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  1. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Nowadays, hundreds of thousands of deaths per year are caused by antibiotic resistant nosocomial infections and the prognosis for future years is much worse, as evidenced by modern research. Bacteria of the Klebs...

    Authors: Fedor Zurabov and Evgeniy Zhilenkov

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  3. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major antigen that can induce protective antibodies in poultry. However, its antigenic epitopes have not been fully elucidated...

    Authors: Zhongyuan Jin, Qiaolin Wei, Youkun Bi, Yongshan Li, Na Huo, Sujing Mou, Wenbin Wang, Haijin Liu, Zengqi Yang, Hongjun Chen and Sa Xiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  4. Tobamoviruses, including tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) on tomato and pepper, and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) on cucumber and watermelon, have caused many disease outbreaks around the ...

    Authors: Bidisha Chanda, Md Shamimuzzaman, Andrea Gilliard and Kai-Shu Ling

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

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  5. Advances in sequencing and analysis tools have facilitated discovery of many new viruses from invertebrates, including ants. Solenopsis invicta is an invasive ant that has quickly spread worldwide causing signifi...

    Authors: César Augusto Diniz Xavier, Margaret Louise Allen and Anna Elizabeth Whitfield

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

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  6. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) has been reported to be a surrogate marker of intrahepatic cccDNA during nucleos(t)ide analogs therapy. However, in HBeAg-positive patients treated with peg-interferon (pe...

    Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Xiumei Chi, Ruihong Wu, Hongqin Xu, Xiuzhu Gao, Lei Yu, Longgen Liu, Mingxiang Zhang, Youwen Tan, Junqi Niu and Qinglong Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

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  7. Tomato production is threatened worldwide by the occurrence of begomoviruses which are associated with tomato leaf curl diseases. There is little information on the molecular properties of tomato begomoviruses...

    Authors: Edith Khamonya Avedi, Adedapo Olutola Adediji, Dora Chao Kilalo, Florence Mmogi Olubayo, Isaac Macharia, Elijah Miinda Ateka, Eunice Magoma Machuka and Josiah Musembi Mutuku

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  8. Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion partic...

    Authors: Yue Zheng, Erin T. Larragoite, Elizabeth S. C. P. Williams, Juan Lama, Isabel Cisneros, Julio C. Delgado, Patricia Slev, Jenna Rychert, Emily A. Innis, Mayte Coiras, Matthew T. Rondina, Adam M. Spivak and Vicente Planelles

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:1

    Content type: Methodology

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  9. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:199

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:192

  10. Rodent borne hantaviruses are emerging viruses infecting humans through inhalation. They cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hemorrhagic cardiopulmonary syndrome. Recently, hantaviruses have been d...

    Authors: Olivia Wesula Lwande, Nahla Mohamed, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Gert Olsson and Magnus Evander

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:198

    Content type: Research

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  11. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is posing a serious threat to global public health. Reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Chunyang Dai, Huiyan Wang, Yong Gao, Tuantuan Li, Yan Fang, Zuojun Shen, Lichang Chen, Zhaowu Chen, Xuejun Ma and Ming Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:197

    Content type: Research

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  12. The fight against the COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need to rapidly detect infected people. The challenge for clinical laboratories has been finding a high throughput, cost-efficient, and accurate te...

    Authors: Wesley Freppel, Natacha Merindol, Fabien Rallu and Marco Bergevin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:196

    Content type: Methodology

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  13. Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is a pathogenic virus that infects dogs, causing a highly infectious disease. Monitoring CPV-2 spread is an important part of prevention; however, the prevalence and epidemiological...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Gaoqiang Zhang, Jiajia Zhang, Junyu Bai and Weiming Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:195

    Content type: Research

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  14. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194

    Content type: Research

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  15. The new emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overall shares similar symptoms with other common respiratory viral infections. We aimed in this study to compare COVID-19 and human adenovirus (HAdV) infec...

    Authors: Kuanrong Li, Ling Li, Xianfeng Wang, Hui Li, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Jianbo Shao, Yi Xu, Liya He, Sitang Gong, Huimin Xia and Huiying Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:193

    Content type: Research

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  16. In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequentl...

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:192

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:199

  17. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in millions of infections worldwide. While the search for an effective antiviral is still ongoing, experimental ...

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdi, János András Mótyán, Zsófia Ilona Szojka, Mária Golda, Márió Miczi and József Tőzsér

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:190

    Content type: Research

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  19. Lassa fever and Ebola are characterized by non-specific initial presentations that can progress to severe multisystem illnesses with high fatality rates. Samples from additional subjects are examined to extend...

    Authors: Trevor V. Gale, John S. Schieffelin, Luis M. Branco, Robert F. Garry and Donald S. Grant

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:188

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, children, immunocompromised adults, and elderly individuals. Currently, there are few therapeutic optio...

    Authors: Saisai Wang, Yiting Ling, Yuanyuan Yao, Gang Zheng and Wenbin Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:187

    Content type: Research

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  21. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek’s disease, MD). MD is currently controlled by vaccination; however, MDV strains have a tendency to develop increased virulence. Distinc...

    Authors: Shiro Murata, Yuka Machida, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:186

    Content type: Research

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  22. To investigate distributions of cervical lesions and factors associated with the severity of the cervical lesions in high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significa...

    Authors: Zhiling Wang, Ying Gu, Hui Wang, Junyu Chen, Yawen Zheng, Baoxia Cui and Xingsheng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:185

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. The study of transient gene expression in cassava plants during virus infection using existing protocols is laborious and may take approximately fifteen weeks due to cassava’s recalcitrance to transformation. ...

    Authors: Patience Chatukuta and Marie Emma Christine Rey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:184

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a catastrophic burden to global healthcare systems. The fast spread of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), h...

    Authors: Wai Sing Chan, Chun Hang Au, Ho Yin Lam, Candy Ling Na Wang, Dona Ngar-Yin Ho, Yuk Man Lam, Daniel Ka Wing Chu, Leo Lit Man Poon, Tsun Leung Chan, Jonpaul Sze-Tsing Zee, Edmond Shiu Kwan Ma and Bone Siu Fai Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:183

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182

    Content type: Research

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  26. African swine fever (ASF) leads to high mortality in domestic pigs and wild boar and is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). Currently, no vaccine is commercially available for prevention, and the e...

    Authors: Zhihua Feng, Jianghua Chen, Wangwang Liang, Wenzhi Chen, Zhaolong Li, Qi Chen and Shaoli Cai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:180

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Although, there is a variable burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women infected with HIV in developing countries, there are few studies that attempted to surmise such variable evidences. This review aimed...

    Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Nega Berhe Belay, Girmay Medhin and Jemal Haidar Ali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:179

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  28. Several molecular kits are available for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, mostly lacking of proper clinical evaluation due to the emergency caused by COVID19 pandemia, particularly at developing countries like Ecuador.

    Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel and Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:178

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:41

  29. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Chutikarn Chaimayo, Bualan Kaewnaphan, Nattaya Tanlieng, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Ruengpung Sutthent, Nattawut Puangpunngam, Theerawoot Tharmviboonsri, Orawan Pongraweewan, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Yongyut Sirivatanauksorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Navin Horthongkham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:177

    Content type: Research

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  30. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes significant morbidity and mortality globally primarily due to its ability to cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Kenya National Blood Transfusion S...

    Authors: Patrick Okoti Aluora, Margaret Wangui Muturi and George Gachara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:176

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Hassan Dianat-Moghadam, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Hossein Keyvani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:175

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:64

  32. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article. The conclusions of this paper have been corroborated by additional data.

    Authors: Johanna Signer, Hulda R. Jonsdottir, Werner C. Albrich, Marc Strasser, Roland Züst, Sarah Ryter, Rahel Ackermann-Gäumann, Nicole Lenz, Denise Siegrist, Andreas Suter, Roland Schoop and Olivier B. Engler

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:172

    Content type: Author Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:136

  34. The SureX HPV genotyping test (SureX HPV test), which targets the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 genes was compared with the Cobas 4800 and Venus HPV tests for detecting 14 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types in cl...

    Authors: Baojun Wei, Ping Mei, Shengkai Huang, Xueting Yu, Tong Zhi, Guojing Wang, Xiaotian Xu, Lin Xiao, Xin Dong and Wei Cui

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:171

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. There is plenitude of information on HIV infection among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care (ANC) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the epidemiology of HBV–HIV co-infections in the same cohort is not clea...

    Authors: Hussein Mukasa Kafeero, Dorothy Ndagire, Ponsiano Ocama, Abdul Walusansa and Hakim Sendagire

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. In Tianjin, China, there is a relatively high prevalence of HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of HIV cases in Tianjin is also increasing. We investigated the HIV molecular transmission network...

    Authors: Minna Zheng, Maohe Yu, Shaohui Cheng, Ning Zhou, Tielin Ning, Long Li, Fangning Zhao, Xuan Zhao, Jingjin Zhu and Guohong Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:169

    Content type: Research

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  37. Papillomaviruses (PVs) infecting artiodactyls are very diverse, and only second in number to PVs infecting primates. PVs associated to lesions in economically important ruminant species have been isolated from...

    Authors: Anouk Willemsen, Alexander van den Boom, Julienne Dietz, Seval Bilge Dagalp, Firat Dogan, Ignacio G. Bravo, Anja Ehrhardt and Eric Ehrke-Schulz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:167

    Content type: Research

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  38. Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a type of lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms, which can have less-frequent cli...

    Authors: Haijuan Xiao, Bing Hu, Rongmu Luo, Huili Hu, Junmei Zhang, Weiying Kuang, Rui Zhang, Li Li and Gang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:166

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  39. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe complications in congenitally infected newborns and non-immunocompetent individuals. Developing an effective vaccine is a major public heal...

    Authors: Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Ashwaq Ahmed Abdullah, Jamilu Abubakar Bala, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin and Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:164

    Content type: Research

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  40. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes enteric infection in piglets, characterized by vomiting, severe diarrhea and dehydration, and the mortality in suckling piglets is often high up to 100%. Vacci...

    Authors: Fujie Zhao, Lintao Liu, Menglong Xu, Xiangli Shu, Lanlan Zheng and Zhanyong Wei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:163

    Content type: Research

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  41. We aimed to describe the features of 220 nonemergency (mild or common type) COVID-19 patients from a shelter hospital, as well as evaluate the efficiency of antiviral drug, Arbidol in their disease progressions.

    Authors: Wei Gao, Si Chen, Kun Wang, Rongzhang Chen, Qian Guo, Jingjing Lu, Xiaodong Wu, Yanan He, Qiaoyun Yan, Shengyun Wang, Feilong Wang, Li Jin, Jing Hua and Qiang Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:162

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  42. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most important causes of cancer. It can play a role in cervical and extra-cervical cancers. Penile cancer is rare, even if an increasing trend was recently re...

    Authors: Narcisa Muresu, Giovanni Sotgiu, Laura Saderi, Illari Sechi, Antonio Cossu, Vincenzo Marras, Marta Meloni, Marianna Martinelli, Clementina Cocuzza, Francesco Tanda and Andrea Piana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:161

    Content type: Short report

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  43. Wheat yellow dwarf virus disease is infected by barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), which causes leaf yellowing and dwarfing symptoms in wheat, thereby posing a serious threat to China's food production. The inf...

    Authors: Chuan Shen, Caiyan Wei, Jingyuan Li, Xudong Zhang, Qinrong Zhong, Yue Li, Bixin Bai and Yunfeng Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:158

    Content type: Research

    Published on: