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  1. The development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test promoted the evaluation of the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) type 4, which has been rarely studied...

    Authors: Ji Yoon Han, Woosuck Suh and Seung Beom Han
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:141
  2. Rapid and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the cornerstone of prompt patient care. However, the reliability of the antigen rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection r...

    Authors: Lan Dong, Wen-Fang Li and Ying Jiang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:140
  3. The presentation of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is uncommon, although clusters of GBS cases were observed in China in 2018. The underlying mechanism is unclear, pa...

    Authors: Sheng Liu, Jinyong Wang, Jun Yang and Ying Wen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:139
  4. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distributions of vaginal microbiome dysbiosis and human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes in infertile women and explore the correlations of HPV infection and vaginal ...

    Authors: Li Wang, Lin He, Junyu Chen, Shuyao Wei, Hongzhou Xu and Mengjun Luo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:137
  5. N-linked glycans on viral glycoproteins have been shown to be important for protein expression, processing and intracellular transport. The fusion glycoprotein F of Cedar virus (CedV) contains six potential N-...

    Authors: Kerstin Fischer, Selin Topallar, Franziska Kraatz, Martin H. Groschup and Sandra Diederich
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:136
  6. Lipids play a central role in the virus life cycle and are a crucial target to develop antiviral therapeutics. Importantly, among the other lipoproteins, the ‘good cholesterol’ high-density lipoprotein (HDL) h...

    Authors: Minu Nain, Apoorv Gupta, Sumit Malhotra and Amit Sharma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:135
  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1) of the pestivirus genus is an economically crippling virus in the cattle industry; this positive RNA virus causes mucosal disease resulting in reproductive losses and other ...

    Authors: Rémi La Polla, Marie-Claire Testard, Océane Garcia, Abdelghafar Goumaidi, Catherine Legras-Lachuer and Blandine de Saint-Vis
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:134
  8. The clinical data of a patient with Epstein-barr virus (EBV) associated with cholangiocarcinoma was reported in this paper: a case of a 36-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and systemic skin yellow...

    Authors: Xinchun Zhang, Ning Wang, Wenyan Wei and Yangsheng Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:133
  9. Immunocompromised (IC) patients are at higher risk of more severe COVID-19 infections than the general population. Special considerations should be dedicated to such patients. We aimed to investigate the effic...

    Authors: Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad, Parnian Shobeiri, Hojat Dehghanbanadaki, Mohammadreza Tabary, Armin Aryannejad, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, Mahya Shabani, Fatemeh Moosaie, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi and Nima Rezaei
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:132
  10. The John Cunningham virus (JCV) is the established etiological agent of the polyomavirus-associated nephropathy among renal transplant recipients. In the present study, we aimed to determine the probable predi...

    Authors: Sajedeh Keykhosravi, Masoud Khosravi, Mohammad Shenagari, Elham Hasan-alizadeh, Mehrdad Mosadegh, Narjes Noori Goodarzi, Ali Monfared, Babak Ashrafkhani and Tolou Hasandokht
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:131
  11. The H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused huge economic losses to the poultry industry and is a threat to human health. A rapid and simple test is needed to confirm infection in suspected cases dur...

    Authors: Suchun Wang, Yang Li, Fuyou Zhang, Nan Jiang, Qingye Zhuang, Guangyu Hou, Lijian Jiang, Jianmin Yu, Xiaohui Yu, Hualei Liu, Chenglong Zhao, Liping Yuan, Baoxu Huang and Kaicheng Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:129
  12. Programmable gene editing systems such as CRISPR-Cas have made mosquito genome engineering more practical and accessible, catalyzing the development of cutting-edge genetic methods of disease vector control. T...

    Authors: Micaela Finney, Joseph Romanowski and Zach N. Adelman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:128
  13. HPV (human papillomavirus) is an important cause of cervical cancer. Cervical-vaginal infection with pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), bacterial vaginosis Trichomonas vaginalis and vaginal candidi...

    Authors: Huaping Li, Zhengguang Xiao, Baoling Xing, Suqin Wu, Ying Wang, Zhou Liu, Yanan Zeng, Joseph Cosmas Mushi, Hudie Sun and Ping Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:127

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:142

  14. Viral antigen detection test is the most common method used to detect viruses in the field rapidly. However, due to the low sensitivity, it can only be used as an auxiliary diagnosis method for virus infection...

    Authors: Ying Tang, Yuchang Li, Sen Zhang, Jing Li, Yi Hu, Wenguang Yang, Yuehong Chen, Chengfeng Qin, Tao Jiang and Xiaoping Kang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:126
  15. Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, has caused massive outbreaks of infection in tropical areas over the last decade and has now begun spreading to temperate countries. Little is currently kno...

    Authors: Yannick Tréguier, Jade Cochard, Julien Burlaud-Gaillard, Roxane Lemoine, Philippe Chouteau, Philippe Roingeard, Jean-Christophe Meunier and Marianne Maquart
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:124
  16. A few studies compared the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients during the first and second surges of the disease. We aimed to describe the clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 patients acro...

    Authors: Azar Hadadi, Marzieh Pirzadeh, Sina Kazemian, Haleh Ashraf, Mehdi Ebrahimi, Shahrokh Karbalai Saleh and Mohammad Talebpour
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:123
  17. Encephalitis is a serious disease of the brain characterized by prodromal and specific neurological symptoms. HIV infections offer opportunistic viruses, such as Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the chance to cau...

    Authors: Philip El-Duah, Augustina Angelina Sylverken, Michael Owusu, Yaw Ampem Amoako, Richmond Yeboah, Richmond Gorman, Emmanuella Nyarko-Afriyie, Julia Schneider, Terry C. Jones, Joseph Bonney, Titus Adade, Eric Smart Yeboah, Tabea Binger, Victor Max Corman, Christian Drosten and Richard Odame Phillips
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:122
  18. Classical swine fever (CSF) virus is the causative agent of an economically important, highly contagious disease of pigs. CSFV is genetically and serologically related to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). BV...

    Authors: Weicheng Yi, Hongchang Zhu, Yihan Wu, Qingmei Li, Wange Lou, Haizhong Zhao and Zishu Pan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:121
  19. Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10), the causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), caused a series of outbreaks in recent years and often leads to neurological impairment, but a clear understanding of t...

    Authors: Yajie Hu, Lan Wang, Mingmei Zhong, Wei Zhao, Yujue Wang, Jie Song and Yunhui Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:120
  20. From the 1078 diarrhea stools tested in our survey from 2017 to 2020 in local area of China, PEDV was the key pathogen that was closely related to the death of piglets with diarrhea. In addition, coinfection o...

    Authors: Jinghua Cheng, Jie Tao, Benqiang Li, Ying Shi and Huili Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:119
  21. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Identification of host factors required for HCV infection will help to unveil the HCV pathogenesis. Adaptive mutations that ena...

    Authors: Muhammad Ikram Anwar, Ni Li, Qing Zhou, Mingxiao Chen, Chengguang Hu, Tao Wu, Haihang Chen, Yi-Ping Li and Yuanping Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:118
  22. Coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients due to shared routes of transmission. We aimed to investigate the cha...

    Authors: Xizi Deng, Zhiwei Liang, Weiping Cai, Feng Li, Junbin Li, Fengyu Hu and Yun Lan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:117
  23. Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) infection often causes respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression and further results in bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC), one of the major diseases in d...

    Authors: Liyang Li, Pengfei Li, Ao Chen, Hanbing Li, Zhe Liu, Liyun Yu and Xilin Hou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:116
  24. Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups globally. The problem is magnified in developing countries including Africa. These viruses are highly prevalent with high genetic di...

    Authors: Dessie Tegegne Afework, Mulu Kebede Shumie, Getachew Ferede Endalew, Aschalew Gelaw Adugna and Baye Gelaw Tarekegn
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:115
  25. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been proved highly associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Authors: Jian-an Jia, Shuqin Zhang, Xin Bai, Meng Fang, Shipeng Chen, Xiaotao Liang, Shanfeng Zhu, Danny Ka-Ho Wong, Anye Zhang, Jianfeng Feng, Fengzhu Sun and Chunfang Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:114
  26. The H9N2 virus can infect not only birds but also humans. The pathogenicity of H9N2 virus infection is determined by an excessive immune response in the lung. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the active metabol...

    Authors: Xiaofei Niu, Hongyan Wang, Lihong Zhao, Pengjing Lian, Yu Bai, Jingyun Li and Jian Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:113
  27. Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most serious pathogens endangering the duck industry. However, there are few studies on the regulation of the cell cycle by DHAV-1.

    Authors: Yuanzhi Liu, Yanglin Li, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Di Sun, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Renyong Jia, Bin Tian, Shaqiu Zhang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:111
  28. Hepatitis B virus can induce hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by inducing a host immune response against infected hepatocytes. C-terminally truncated middle surface protein (MHBSt) has been reported to contribut...

    Authors: Bin Cheng, Qiong Wang, Zhiqiang Wei, Yulin He, Ruiming Li, Guohua Liu, Shaobo Zeng and Zhongji Meng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:110
  29. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory condition with uncontrolled activation of lymphocytes and macrophages. Besides a primary (genetic) form, HLH can also be triggered by malignant, ...

    Authors: Hans Martin Orth, Andre Fuchs, Nadine Lübke, Björn-Erik Ole Jensen and Tom Luedde
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:107
  30. MDA-7/IL-24 cytokine has shown potent antitumor properties in various types of cancer without exerting any significant toxicity on healthy cells. It has also been proved to encompass pro-immune Th1 cytokine-li...

    Authors: Seyed Mohammad Miri, Behzad Pourhossein, Seyed Younes Hosseini, Mohsen Keshavarz, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Ali Gorji and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:106
  31. As a new epi-center of COVID-19 in Asia and a densely populated developing country, Indonesia is facing unprecedented challenges in public health. SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.466.2 was reported to be an indigenous ...

    Authors: Mingjian Zhu, Qianli Zeng, Bryanna Infinita Laviashna Saputro, Sien Ping Chew, Ian Chew, Holie Frendy, Joanna Weihui Tan and Lanjuan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:103
  32. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of ivermectin for COVID-19 patients based on current peer-reviewed RCTs and to address disputes over the existing evidence.

    Authors: Arman Shafiee, Mohammad Mobin Teymouri Athar, Omid Kohandel Gargari, Kyana Jafarabady, Sepehr Siahvoshi and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:102
  33. Certain clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mimic those associated with human herpesvirus (HHV) infection. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of herpesvirus in patients with COVID...

    Authors: Vanessa Cristine de Souza Carneiro, Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon, Dmitry José de Santana Sarmento, Wagner Luis da Costa Nunes Pimentel Coelho, Otacilio da Cruz Moreira, Andreza Lemos Salvio, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Ramos, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Ramos Filho, Carla Augusta Barreto Marques, João Paulo da Costa Gonçalves, Luciane Almeida Amado Leon and Vanessa Salete de Paula
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:101
  34. Mosquito-borne viruses pose a serious threat to humans worldwide. There has been an upsurge in the number of mosquito-borne viruses in Europe, mostly belonging to the families Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus (Sindb...

    Authors: Ruchika Shakya, Morten Tryland, Rose Vikse, Javier Sánchez Romano, Kjetil Åsbakk, Ingebjørg H. Nymo, Reidar Mehl, Magnus Evander, Clas Ahlm, Olli Vapalahti, Olivia Wesula Lwande, Niina Putkuri, Wenche Johansen, Arnulf Soleng, Kristin S. Edgar and Åshild K. Andreassen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:99
  35. Echovirus 9 (E9) is associated with a wide variety of diseases and medical conditions, and the clinical symptoms of sporadic cases caused by E9 often are severe. With a high global prevalence, E9 has caused mu...

    Authors: Fenfen Si, Tianjiao Ji, Dongyan Wang, Yong Zhang, Shuangli Zhu, Junhan Li, Wenbo Xu and Dongmei Yan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:98
  36. The aim of this study was to characterize the genome of a recombinant Enterovirus associated with severe and fatal nosocomial infection; it was typed as Echovirus 11 (E-11) according to the VP1 gene. Enterovir...

    Authors: Martina Rueca, Simone Lanini, Emanuela Giombini, Francesco Messina, Concetta Castilletti, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Maria Beatrice Valli
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:97
  37. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) is an important indicator for the virus infection, highlighting the crucial role of NP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) used in multiple biochemical assays and cli...

    Authors: Bing Zhou, Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Huimin Guo, Senlin Shen, Haiyan Wang, Xiangyang Ge, Lei Liu, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:96
  38. The aim of this study was to evaluate the regression rate of CIN2 p16 positive lesions in women over 25 years of age and identify possible predictors of regression.

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Nazario Cassaro, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Arianna Guaita and Sara Boemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:95
  39. The thermal stability of viruses in gelatin liquid formulations for medical research and application is poorly understood and this study aimed to examine the thermal stability of 4 enveloped and nonenveloped D...

    Authors: Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Kazuki Kotani, Hiroshi Tsukamoto, Yosuke Hiraoka and Katsuro Hagiwara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:94
  40. Phylogenetic studies indicate bats as original hosts of SARS-CoV-2. However, it remains unclear whether other animals, including pets, are crucial in the spread and maintenance of COVID-19 worldwide.

    Authors: Rodrigo Lima Carneiro, Jéssica Pires Farias, Josilene Ramos Pinheiro, Jackson Farias, André Carloto Vielmo, Alexander Birbrair, Aline Belmok, Fernando Lucas Melo, Bergmann Morais Ribeiro, Gepoliano Chaves, Paloma Oliveira Vidal, Wilson Barros Luiz and Jaime Henrique Amorim
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:93
  41. A variety of cis-acting RNA elements with structures in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of viral genomes play key roles in viral translation. Cherry virus A (CVA) is a member of the genus Capillovirus in ...

    Authors: Deya Wang, Chen Yang, Yanmei Deng, Xue Cao, Wei Xu, Zishuo Han, Qingliang Li, Yang Yang and Xuefeng Yuan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:91