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  1. Content type: Research

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) is produced by activated monocytes/ macrophages and T-lymphocytes, and acts as a potent attractant for Th2 cells and a subset of T-regulatory (Treg) cells. Previous report...

    Authors: Mineki Saito, Hiroe Sejima, Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Toshio Matsuzaki, Eiji Matsuura, Yuetsu Tanaka, Tatsufumi Nakamura and Hiroshi Takashima

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:234

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  2. Content type: Review

    This review summarized the molecular determinants of the acid stability of FMDV in order to explore the uncoating mechanism of FMDV and improve the acid stability of vaccines.

    Authors: Hong Yuan, Pinghua Li, Xueqing Ma, Zengjun Lu, Pu Sun, Xingwen Bai, Jing Zhang, Huifang Bao, Yimei Cao, Dong Li, Yuanfang Fu, Yingli Chen, Qifeng Bai, Jie Zhang and Zaixin Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:233

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  3. Content type: Methodology

    Newcastle disease is one of the most important infectious diseases of poultry, caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). This virus is distributed worldwide and it can cause severe economic losses in the poultr...

    Authors: Ana Chumbe, Ray Izquierdo-Lara, Katherine Calderón, Manolo Fernández-Díaz and Vikram N. Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:232

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  4. Content type: Research

    More than a decade after the outbreak of human coronaviruses (HCoVs) SARS in Guangdong province and Hong Kong SAR of China in 2002, there is still no reoccurrence, but the evolution and recombination of the co...

    Authors: Peilin Liu, Lei Shi, Wei Zhang, Jianan He, Chunxiao Liu, Chunzhong Zhao, Siu Kai Kong, Jacky Fong Chuen Loo, Dayong Gu and Longfei Hu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:230

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  5. Content type: Research

    Aleutian mink disease has major economic consequences on the mink farming industry worldwide, as it causes a disease that affects both the fur quality and the health and welfare of the mink. The virus causing ...

    Authors: P. Ryt-Hansen, E. E. Hagberg, M. Chriél, T. Struve, A. G. Pedersen, L. E. Larsen and C. K. Hjulsager

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:231

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  6. Content type: Research

    The rapid rise and spread in dengue cases, together with the unavailability of safe vaccines and effective antiviral drugs, warrant the need to discover and develop novel anti-dengue treatments. In this study ...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Bimo A. Tejo, Miaw Fang Chew, Hong Wai Tham and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:229

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  7. Content type: Research

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) is an emerging disease in swine. Pigs with PMWS are often infected with a variety of other pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and mycoplasm, in addition to...

    Authors: Shuqing Liu, Wentao Li, Yang Wang, Changqin Gu, Xiaoli Liu, Catherine Charreyre, Shenxian Fan and Qigai He

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:227

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  8. Content type: Research

    Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause acute hepatitis in endemic areas in immune-competent hosts, as well as chronic infection in immune-compromised subjects in non-endemic areas. Most studies a...

    Authors: Ananta Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Manjula Bhattarai, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Jose D. Debes, André Boonstra, Thupten K. Lama, Mamun Al Mahtab, Amna Subhan Butt, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle Akbar, Nirmal Aryal, Sapana Karn, Krishna Das Manandhar and Birendra Prasad Gupta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:228

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  9. Content type: Research

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an exogenous gammaretrovirus of domestic cats (Felis catus) and some wild felids. The outcomes of FeLV infection in domestic cats vary according to host susceptibility, virus strai...

    Authors: Claudia Filoni, A. Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, José Luiz Catão-Dias, Mara Cristina Marques, Luciana Neves Torres, Manfred Reinacher and Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:226

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  10. Content type: Research

    Detailed knowledge of the evolutionary potential of polymorphic sites in a viral protein is important for understanding the development of drug resistance in the presence of an inhibitor. We therefore set out ...

    Authors: Karolin Meixenberger, Kaveh Pouran Yousef, Maureen Rebecca Smith, Sybille Somogyi, Stefan Fiedler, Barbara Bartmeyer, Osamah Hamouda, Norbert Bannert, Max von Kleist and Claudia Kücherer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:223

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  11. Content type: Research

    HIV infection in Cameroon is characterized by a great viral diversity with all HIV-1 groups (M, N, O, and P) and HIV-2 in circulation. HIV group determination is very important if tailored viral load analysis ...

    Authors: Elodie Téclaire Ngo-Malabo, Paul Alain Ngoupo T., Martin Zekeng, Valérie Ngono, Laure Ngono, Serge Alain Sadeuh-Mba, Richard Njouom and Anfumbom Kfutwah

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:224

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  12. Content type: Correction

    After publication of the article [1], it has been brought to our attention that an incorrect genetic sequence has been cited. On page 4, paragraph 1 the following sequence is cited “ATG GAT GCC GAC AAG ATT GTM...

    Authors: Kore Schlottau, Conrad M. Freuling, Thomas Müller, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:225

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2017 14:184

  13. Content type: Research

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) exhibits both lytic and latent (Lat. I, II, and III) phases in an infected individual. It’s during the latent phase of EBV that all EBV-associated cancers, including Burkitt’s lymphoma...

    Authors: Gina Pisano, Arunava Roy, Mairaj Ahmed Ansari, Binod Kumar, Leela Chikoti and Bala Chandran

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:221

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  14. Content type: Short Report

    Porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3), as an emerging circovirus species, was reported to be widely circulating in the United States, China, South Korea and Poland. Previous studies revealed that PCV3 was mainly co...

    Authors: Shao-Lun Zhai, Xia Zhou, He Zhang, Ben M. Hause, Tao Lin, Runxia Liu, Qin-Ling Chen, Wen-Kang Wei, Dian-Hong Lv, Xiao-Hui Wen, Feng Li and Dan Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:222

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  15. Content type: Review

    Norovirus (NoV) is considered the second leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE). To our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews assessing the role of NoV in AGE in the Middle East and North Afri...

    Authors: Khalil Kreidieh, Rana Charide, Ghassan Dbaibo and Nada M. Melhem

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:220

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  16. Content type: Research

    Genetically modified adenoviruses (Ad) with preferential replications in tumor cells have been examined for a possible clinical applicability as an anti-cancer agent. A simple method to detect viral and cellul...

    Authors: Takao Morinaga, Thảo Thi Thanh Nguyễn, Boya Zhong, Michiko Hanazono, Masato Shingyoji, Ikuo Sekine, Yuji Tada, Koichiro Tatsumi, Hideaki Shimada, Kenzo Hiroshima and Masatoshi Tagawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:219

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  17. Content type: Research

    IFITM3 has been suggested to be associated with infection in some ethnic groups. Diabetes and hypercholesterolemia are also important clinical conditions that can predispose individual...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Fatemeh Fotouhi, Hadiseh Shokouhi Targhi, Vahideh Mazaheri and Behrokh Farahmand

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:218

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  18. Content type: Research

    The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome in infected individuals. To obtain insights into the mechanism of ZIKV infection and pathogenesis, we a...

    Authors: Benxia Hu, Yongxia Huo, Liping Yang, Guijun Chen, Minhua Luo, Jinlong Yang and Jumin Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:217

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  19. Content type: Short Report

    Gliomas are the most common brain tumors and include a variety of histologic types and grades of malignancy. They arise from glial cells and represent approximately 70% of the primary brain tumors. According t...

    Authors: Araceli Garcia-Martinez, Cristina Alenda, Esperanza Irles, Enrique Ochoa, Teresa Quintanar, Alvaro Rodriguez-Lescure, Jose L. Soto and Victor M. Barbera

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:216

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  20. Content type: Research

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have been widely implemented in worldwide organized immunization programs. A nonavalent HPV vaccine is now available in several countries. The obje...

    Authors: S. Perez, A. Iñarrea, R. Pérez-Tanoira, M. Gil, E. López-Díez, O. Valenzuela, M. Porto, L. Alberte-Lista, M. A. Peteiro-Cancelo, A. Treinta, R. Carballo, M. C. Reboredo, M. E. Alvarez-Argüelles and M. J. Purriños

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:214

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2018 15:41

  21. Content type: Research

    DNA-launched infectious system is a useful tool with high rescue efficiency that allows the introduction of mutations in specific positions to investigate the function of an individual viral element. Rescued v...

    Authors: Junhao Chen, Ruihua Zhang, Shaoli Lin, Pengfei Li, Jingjing Lan, Zhijing Xie, Yu Wang and Shijin Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:212

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  22. Content type: Methodology

    In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Sibe...

    Authors: Eric M. Mucker, Christopher Hartmann, Donna Hering, Wendy Giles, David Miller, Robert Fisher and John Huggins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:210

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  23. Content type: Research

    Condyloma acuminatum, infected by low-risk human papillomaviruses (e.g., HPV6 and HPV11), is one of the most widespread sexually transmitted diseases. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide...

    Authors: Yongfang Wang, Xinyu Li, Shasha Song, Yang Sun, Jiafen Zhang, Changming Yu and Wei Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:211

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  24. Content type: Research

    Endothelial cells are believed to play an important role in response to virus infection. Our previous microarray analysis showed that H9N2 virus infection and inactivated viral particle inoculation increased t...

    Authors: Bo Feng, Lihong Zhao, Wei Wang, Jianfang Wang, Hongyan Wang, Huiqin Duan, Jianjun Zhang and Jian Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:213

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  25. Content type: Review

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses....

    Authors: Meripet Polat, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:209

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  26. Content type: Research

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes are considered an important tool for epidemiological and clinical studies and valuable markers for disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. The aim ...

    Authors: Amen Bawazir, Fahad AlGusheri, Hoda Jradi, Mohammed AlBalwi and Abdel-Galil Abdel-Gader

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:208

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  27. Content type: Research

    Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction.

    Authors: Dunwu Qi, Tongling Shan, Zhijian Liu, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Wenlei Bi, Jacob Robert Owens, Feifei Feng, Lisong Zheng, Feng Huang, Eric Delwart, Rong Hou and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:207

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  28. Content type: Research

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease, which mostly affects infants and children and leads to severe neurological diseases. Vaccination offers the best option for...

    Authors: Ting Yang, Hua Li, Lei Yue, Xia Song, Tianhong Xie, Shaohui Ma, Huaqing Meng, Ye Zhang, Xin He, Runxiang Long, Rong Yang, Fangyu Luo, Zhongping Xie and Qihan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:206

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  29. Content type: Research

    Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates and has a high mortality rate. However, effective drugs or licensed vaccines are not currently available to control the out...

    Authors: Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Chong Wang, Hualei Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Qi Wang, Gary Wong, Weijiao Zhang, Na Feng, Boning Qiu, Hang Chi, Nan Li, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Junjie Shan, Songtao Yang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:204

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  30. Content type: Research

    Hydrodynamic injection (HI) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mouse model is an useful tool for HBV related research in vivo. However, only 40% of C57/BL6 mice injected with 10 μg HBV genome contained plasmid (pAAV-H...

    Authors: Lei Li, Sheng Li, Yun Zhou, Lu Yang, Di Zhou, Yan Yang, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang and Jingjiao Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:205

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  31. Content type: Research

    The pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between HBV polymerase (P...

    Authors: Shan Gao, Shivali S. Joshi, Carla Osiowy, Y. Chen, Carla S. Coffin and Z-P. Duan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:203

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  32. Content type: Research

    Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum and/or liver in HBsAg-negative individuals. OBI is associated with the risk of viral transmission, espe...

    Authors: Yan Mardian, Yoshihiko Yano, Widya Wasityastuti, Neneng Ratnasari, Yujiao Liang, Wahyu Aristyaning Putri, Teguh Triyono and Yoshitake Hayashi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:201

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  33. Content type: Research

    Small RNA (sRNA) associated gene regulation has been shown to play a significant role during plant-pathogen interaction. In commercial citrus orchards co-infection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and viroids oc...

    Authors: Marike Visser, Glynnis Cook, Johan T. Burger and Hans J. Maree

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:200

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  34. Content type: Research

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative pathogen of Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease of swine. Viperin is one of the hundreds of interferon-stimulat...

    Authors: Wenliang Li, Li Mao, Yongguo Cao, Bin Zhou, Leilei Yang, Linxiao Han, Fei Hao, Tao Lin, Wenwen Zhang and Jieyuan Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:202

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  35. Content type: Research

    Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), Cacao swollen shoot CD virus (CSSCDV), and Cacao swollen shoot Togo A virus (CSSTAV) cause cacao swollen shoot disease (CSSD) in West Africa. During 2...

    Authors: Nomatter Chingandu, Koffie Kouakou, Romain Aka, George Ameyaw, Osman A. Gutierrez, Hans-Werner Herrmann and Judith K. Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:199

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  36. Content type: Research

    African swine fever (ASF) is a re-expanding devastating viral disease currently threatening the pig industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of 17–25 nucleotide non- coding RNAs that have been shown to have c...

    Authors: Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Lester Josué Pérez, Marta Muñoz, Gonzalo Vera, Francesc Accensi, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez and José I. Núñez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:198

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  37. Content type: Methodology

    Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cos...

    Authors: Lina S. Franco, Susan A. Holechek, Michael R. Caplan and Joseph N. Blattman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:197

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  38. Content type: Research

    Conflicting results regarding the association of MMTV with human breast cancer have been reported. Published sequence data have indicated unique MMTV strains in some human samples. However, concerns regarding ...

    Authors: Raisa Perzova, Lynn Abbott, Patricia Benz, Steve Landas, Seema Khan, Jordan Glaser, Coleen K. Cunningham and Bernard Poiesz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:196

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  39. Content type: Research

    Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan was determined by screening blood samples of expectant mothers seeking antenatal care in gynecological units of district hospitals. The ...

    Authors: Zobia Afsheen, Bashir Ahmad and Shumaila Bashir

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:195

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  40. Content type: Short Report

    Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus ...

    Authors: Qiaoling Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yonglu Wang and Yongguang Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:194

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  41. Content type: Review

    Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immu...

    Authors: Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke and Corena de Beer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:192

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  42. Content type: Research

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with many human diseases, including a variety of deadly human malignant tumours. However, due to the lack of ideal animal models,the biological characteristics of...

    Authors: Zhi Wang, Xiang Yi, Long Du, Hong Wang, Jie Tang, Menglin Wang, Chenglin Qi, Heng Li, Yongjing Lai, Wei Xia and Anzhou Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:193

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  43. Content type: Research

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a very small, non-enveloped and icosahedral virus, with circular single stranded DNA genome. This virus is the most ubiquitous and persistent pathogen currently affecting th...

    Authors: Victor Neira, Natalia Ramos, Rodrigo Tapia, Juan Arbiza, Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, Manuel Quezada, Álvaro Ruiz and Sergio A. Bucarey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:191

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  44. Content type: Research

    The aim of this study were to investigate the possible pro-apoptotic mechanisms of the recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain rL-RVG, which expresses the rabies virus glycoprotein, in A549 lung adeno...

    Authors: Yulan Yan, Chunxiang Su, Min Hang, Hua Huang, Yinghai Zhao, Xiaomei Shao and Xuefeng Bu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:190

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  45. Content type: Research

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are important crops that are vulnerable to aphid herbivory and aphid-transmitted viruses. In East and Central...

    Authors: Francis O. Wamonje, George N. Michuki, Luke A. Braidwood, Joyce N. Njuguna, J. Musembi Mutuku, Appolinaire Djikeng, Jagger J. W. Harvey and John P. Carr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:188

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  46. Content type: Research

    Dengue virus (DV) infection causes a spectrum of clinical diseases ranging from dengue fever to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Four distinct serotypes (DV1–4), which have similar genome sequences...

    Authors: Wen-Hung Chen, Feng-Pai Chou, Yu-Kuo Wang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chuan-Hung Cheng and Tung-Kung Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:189

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  47. Content type: Research

    For many years, ND has been one of the most important infectious pigeon diseases in China. In recent years, a high mortality has been observed in ND-infected pigeons in China. Mortality is from 40% to 80% or 1...

    Authors: Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Shengqing Yu, Shichao Li, Tingting Ren, Weifeng Yuan, Shuqin Xu, Yingjie Sun, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu and Chan Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:186

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  48. Content type: Research

    The Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein in canine distemper virus (CDV), playing an important role in CDV viral replication and assembly.

    Authors: Li Yi, Zhigang Cao, Mingwei Tong, Yuening Cheng, Yong Yang, Shuang Li, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Yaru Sun, Miao Zhang and Shipeng Cheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:187

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  49. Content type: Short Report

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from...

    Authors: Yanhong Wang, Youkun Bi, Wanqi Yu, Ning Wei, Wenbin Wang, Qiaolin Wei, Xinglong Wang, Shuxia Zhang, Zengqi Yang and Sa Xiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:185

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