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  1. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive, and oncogenic chicken pathogen causing marek’s disease (MD). In this outbreak-based study, 70 dual-purpose chickens that originated from p...

    Authors: Mastewal Birhan, Esayas Gelaye, Saddam Mohammed Ibrahim, Nega Berhane, Takele Abayneh, Belayneh Getachew, Aragaw Zemene, Kassahun Birie, Getaw Deresse, Kassaye Adamu, Bereket Dessalegn, Abebe Tesfaye Gessese, Mebrie Zemene Kinde and Molalegne Bitew
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:45
  2. Previously developed TaME-seq method for deep sequencing of HPV, allowed simultaneous identification of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA consensus sequence, low-frequency variable sites, and chromosomal inte...

    Authors: Alexander Hesselberg Løvestad, Milan S. Stosic, Jean-Marc Costanzi, Irene Kraus Christiansen, Hege Vangstein Aamot, Ole Herman Ambur and Trine B. Rounge
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:44
  3. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a major public health threat, making the study of its biology a matter of great importance. By analyzing the viral–host protein interactions, new drug targets may be proposed. In...

    Authors: Dan Israel Zavala-Vargas, Giovani Visoso-Carbajal, Leticia Cedillo-Barrón, Jessica Georgina Filisola-Villaseñor, Romel Rosales-Ramirez, Juan E. Ludert and Edgar Morales-Ríos
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:43
  4. As the worldwide spreading epidemic of SARS-CoV-2, quick inspection and quarantine of passengers for SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2, especially the cross-border tra...

    Authors: Runzi Qi, Gang Wang, Xu Wang, Cheng Li, Lei Huang, Weixi Xiao, Bing Shao, Chunya Zhou, Xun Ding, Feng Li and Wei Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:42
  5. We conducted a multicenter study to evaluate the performance of a novel fully automated molecular point-of-care test using transcription-reverse transcription concerted reaction that can detect influenza A and...

    Authors: Norihito Kaku, Tomohito Urabe, Tetsuya Iida, Chyuns Yun, Yoshiyuki Nishida, Yasunori Onitsuka, Kohji Hashiguchi, Kiyoto Hirose, Akimitsu Tomonaga, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae and Katsunori Yanagihara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:41
  6. Rotavirus A (RVA) infections remain a major cause of severe acute diarrhea affecting children worldwide. To date, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are widely used to detect RVA. However, paediatricians question wh...

    Authors: Gédéon Prince Manouana, Paul Alvyn Nguema-Moure, Alexandru Tomazatos, Moustapha Nzamba Maloum, C.-Thomas Bock, Peter G. Kremsner, Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan, Akim Ayola Adegnika and Sandra Niendorf
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:40
  7. As a result of antigenic drift, current influenza vaccines provide limited protection against circulating influenza viruses, and vaccines with broad cross protection are urgently needed. Hemagglutinin stalk do...

    Authors: Lili Shi, Ying Long, Yanyan Zhu, Jingjian Dong, Yan Chen, Hao Feng and Xianliang Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:38
  8. Since December 2019, various types of strategies have been applied due to the emergent need to investigate the biology and pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to discov...

    Authors: Mohadese Hashem Boroojerdi, Tariq Al Jabry, Seyed Mohamad Javad Mirarefin and Halima Albalushi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:37
  9. Variation of the betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has been the bane of COVID-19 control. Documented variation includes point mutations, deletions, insertions, and recombination among closely or distantly related cor...

    Authors: Roberto Patarca and William A. Haseltine
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:36
  10. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of diagnostic testing against curbing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The urgent need and scale for diagnostic tools resulted in manufacturers of SARS-CoV-2 assays re...

    Authors: Sharonjit K. Dhillon, Cindy Simoens, Lize Cuypers, Jannes Bode, Jesper Bonde, Philippe Corbisier, Clementina E. Cocuzza, Marc Van Ranst and Marc Arbyn
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:35
  11. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is an important type of brain inflammation caused by autoantibody. As one of the primary agents responsible for respiratory tract infection, the hum...

    Authors: Siyan Yu, Ying Hua, Jun Qian, Mingxia Sun and Yan-Jun Kang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:34
  12. Here we report an occurrence of Snake River alfalfa virus (SRAV) in Washington state, USA. SRAV was recently identified in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants and western flower thrips in south-central Idaho and ...

    Authors: Olga A. Postnikova, Brian M. Irish, Jonathan Eisenback and Lev G. Nemchinov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:32
  13. Since the onset of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, bioinformatic analyses have been performed to understand the nucleotide and synonymous codon usage features and mutational patterns of the virus. However, comparativ...

    Authors: Sarah E. Fumagalli, Nigam H. Padhiar, Douglas Meyer, Upendra Katneni, Haim Bar, Michael DiCuccio, Anton A. Komar and Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:31
  14. The Omicron variant BA.2 was the dominant variant in the COVID-19 outbreak in Shanghai since March 2022. We aim to investigate the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant infection in pediatric liver-tra...

    Authors: Xin-ye Zhu, Ye-feng Lu, Feng Xue, Yi Luo, Ming-xuan Feng, Bi-jun Qiu, Tao Zhou, Jian-jun Zhu, Jian-jun Zhang, Ping Wan and Qiang Xia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:28
  15. The canine parvovirus, with its many variants, is responsible for a pivotal and common viral infection affecting millions of dogs and other carnivore species worldwide, particularly the wild ones, which are co...

    Authors: Hanne Nur Kurucay, Cuneyt Tamer, Bahadir Muftuoglu, Ahmed Eisa Elhag, Seda Gozel, Yasemin Cicek-Yildiz, Sadik Demirtas, Emre Ozan, Harun Albayrak, Semra Okur-Gumusova and Zafer Yazici
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:27
  16. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a highly infectious viral disease, which can affect chickens and many other kinds of birds. The main virulence factor of NDV, the fusion (F) protein, is located on the viral en...

    Authors: Qingyuan Teng, Lihua Tang, Yahui Huang, Ruihua Yang, Yizhuo He, Guozhong Zhang and Ye Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:25
  17. Infection following lung transplantation has been the focus of clinical concerns. The colonization rate of commensal bacteria of the urogenital tract, including Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), an...

    Authors: Manman Tian, Dongsheng Han, Subo Ma, Tingting Liu, Wu Yang and Xia Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:24
  18. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to plague the world. While COVID-19 is asymptomatic in most individuals, it can caus...

    Authors: Yunes Panahi, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Sona Talaei, Fatemeh Beiraghdar, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Vahideh Tarhriz and Hassan Mellatyar
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:23
  19. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been reported to be more susceptible to 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and more likely to develop severe pneumonia. However, the safety and immunological ...

    Authors: Feng Xiang, Boyu Long, Jiaoxia He, Feifei Cheng, Sijing Zhang, Qing Liu, Zhiwei Chen, Hu Li, Min Chen, Mingli Peng, Wenwei Yin, Dongfang Liu and Hong Ren
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:22
  20. SARS-CoV-2 replicates efficiently in the upper airways of humans and produces high loads of virus RNA and, at least in the initial phase after infection, many infectious virus particles. Studying virus ultrast...

    Authors: Michael Laue, Tobias Hoffmann, Janine Michel and Andreas Nitsche
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:21
  21. Several factors are associated with the severity of the respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. Although viral factors are one of the most studied, in recent years the role of the microbiota and co-...

    Authors: Alejandra Hernández-Terán, Angel E. Vega-Sánchez, Fidencio Mejía-Nepomuceno, Ricardo Serna-Muñoz, Sebastián Rodríguez-Llamazares, Iván Salido-Guadarrama, Jose A. Romero-Espinoza, Cristobal Guadarrama-Pérez, Jose L. Sandoval-Gutierrez, Fernando Campos, Erika N. Mondragón-Rivero, Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas, Manuel Castillejos-López, Norma A. Téllez-Navarrete, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla and Joel A. Vázquez-Pérez
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:19
  22. Coronavirus disease 2019 is a global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. The emergence of its variant strains has posed a considerable challenge to clinical treatment. Therefore, drugs capable of inhibiting SARS-Co...

    Authors: Cuiling Zhang, Bingjie Wei, Zirui Liu, Wei Yao, Yiquan Li, Jing Lu, Chenchen Ge, Xiaoyang Yu, Dapeng Li, Yilong Zhu, Chao Shang, Ningyi Jin and Xiao Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:18
  23. Leaves of hollyhock (Alcea rosea) exhibiting vein chlorosis and yellow mosaic symptoms were collected at public sites in Lausanne and Nyon, two cities of western Switzerland. Diagnostic methods untangled in sampl...

    Authors: Mathieu Mahillon, Justine Brodard, Isabelle Kellenberger, Arnaud G. Blouin and Olivier Schumpp
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:17
  24. Japanese encephalitis (JE) disease, a viral brain fever is caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Despite the availability of effective vaccines against this deadly infection, JE is the leading cause of ...

    Authors: Mukti Shukla, Atul Garg, T. N. Dhole and Rachna Chaturvedi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:16
  25. Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is a porcine roseolovirus (PCMV/PRV) which is widely distributed in pigs. Transmission of PCMV/PRV in preclinical xenotransplantations was shown to significantly reduce the survi...

    Authors: Sabrina Hansen, Konrad Fischer, Ludwig Krabben, Alexander Rinke Carrapeiro, Bernhard Klinger, Angelika Schnieke, Benedikt Kaufer and Joachim Denner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:15
  26. Viral shedding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) dynamics among patients hospitalized with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and immune correlates of protection have been key questions throughout the pa...

    Authors: Adin Sejdic, Anders Frische, Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen, Lasse Dam Rasmussen, Ramona Trebbien, Arnold Dungu, Jon G. Holler, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Robert Eriksson, Christian Søborg, Thyge L. Nielsen, Thea K. Fischer, Birgitte Lindegaard, Kristina Træholt Franck and Zitta Barrella Harboe
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:14
  27. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) variant strains cause great economic losses to the global swine industry. However, vaccines do not provide sufficient protection against currently circulating strains due...

    Authors: Xin Yao, Wen-Ting Qiao, Yu-Qian Zhang, Wei-Hong Lu, Zhen-Wei Wang, Hui-Xin Li and Jin-Long Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:13
  28. Only two cases of papillomavirus infections in North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) have been described thus far, and molecular investigation linked these cases to two distinct papillomavirus species.

    Authors: Bert Vanmechelen, Jennifer Lahoreau, Philippine Dendauw, Alexandra Nicolier and Piet Maes
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:12
  29. Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) induce long-lasting infections that cause cervical cancer. This study evaluated the prevalence of HPV infections and the distribution of their genotypes among clinic...

    Authors: Wei Zhang, Nan Guo, Baoping Li, E Shang, Jinxia Wang, Mei Zhang and Ximing Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:11
  30. To investigate the mechanism of RNA silencing suppression, the genetic transformation of viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) in Arabidopsis integrates ectopic VSR expression at steady state, which overco...

    Authors: Syuan-Fei Hong, Ru-Ying Fang, Wei-Lun Wei, Supidcha Jirawitchalert, Zhao-Jun Pan, Yu-Ling Hung, Thanh Ha Pham, Yen-Hsin Chiu, Tang-Long Shen, Chien-Kang Huang and Shih-Shun Lin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:10
  31. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widely disseminated virus that establishes latency in the brain and causes occasional but fatal herpes simplex encephalitis. Currently, acyclovir (ACV) is the main clin...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Lishan Zhong, Ji Xiao, Yuze Hu, Tao Liu, Zhe Ren, Yifei Wang and Kai Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:8
  32. Traditionally part of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are recommended to antiviral therapy referring to liver biopsy. However, liver biopsy is an invasive method w...

    Authors: Jiaming Teng, Yanan Du, Phimphone Visalath, Tianhui Zhou, Bingying Du, Qin Zhang and Wei Cai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:7
  33. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to take a heavy toll on personal health, healthcare systems, and economies around the globe. Scientists are expending tremendous effort to develop diagnostic techn...

    Authors: Wenbing Wu, Ying Cheng, Hong Zhou, Changzhen Sun and Shujun Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:6
  34. Enterovirus (EV) infections are being increasingly seen in younger infants, often being more severe than in older children. The risk factors of EV infection in infants have been inadequately investigated till ...

    Authors: Xiaohan Yang, Lei Duan, Wenli Zhan, Yuan Tang, Lihua Liang, Jia Xie and Mingyong Luo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:5
  35. Under the pressure of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV) was monitored before and after NPIs launched o...

    Authors: Fangming Wang, Runan Zhu, Yuan Qian, Yu Sun, Dongmei Chen, Fang Wang, Yutong Zhou, Qi Guo, Liying Liu, Yanpeng Xu, Ling Cao, Dong Qu and Linqing Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:4
  36. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has affected day-to-day life worldwide and presents an unprecedented challenge to public healt...

    Authors: Ye Minn Htun, Thinzar Aung, Myo Su Kyi, Nyan Htet Shan, Zin Thu Winn, Kaung Si Thu, Nyan Lin Maung, Tun Tun Win and Kyaw Myo Tun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:3
  37. Recent seminal studies have revealed that endosomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote rather than inhibit viral infection. Some ROS generators, including shikonin and H2O2, have the potential to enhance recom...

    Authors: Xiaoping Huang, Xiao Wang, Yanxuan Ren, Pingzhang Gao, Wentao Xu, Xiaolan Xie and Yong Diao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:2
  38. After the first reporting of the index case of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2-associated disease at the end of December 2019, the virus spread quickly throughout the world, prompting the WHO on...

    Authors: Zahra Hamidi, Shaghaiegh Jabraeili-Siahroud, Yalda Taati-Alamdari, Parisa Shiri Aghbash, Ali Shamekh and Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:1
  39. Dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) was used to infect primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to examine autophagy induced by activation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...

    Authors: Ning Wu, Xiaoqin Gou, Pan Hu, Yao Chen, Jinzhong Ji, Yuanying Wang and Li Zuo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:228
  40. The paucity of SARS-CoV-2-specific virulence factors has greatly hampered the therapeutic management of patients with COVID-19 disease. Although available vaccines and approved therapies have shown tremendous ...

    Authors: Mohamad Ammar Ayass, Trivendra Tripathi, Natalya Griko, Victor Pashkov, Jun Dai, Jin Zhang, Fabian C. Herbert, Ramya Ramankutty Nair, Tutku Okyay, Kevin Zhu, Jeremiah J. Gassensmith and Lina Abi-Mosleh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:227
  41. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is the causative agent of neurological disease in pigs. No effective therapeutics are currently available for PHEV i...

    Authors: Yuzhu Liu, Deguang Song, Xueli Liu, Yuanqi Wang, Gaili Wang and Yungang Lan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:226
  42. While hundreds of thousands of human whole genome sequences (WGS) have been collected in the effort to better understand genetic determinants of disease, these whole genome sequences have less frequently been ...

    Authors: Brianna S. Chrisman, Chloe He, Jae-Yoon Jung, Nate Stockham, Kelley Paskov and Dennis P. Wall
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:225
  43. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the β-herpesvirus family, causes the establishment of a latent infection that persists throughout the life of the host and can be reactivated when immunity is weakened...

    Authors: Sanying Wang, Xuqiang Zhou, Xinyue He, Shushu Ma, Chuan Sun, Jing Zhang, Xiaogang Xu, Weihua Jin, Jin Yan, Ping Lin and Genxiang Mao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:224