–7.
Volovitz I, Melzer S, Amar S, Bocsi J, Bloch M, Efroni S, Ram Z, Tárnok A. Dendritic cells in the context of human tumors: biology and experimental tools. Int Rev Immunol. 2016;35:116–35.
Revets H, Pynaert G, Grooten J, De Baetselier P. Lipoprotein I, a TLR2/4 ligand modulates Th2-driven allergic immune responses. J Immunol. 2005;174:1097–103.
Basto AP, Badenes M, Almeida SC, Martins C, Duarte A, Santos DM, Leitão A. Immune response profile elicited by the model antigen ovalbumin expressed in fusion with the bacterial OprI lipoprotein. Mol Immunol. 2015;64:36–45.
Onisk DV, Borca MV, Kutish G, Kramer E, Irusta P, Rock DL. Passively transferred African swine fever virus antibodies protect swine against lethal infection. Virology. 1994;198:350–4.
Escribano JM, Galindo I, Alonso C. Antibody-mediated neutralization of African swine fever virus: myths and facts. Virus Res. 2013;173:101–9.
Zakaryan H, Revilla Y. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research. Vet Microbiol. 2016;185:15–9.
Gartner T, Baeten M, Otieno S, Revets H, De Baetselier P, Huygen K. Mucosal prime-boost vaccination for tuberculosis based on TLR triggering OprI lipoprotein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa fused to mycolyl-transferase Ag85A. Immunol Lett. 2007;111:26–35.
Zimmerli SC, Harari A, Cellerai C, Vallelian F, Bart PA, Pantaleo G. HIV-1-specific IFN-gamma/IL-2-secreting CD8 T cells support CD4-independent proliferation of HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7239–44.
Pérez-Núñez D, Sunwoo SY, Sánchez EG, Haley N, García-Belmonte R, Nogal M, Morozov I, Madden D, Gaudreault NN, Mur L, et al. Evaluation of a viral DNA-protein immunization strategy against African swine fever in domestic pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2019;208:34–43.
Foo DG, Alonso S, Phoon MC, Ramachandran NP, Chow VT, Poh CL. Identification of neutralizing linear epitopes from the VP1 capsid protein of Enterovirus 71 using synthetic peptides. Virus Res. 2007;125:61–8.
Kadelka C, Liechti T, Ebner H, Schanz M, Rusert P, Friedrich N, Stiegeler E, Braun DL, Huber M, Scherrer AU, et al. Distinct, IgG1-driven antibody response landscapes demarcate individuals with broadly HIV-1 neutralizing activity. J Exp Med. 2018;215:1589–608.
Zsak L, Onisk DV, Afonso CL, Rock DL. Virulent African swine fever virus isolates are neutralized by swine immune serum and by monoclonal antibodies recognizing a 72-kDa viral protein. Virology. 1993;196:596–602.
Ruiz Gonzalvo F, Caballero C, Martinez J, Carnero ME. Neutralization of African swine fever virus by sera from African swine fever-resistant pigs. Am J Vet Res. 1986;47:1858–62.
Jancovich JK, Chapman D, Hansen DT, Robida MD, Loskutov A, Craciunescu F, Borovkov A, Kibler K, Goatley L, King K, et al. Immunization of pigs by DNA prime and recombinant vaccinia virus boost to identify and rank African swine fever virus immunogenic and protective proteins. J Virol. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02219-17.
Lopera-Madrid J, Osorio JE, He Y, Xiang Z, Adams LG, Laughlin RC, Mwangi W, Subramanya S, Neilan J, Brake D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of mammalian cell derived and Modified Vaccinia Ankara vectored African swine fever subunit antigens in swine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2017;185:20–33.
Murgia MV, Mogler M, Certoma A, Green D, Monaghan P, Williams DT, Rowland RRR, Gaudreault NN. Evaluation of an African swine fever (ASF) vaccine strategy incorporating priming with an alphavirus-expressed antigen followed by boosting with attenuated ASF virus. Arch Virol. 2019;164:359–70.