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  1. The fifth wave of H7N9 avian influenza virus caused a large number of human infections and a large number of poultry deaths in China. Since September 2017, mainland China has begun to vaccinate poultry with H5...

    Authors: Jin Guo, Wentao Song, Xiansheng Ni, Wei Liu, Jingwen Wu, Wen Xia, Xianfeng Zhou, Wei Wang, Fenglan He, Xi Wang, Guoyin Fan, Kun Zhou, Haiying Chen and Shengen Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:213
  2. Pneumonia has a high incidence rate and is a major cause of mortality in children, mostly community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Human bocavirus (HBoV), since it first identified in 2005, has been repeatedly asso...

    Authors: Kai Ji, Jinhan Sun, Yan Yan, Lei Han, Jianhui Guo, Anwen Ma, Xueqi Hao, Fang Li and Yuning Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:212
  3. In line with the Latin expression “sed parva forti” meaning “small but mighty,” the family Parvoviridae contains many of the smallest known viruses, some of which result in fatal or debilitating infections. In re...

    Authors: Mason C. Jager, Joy E. Tomlinson, Robert A. Lopez-Astacio, Colin R. Parrish and Gerlinde R. Van de Walle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:210
  4. Porcine vesicular disease is caused by the Seneca Valley virus (SVV), it is a novel Picornaviridae, which is prevalent in several countries. However, the pathogenicity of SVV on 5–6 week old pigs and the transmis...

    Authors: Jinyong Zhang, Chenghui Li, Yuan Meng, Yubiao Xie, Ning Shi, He Zhang, Chengdong Yu, Fulong Nan, Changzhan Xie, Zhuo Ha, Jicheng Han, Zhuoxin Li, Qiuxuan Li, Peng Wang, Xu Gao, Ningyi Jin…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:209
  5. To evaluate and understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes and characteristics of female populations in specific areas and the relationship with cervical lesions, which can effectively guide cervical cancer sc...

    Authors: Xiaotian Yan, Lingwei Shen, Yufei Xiao, Qi Wang, Fugang Li and Yun Qian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:208
  6. As genetic analysis becomes less expensive, more comprehensive diagnostics such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) will become available to the veterinary practitioner. The WGS elucidates more about porcine repr...

    Authors: Jessica Risser, Matthew Ackerman, Robert Evelsizer, Stephen Wu, Byungjoon Kwon and James Mark Hammer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:206
  7. Hendra virus (HeV) has caused lethal disease outbreaks in humans and horses in Australia. Flying foxes are the wildlife reservoir from which the virus was first isolated in 1996. Following a heat stress mortal...

    Authors: Jianning Wang, Danielle E. Anderson, Kim Halpin, Xiao Hong, Honglei Chen, Som Walker, Stacey Valdeter, Brenda van der Heide, Matthew J. Neave, John Bingham, Dwane O’Brien, Debbie Eagles, Lin-Fa Wang and David T. Williams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:197
  8. Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Moza...

    Authors: Axel O. G. Hoarau, Steven M. Goodman, Dana Al Halabi, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Gildas Le Minter, Marie Köster, Andréa Dos Santos, M. Corrie Schoeman, Eduardo S. Gudo, Patrick Mavingui and Camille Lebarbenchon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:205
  9. Arbovirus surveillance and recurrence of outbreaks in Kenya continues to reveal the re-emergence of viruses of public health importance. This calls for sustained efforts in early detection and characterization...

    Authors: Hellen Koka, Joel Lutomiah, Solomon Langat, Edith Koskei, Albert Nyunja, James Mutisya, Francis Mulwa, Samuel Owaka, Victor Ofula, Samson Konongoi, Fredrick Eyase and Rosemary Sang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:204
  10. Chikungunya fever, caused by the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), has become a major global health concern, causing unexpected large outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas. CHIKV is not indigenous to Ch...

    Authors: Shaofu Qiu, Jinpeng Guo, Peihan Li, Peng Li, Xinying Du, Rongzhang Hao, Chaojie Yang, Qi Wang, Hongbo Liu, Haoran Zhang, Sai Tian, Hua Shi, Liang Wen, Daizhi An, Xiaocui Yang, Xiaoyuan An…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:203
  11. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized ch...

    Authors: Li Li, Heping Wang, Ailiang Liu, Rongjun Wang, Tingting Zhi, Yuejie Zheng, Yanming Bao, Yunsheng Chen and Wenjian Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:202
  12. Several studies on gamma-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-Flu) have revealed its superior efficacy for inducing homologous and heterologous virus-specific immunity. However, many inactivated vaccines, notably i...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Masoud Malek, Sara Abdolahi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Leila Alizadeh, Mehdi Samadi, Seyed Reza Mohebbi and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:201

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:215

  13. Recent genome sequence technology has revealed a novel type of genetic rearrangement referred to as complex structural variations (SVs). Previous studies have elucidated the complex SVs in human hepatitis B vi...

    Authors: Yoshihito Nagura, Kei Fujiwara, Kentaro Matsuura, Etsuko Iio, Yasuhito Tanaka and Hiromi Kataoka
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:200
  14. Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the most important comorbidities in patients with hereditary bleeding disorders (HBD). The present study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral age...

    Authors: Heidar Sharafi, Bita Behnava, Alireza Azizi-saraji, Ali Namvar, Ali Anvar, Shima Salimi and Seyed Moayed Alavian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:199
  15. The H9N2 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) has become the most widespread subtype of AIV among birds in Asia, which threatens the poultry industry and human health. Therefore, it is important to establish...

    Authors: Yixin Xiao, Fan Yang, Fumin Liu, Hangping Yao, Nanping Wu and Haibo Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:198
  16. GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) has been reported as a potential target of gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is well known that the main cause of HCC is the chronic infection of hepatitis B vi...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Lv, Xia Xiang, Yue Wu, Yang Liu, Ruqing Xu, Qin Xiang and Guoqi Lai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:196
  17. Human adenovirus (HAdV) had been recognized as one of the most common enteric viruses associated with acute diarrhea in children. The present study was carried out to demonstrate the molecular and epidemiologi...

    Authors: Deyu Huang, Zheng Wang, Guanyou Zhang and Lintao Sai
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:195
  18. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a devastating animal disease. Anti-non-structural protein (NSP) antibody detection is very important for confirming suspected cases, evaluating the prevalence of infection, cert...

    Authors: Wei Liu, Guanglei Zhang, Sicheng Yang, Junhui Li, Zhan Gao, Sudan Ge, Huihui Yang, Junjun Shao and Huiyun Chang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:193
  19. In 2017, the South African National Department of Health (NDoH) Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Policy was revised. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on self-collected samples may offer improved screen...

    Authors: Teboho Amelia Tiiti, Tebogo Loraine Mashishi, Varsetile Varster Nkwinika, Ina Benoy, Selokela Gloria Selabe, Johannes Bogers and Ramokone Lisbeth Lebelo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:192
  20. Human adenoviruse (HAdV) is a major pathogen of paediatric respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Mutation or recombination of HAdV genes may cause changes in its pathogenicity and transmission. We described the...

    Authors: Yiman Huang, Chao Wang, Fenlian Ma, Qiong Guo, Lihong Yao, Aijun Chen, Xiaoyi Luo and Lishu Zheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:191
  21. Despite the fact that the chikungunya viral infection is a neglected disease, complications such as hemorrhagic fever, arthritis, and lymphopenia remain a health concern. The aim of this study was to determine...

    Authors: Abdulrahim R. Hakami, Abdullah A. Alshamrani, Mohamad Alqahtani, Yasser Alraey, Razan A. Alhefzi, Sultan Alasmari, Mohamed Makkawi, Gasim Dobie, Mushtaq Mir, Mohamed Alshahrani, Ayed Dera, Mohammed Alfaifi, Mesfer Al Shahrani, Ahmad Matari and Ali Essa Asiry
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:190
  22. The importance of clinicolaboratory characteristics of COVID-19 made us report our findings in the Alborz province according to the latest National Guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in outp...

    Authors: Farnaz Karimi, Mahshid Saleh, Amir Abbas Vaezi, Mostafa Qorbani and Foroogh Alborzi Avanaki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:189
  23. Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a key factor for the development and progression of cervical cancer. We sought to identify the type-specific HPV prevalence by cervical cytology and assess di...

    Authors: Jaehyun Seong, Sangmi Ryou, JeongGyu Lee, Myeongsu Yoo, Sooyoung Hur and Byeong-Sun Choi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:188
  24. Flaviviruses are representative arboviruses carried by arthropods and/or vertebrates; these viruses can pose a public health concern in many countries. By contrast, it is known that a novel virus group called ...

    Authors: Tomo Daidoji, Ronald Enrique Morales Vargas, Katsuro Hagiwara, Yasuha Arai, Yohei Watanabe, Keisuke Nishioka, Fumi Murakoshi, Kotaro Garan, Hiroki Sadakane and Takaaki Nakaya
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:187
  25. Authors: Bo Yang, Chaochao Shen, Dajun Zhang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Jinke Yang, Yu Hao, Dengshuai Zhao, Huimei Cui, Xingguo Yuan, Xuehui Chen, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng and Xiangtao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:186

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:170

  26. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase genes play crucial role in plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, we characterized the role of PAL genes in increasing resistance to the Cassava brown streak...

    Authors: Siji Kavil, Gerald Otti, Sophie Bouvaine, Andrew Armitage and Midatharahally N. Maruthi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:184
  27. The host-unrestricted, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) and the serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) are major causative agents of food-borne gastroenteritis, and the host-re...

    Authors: Marta Kuźmińska-Bajor, Paulina Śliwka, Maciej Ugorski, Paweł Korzeniowski, Aneta Skaradzińska, Maciej Kuczkowski, Magdalena Narajaczyk, Alina Wieliczko and Rafał Kolenda
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:183
  28. Traditional medicines based on herbal extracts have been proposed as affordable treatments for patients suffering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviru...

    Authors: Chuanxiong Nie, Jakob Trimpert, Sooyeon Moon, Rainer Haag, Kerry Gilmore, Benedikt B. Kaufer and Peter H. Seeberger
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:182
  29. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) that affects the effectiveness of the first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen is becoming prevalent worldwide. However, its prevalence and transmission among HIV-1 tre...

    Authors: Yun Lan, Linghua Li, Xiang He, Fengyu Hu, Xizi Deng, Weiping Cai, Junbin Li, Xuemei Ling, Qinghong Fan, Xiaoli Cai, Liya Li, Feng Li and Xiaoping Tang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:181
  30. Covid-19 has the respiratory tract as the main target of infection, and patients present mainly dyspnea, pneumonia, dry cough, and fever. Nevertheless, organs outside the respiratory tract had been reported in...

    Authors: Natália Lima Pessoa, Aline Almeida Bentes, Andrea Lucchesi de Carvalho, Thaís Bárbara de Souza Silva, Pedro Augusto Alves, Erik Vinicius de Sousa Reis, Tayse Andrade Rodrigues, Erna Geessien Kroon and Marco Antônio Campos
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:180
  31. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 pandemic, has infected more than 179 million people worldwide. Testing of infected individuals is crucial for ident...

    Authors: Vijay Lakshmi Jamwal, Natish Kumar, Rahul Bhat, Piyush Singh Jamwal, Kaurab Singh, Sandeep Dogra, Abhishek Kulkarni, Bhaskar Bhadra, Manish R. Shukla, Saurabh Saran, Santanu Dasgupta, Ram A. Vishwakarma and Sumit G. Gandhi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:178
  32. The development of an influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor is required; therefore, a method for evaluating the activity of influenza RdRp needs to be developed. The current method uses an ul...

    Authors: Yuka Horio, Mototada Shichiri and Yuji Isegawa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:177
  33. Viral diseases cause significant damage to crop yield and quality. While fungi- and bacteria-induced diseases can be controlled by pesticides, no effective approaches are available to control viruses with chem...

    Authors: Md. Shamim Akhter, Kenji S. Nakahara and Chikara Masuta
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:176
  34. Human T-cell Leukemia Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes two diseases including Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL cancer) and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TS...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Zarei Ghobadi, Rahman Emamzadeh, Majid Teymoori-Rad and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:175
  35. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the major viruses of acute respiratory tract disease among infants and young children. This work aimed to understand the epidemiological and phylogenetic features of HRV in Gua...

    Authors: Wanwei Li, Bo Yu, Jijian Zhou, Yanlan Wang, Bao Xue, Jialong Pan, Yanhong Ran, Xiaoping Yang, Xiaoping Wang, Fang Yang and Hongjian Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:174
  36. Zoonotic orthopoxvirus infections continue to represent a threat to human health. The disease caused by distinct orthopoxviruses differs in terms of symptoms and severity, which may be explained by the unique ...

    Authors: Daniel Bourquain, Livia Schrick, Bernd Karsten Tischer, Klaus Osterrieder, Lars Schaade and Andreas Nitsche
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:173
  37. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. As it has been shown to have anti-viral activity, we hypothesized that it may alleviate infections caused by H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV...

    Authors: Le Ming, Zhihui Li, Xiaofang Li, Ling Tang and Guimei He
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:171
  38. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly lethal virus that can infect porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). Since ASFV, China has dealt with a heavy blow to the pig industry. However, the effect of infectio...

    Authors: Bo Yang, Chaochao Shen, Dajun Zhang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Jinke Yang, Yu Hao, Dengshuai Zhao, Huimei Cui, Xingguo Yuan, Xuehui Chen, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng and Xiangtao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:170

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:186

  39. Transmission of all known pathogenic orthohantaviruses (family Hantaviridae) usually occurs via inhalation of aerosols contaminated with viral particles derived from infected rodents and organ manifestation of in...

    Authors: Stefan Hägele, Christian Nusshag, Alexander Müller, Alexandra Baumann, Martin Zeier and Ellen Krautkrämer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:169
  40. A growing number of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants is being identified worldwide, potentially impacting the effectiveness of current vaccines. We report the data obtained in several Italian regions involved in t...

    Authors: Alessia Lai, Annalisa Bergna, Stefano Menzo, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Sara Caucci, Valeria Ghisetti, Francesca Rizzo, Fabrizio Maggi, Francesco Cerutti, Giorgio Giurato, Alessandro Weisz, Chiara Turchi, Bianca Bruzzone, Francesca Ceccherini Silberstein, Nicola Clementi, Annapaola Callegaro…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:168
  41. Poxviruses within the Capripoxvirus, Orthopoxvirus, and Parapoxvirus genera can infect livestock, with the two former having zoonotic importance. In addition, they induce similar clinical symptoms in common host ...

    Authors: Boitumelo Magret Modise, Tirumala Bharani Kumar Settypalli, Tebogo Kgotlele, Dingrong Xue, Kebonyemodisa Ntesang, Kago Kumile, Ivancho Naletoski, John Frederick Nyange, Carter Thanda, Kenny Nametso Macheng, Chandapiwa Marobela-Raborokgwe, Gerrit Johannes Viljoen, Giovanni Cattoli and Charles Euloge Lamien
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:167
  42. The emergence of a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more recently, the independent evolution of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants has generated renewed interest i...

    Authors: Jalen Singh, Pranav Pandit, Andrew G. McArthur, Arinjay Banerjee and Karen Mossman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:166
  43. Canine distemper caused by canine distemper virus that belongs to the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family is still a global epidemic significant infectious disease, especially in pet dogs in China a...

    Authors: Yaoqian Pan, Shuai Wang, Peng Li, Feng Yue, Yanfang Zhang, Bo Pan and Xingyou Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:165
  44. Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a highly infectious pathogen associated with hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, and various neurological complications, so it is important for the early detection and treatmen...

    Authors: Xinran Zou, Jing Wu, Jiaqi Gu, Li Shen and Lingxiang Mao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:164
  45. Ticks (class Arachnida, subclass Acari) are vectors of transmitting a broad range of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, and viruses affecting humans and animals. Liaoning Province is rich in forests where diffe...

    Authors: Zijun Yang, Ju Zhang, Shixing Yang, Xiaochun Wang, Quan Shen, Guangming Sun, Hao Wang and Wen Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:163