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  1. Both the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 viruses have been reported to cross species barriers to infect humans. H5N1 viruses can cause severe damage...

    Authors: Yuting Yang, Yun Zhang, Changcheng Yang, Fang Fang, Ying Wang, Haiyan Chang, Ze Chen and Ping Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:39
  2. Influenza A virus (IAV) contains a genome with eight single-stranded, negative-sense RNA segments that encode 17 proteins. During its assembly, all eight separate viral RNA (vRNA) segments are incorporated int...

    Authors: Xiuli Li, Min Gu, Qinmei Zheng, Ruyi Gao and Xiufan Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:36
  3. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques constitute an excellent model of human HIV infection. Sensitive detection of SIV RNA in cell and tissue samples from infected animals subjected to t...

    Authors: Samuel Long and Brian Berkemeier
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:35
  4. Rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 during pandemic enables timely treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Evaluating the accuracy and reliability of rapid diagnostic testing kits is crucial for surveillance and diagn...

    Authors: Umar Saeed, Sara Rizwan Uppal, Zahra Zahid Piracha, Azhar Rasheed, Zubair Aftab, Hafsah Zaheer and Rizwan Uppal
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:34
  5. To investigate the predictive significance of different pneumonia scoring systems in clinical severity and mortality risk of patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia.

    Authors: PengFei Cheng, Hao Wu, JunZhe Yang, XiaoYang Song, MengDa Xu, BiXi Li, JunJun Zhang, MingZhe Qin, Cheng Zhou and Xiang Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:33
  6. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Yuefei Jin, Chao Zhang, Rongguang Zhang, Jingchao Ren, Shuaiyin Chen, Meili Sui, Guangyuan Zhou, Dejian Dang, Jiehui Zhu, Huifen Feng, Yuanlin Xi, Haiyan Yang and Guangcai Duan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:32

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2017 14:243

  7. Despite being a leading infectious cause of childhood disability globally, testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in pregnancy is generally not done in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), where breastfeeding practi...

    Authors: Kerina Duri, Simbarashe Chimhuya, Exnevia Gomo, Privilege Tendai Munjoma, Panashe Chandiwana, Louis Marie Yindom, Kudakwashe Mhandire, Asaph Ziruma, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Lovemore Ronald Mazengera, Benjamin Misselwitz, Felicity Zvanyadza Gumbo, Sebastian Jordi and Sarah Rowland-Jones
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:30
  8. Japanese encephalitis virus is a mosquito-borne neurotropic flavivirus that causes acute viral encephalitis in humans. Pigs are crucial amplifier host of JEV. Recently, increasing evidence has shown that long ...

    Authors: Xiaolong Zhou, Qiongyu Yuan, Chen Zhang, Zhenglie Dai, Chengtao Du, Han Wang, Xiangchen Li, Songbai Yang and Ayong Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:29
  9. Diverse vaccination outcomes and protection levels among different populations pose a serious challenge to the development of an effective malaria vaccine. Co-infections are among many factors associated with ...

    Authors: Anneth-Mwasi Tumbo, Tobias Schindler, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Nina Orlova-Fink, Jose Raso Bieri, Maximillian Mpina, Florence A. Milando, Omar Juma, Ali Hamad, Elizabeth Nyakarungu, Mwajuma Chemba, Ali Mtoro, Kamaka Ramadhan, Ally Olotu, Damas Makweba, Stephen Mgaya…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:28
  10. Orf virus (ORFV) is a member of the genus Parapoxvirus and family Poxviridae. The virus has a worldwide distribution and infects sheep, goats, humans, and wild animals. However, due to the complex structure of th...

    Authors: Guohua Chen, Xiaobing He, Huaijie Jia, Yongxiang Fang, Xiaoxia Wang, Zhongzi Lou, Fan Yang, Weike Li and Zhizhong Jing
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:27
  11. Herpes Simplex Virus type I (HSV-1) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that enters productive infection in epithelial cells and reorganizes the host nucleus. Cohesin, a major constituent of interphase and mi...

    Authors: Xin Li, Yafen Yu, Fengchao Lang, Guijun Chen, Erlin Wang, Lihong Li, Zhuoran Li, Liping Yang, Xia Cao, Nigel W. Fraser and Jumin Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:26
  12. The role of viruses as a cause of breast cancer (BC) has been significantly investigated in recent years. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in invasive breast carcinomas, while most studies have onl...

    Authors: Morvarid Golrokh Mofrad, Zohreh Azita Sadigh, Sanaz Ainechi and Ebrahim Faghihloo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:25
  13. Human polyomavirus 6 (HPyV6) and HPyV7 are two of the novel polyomaviruses that were originally detected in non-diseased skin. Serological studies have shown that these viruses are ubiquitous in the healthy ad...

    Authors: Carla Prezioso, Marijke Van Ghelue, Ugo Moens and Valeria Pietropaolo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:24
  14. African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease, affects domestic pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where regular outbreaks are reported leading to high mortality rates approach...

    Authors: Patrick N. Bisimwa, Juliette R. Ongus, Lucilla Steinaa, Espoir B. Bisimwa, Edwina Bochere, Eunice M. Machuka, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Edward Okoth and Roger Pelle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:23
  15. Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. Howev...

    Authors: Rui-hua Zhang, Hong-liang Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Chun-hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Jun Li, Tong Xu, Xue-jing Wang, Cun-lian Wang, Hui-chen Zhang, Ming-ju Xu and Shu-fei Tian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:22
  16. The generation of accurate and reproducible viral sequence data is necessary to understand the diversity present in populations of RNA viruses isolated from clinical samples. While various sequencing methods a...

    Authors: Ryan V. Moriarty, Nicolas Fesser, Matthew S. Sutton, Vanessa Venturi, Miles P. Davenport, Timothy Schlub and Shelby L. O’Connor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:21
  17. Coinfections of HIV-positive individuals with Hepatitis B and D virus (HBV and HDV) are common and can be associated with rapid liver damage. Several antiretroviral drugs for HIV exhibit anti-HBV effect; howev...

    Authors: Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye, Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi, Folakemi Abiodun Osundare, Bo Wang, Olufisayo Adesina, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Sola Thomas Sunday, Abiodun Akeem Akindele, Patrycja Klink and C. Thomas Bock
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:20
  18. In China, more than 20 million patients with chronic hepatitis B need antiviral treatment. Side effects of antiviral treatment such as renal complications can be problematic, particularly in an aging population.

    Authors: Jueqing Gu, Guodong Yu, Xiaoli Zhang, Shanyan Zhang, Huan Cai, Chanyuan Ye, Yida Yang, Dezhou Li, Zhaowei Tong, Huajiang Shen, Huazhong Chen, Feng Ding, Xijie Lai, Junyan Liu, Meiling Xu and Weiti Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:19
  19. Integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV replication that catalyzes insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral genome into the host chromosome during the early steps of viral infection. Highly active ant...

    Authors: Ki Hoon Park, Minjee Kim, Seoung Eun Bae, Hee Jung Lee, Kyung-Chang Kim, Byeong Sun Choi and Young Bong Kim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:17
  20. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety l...

    Authors: Hideki Tani, Miyuki Kimura, Long Tan, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hiroyuki Kishi, Shuetsu Fukushi, Masayuki Saijo, Kaori Sano, Tadaki Suzuki, Hitoshi Kawasuji, Akitoshi Ueno, Yuki Miyajima, Yasutaka Fukui, Ippei Sakamaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:16
  21. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the leading causes of acute, chronic and occult hepatitis (OBI) representing a serious public health threat. Cytokines are known to be important chemical mediators that re...

    Authors: Camilla Rodrigues de Almeida Ribeiro, Nathalia Alves Araújo de Almeida, Katrini Guidolini Martinelli, Marcia Amendola Pires, Carlos Eduardo Brandao Mello, José J. Barros and Vanessa Salete de Paula
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:15
  22. To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiwei Du, Li Guo, Feng Liu, Haoxiang Su and Fan Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:14
  23. COVID-19 is diagnosed via detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Performance of many SARS-CoV-2 rtRT-PCR assays is not entirely known due to the...

    Authors: Jamil N. Kanji, Nathan Zelyas, Clayton MacDonald, Kanti Pabbaraju, Muhammad Naeem Khan, Abhaya Prasad, Jia Hu, Mathew Diggle, Byron M. Berenger and Graham Tipples
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:13
  24. Chemokine levels in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been shown to be markedly elevated. But the role of chemokines in mild COVID-19 has not yet been established. According to the epide...

    Authors: Xueyan Xi, Yang Guo, Min Zhu, Yuhui Wei, Gang Li, Boyu Du and Yunfu Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:12
  25. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10
  26. Nowadays, hundreds of thousands of deaths per year are caused by antibiotic resistant nosocomial infections and the prognosis for future years is much worse, as evidenced by modern research. Bacteria of the Klebs...

    Authors: Fedor Zurabov and Evgeniy Zhilenkov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:9
  27. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major antigen that can induce protective antibodies in poultry. However, its antigenic epitopes have not been fully elucidated...

    Authors: Zhongyuan Jin, Qiaolin Wei, Youkun Bi, Yongshan Li, Na Huo, Sujing Mou, Wenbin Wang, Haijin Liu, Zengqi Yang, Hongjun Chen and Sa Xiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:8
  28. Tobamoviruses, including tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) on tomato and pepper, and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) on cucumber and watermelon, have caused many disease outbreaks around the ...

    Authors: Bidisha Chanda, Md Shamimuzzaman, Andrea Gilliard and Kai-Shu Ling
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:7
  29. Advances in sequencing and analysis tools have facilitated discovery of many new viruses from invertebrates, including ants. Solenopsis invicta is an invasive ant that has quickly spread worldwide causing signifi...

    Authors: César Augusto Diniz Xavier, Margaret Louise Allen and Anna Elizabeth Whitfield
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:5
  30. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) has been reported to be a surrogate marker of intrahepatic cccDNA during nucleos(t)ide analogs therapy. However, in HBeAg-positive patients treated with peg-interferon (pe...

    Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Xiumei Chi, Ruihong Wu, Hongqin Xu, Xiuzhu Gao, Lei Yu, Longgen Liu, Mingxiang Zhang, Youwen Tan, Junqi Niu and Qinglong Jin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:4
  31. Tomato production is threatened worldwide by the occurrence of begomoviruses which are associated with tomato leaf curl diseases. There is little information on the molecular properties of tomato begomoviruses...

    Authors: Edith Khamonya Avedi, Adedapo Olutola Adediji, Dora Chao Kilalo, Florence Mmogi Olubayo, Isaac Macharia, Elijah Miinda Ateka, Eunice Magoma Machuka and Josiah Musembi Mutuku
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:2
  32. Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion partic...

    Authors: Yue Zheng, Erin T. Larragoite, Elizabeth S. C. P. Williams, Juan Lama, Isabel Cisneros, Julio C. Delgado, Patricia Slev, Jenna Rychert, Emily A. Innis, Mayte Coiras, Matthew T. Rondina, Adam M. Spivak and Vicente Planelles
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:1
  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:199

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:192

  34. Rodent borne hantaviruses are emerging viruses infecting humans through inhalation. They cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hemorrhagic cardiopulmonary syndrome. Recently, hantaviruses have been d...

    Authors: Olivia Wesula Lwande, Nahla Mohamed, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Gert Olsson and Magnus Evander
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:198
  35. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is posing a serious threat to global public health. Reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Chunyang Dai, Huiyan Wang, Yong Gao, Tuantuan Li, Yan Fang, Zuojun Shen, Lichang Chen, Zhaowu Chen, Xuejun Ma and Ming Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:197
  36. The fight against the COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need to rapidly detect infected people. The challenge for clinical laboratories has been finding a high throughput, cost-efficient, and accurate te...

    Authors: Wesley Freppel, Natacha Merindol, Fabien Rallu and Marco Bergevin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:196
  37. Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is a pathogenic virus that infects dogs, causing a highly infectious disease. Monitoring CPV-2 spread is an important part of prevention; however, the prevalence and epidemiological...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Gaoqiang Zhang, Jiajia Zhang, Junyu Bai and Weiming Lin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:195
  38. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194
  39. The new emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overall shares similar symptoms with other common respiratory viral infections. We aimed in this study to compare COVID-19 and human adenovirus (HAdV) infec...

    Authors: Kuanrong Li, Ling Li, Xianfeng Wang, Hui Li, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Jianbo Shao, Yi Xu, Liya He, Sitang Gong, Huimin Xia and Huiying Liang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:193
  40. In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequentl...

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:192

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:199

  41. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191
  42. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in millions of infections worldwide. While the search for an effective antiviral is still ongoing, experimental ...

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdi, János András Mótyán, Zsófia Ilona Szojka, Mária Golda, Márió Miczi and József Tőzsér
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:190
  43. Lassa fever and Ebola are characterized by non-specific initial presentations that can progress to severe multisystem illnesses with high fatality rates. Samples from additional subjects are examined to extend...

    Authors: Trevor V. Gale, John S. Schieffelin, Luis M. Branco, Robert F. Garry and Donald S. Grant
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:188
  44. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, children, immunocompromised adults, and elderly individuals. Currently, there are few therapeutic optio...

    Authors: Saisai Wang, Yiting Ling, Yuanyuan Yao, Gang Zheng and Wenbin Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:187