- Open Access
Engineering T7 bacteriophage as a potential DNA vaccine targeting delivery vector
© The Author(s). 2018
- Received: 14 December 2017
- Accepted: 4 March 2018
- Published: 20 March 2018
DNA delivery with bacteriophage by surface-displayed mammalian cell penetrating peptides has been reported. Although, various phages have been used to facilitate DNA transfer by surface displaying the protein transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein (Tat peptide), no similar study has been conducted using T7 phage.
In this study, we engineeredT7 phage as a DNA targeting delivery vector to facilitate cellular internalization. We constructed recombinant T7 phages that displayed Tat peptide on their surface and carried eukaryotic expression box (EEB) as a part of their genomes (T7-EEB-Tat).
We demonstrated that T7 phage harboring foreign gene insertion had packaged into infective progeny phage particles. Moreover, when mammalian cells that were briefly exposed to T7-EEB-Tat, expressed a significant higher level of the marker gene with the control cells infected with the wide type phage without displaying Tat peptides.
These data suggested that the potential of T7 phage as an effective delivery vector for DNA vaccine transfer.
- Bacteriophage T7
- Targeting delivery
- Eukaryotic expression
DNA vaccination is the direct introduction of genetic material (containing DNA or RNA) into the host cell via injection, oral administration or particle bombardment . The coding sequence of a protective antigenic gene is incorporated into the plasmid DNA, which will allow its expression in the host cells. DNA vaccination can elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses, and give protection against a variety of pathogens, tumor antigens and allergens [2, 3]. DNA vaccine potentially has several advantages over traditional vaccines, cheaper and easier to produce, have less adverse side effects, has been developing rapidly in recent years. However, the application of DNA vaccine is largely limited by its susceptibility to intercellular or extracellular endonucleases degradation. So far, several strategies have been attempted to address this issue, but none has been complete successful [4, 5].
The principle of DNA vaccine is similar to viral infection mechanisms inside the host. Both viral and non-viral vector systems have been used for DNA delivery in clinical trials [6, 7]. Superior gene delivery vectors using eukaryotic viruses including adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, and lentivirus have been frequently reported . Also, a variety of non-viral systems have been developed, such as lipids, liposomes , polymers, polymersomes, cell-penetrating peptide and inorganic nanoparticles [10–14]. Bacteriophages are the most prospective biological nanomaterials, have attracted increasingly more attention as a novel DNA delivery system. Phage vectors have several advantages over viral and non-viral DNA delivery systems due to a number of promising characteristics. Bacteriophage is a nano-sized natural system capable of harboring foreign DNA insertion and efficient packaging. Most importantly, phages are safe, and have been used for treatment of bacterial infections, both in human and animals, with no safety concerns being identified . Moreover, large-scale production and purification of phage particles are simple and economical. Among bacteriophages, lambda phage have been suggested as a good candidate for delivering DNA vaccine into eukaryotic cells [16, 17]. Lambda phages carrying DNA vaccine expression cassette, consisting of an eukaryotic promoter, antigen gene and polyadenylation site, can be propagated and purified for immunization against hepatitis B . In addition, lambda phage particles expressing heterologous gene from eukaryotic expression cassettes have also been used for tumor therapy in a mice model . Filamentous phages have been used as DNA vaccine delivery vehicle against human syncytial virus . Although bacteriophages have no tropism for mammalian cells, they can be modified to display targeting ligands on the particle surface as fusion coat proteins without disrupting the phage structure [21–24]. The surface displayed targeting ligands then guide the binding and internalization of the phage particles into cells. Moreover, transfection efficacy is directly related to the copy number of the targeting ligands [25, 26].
T7 phage possesses a 55-nm diameter icosahedral head that encapsulates a 40 kb double stand DNA genome coding for 55 proteins. Under optimal conditions, T7 phages have a multiplication cycle of 11 min and produce about 1013 offspring particles in 1 h of replication cycle , and thus are suitable for large-scale production. The two main capsid proteins (10A and 10B) of T7 phages have been engineered for surface display systems that can display peptides up to about 50 amino acids in size in high copy number (415 per phage). However, T7 phage delivering genetic material has not been previously reported. In this study, we herein engineered a T7 phage as a DNA vaccine targeting delivery vector, with surface displaying Tat peptide and genome insertion eukaryotic expression box.
Construction of shuttle plasmids
The primers used in this study
T7 Select UP
T7 Select DOWN
Construction of surface display phage
The gene sequence coding Tat peptide (MLGISYGRKKRRQRRRPPQT) with a GGGS linker was codon optimized and artificially synthesized (GenScript, Nanjing, China). The tat gene was cloned into T7 select 415-1b EcoRI / HindIII double-digested T7 phage genomic arms to rescue T7-Tat recombinant phage (Fig. 1b). Briefly, tat gene and T7 select 415-1b genome were ligated by using DNA ligation kit Ver.2.0 (Takara, Dalian, China), the ligation reaction was mixed with T7 phage packaging extract to rescue infectious phage particles. The packaging efficiency was determined by agarose double-layer plate titration by plaque assay using E. coli BL21 as a host. The plaques were counted and the phage titer was calculated and expressed as pfu/mL. The T7-Tat phage was selected by PCR amplification with the T7 Select UP/ DOWN primers (Table 1) which allowed amplification of the sequence surrounding the multiple cloning sites. All the experiment operation was referred to the T7 Select® system manual.
SDS-PAGE and western blotting
T7-Tat phage particles was analyzed on 12% (v/v) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and Western-blotting assay . Briefly, T7-Tat phage was diluted in 6× sample buffer [62.5 mM Tri-HCl (pH 6.8), 30% glycerol, 5% SDS, 0.01% bromophenol blue, 5% β-mercaptoethanol], boiled for 10 min, then analyzed on 12% SDS-PAGE gel. After electrophoresis, the gel was stained with coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) R-250. The protein was then electrotransferred to a nitrocellulose (NC) membrane and probed with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) labeled anti-T7 tag monoclonal antibody (Merck, 1:10000 dilution) and visualized using an HRP and Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (DAB) chromogenic development kit (Boster, Wuhan, China).
Construction of phage contain EEB
The eukaryotic expression box (EEB) was inserted into T7-Tat phage genome by plasmid-phage cross-homologous recombination approach (Fig. 1c). Briefly, plasmid pUC-L-EEB-R (1 μL, 0.5 ng) was transformed into E. coli BL21 competent cells by using heat shock method. Then, the recombinant host cell was infected with T7-Tat and T7 select 415-1b phage at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.0001–0.00001 for cross-integration, respectively. The liberated phage particles were detected using double-layer agarose assay. Then, the T7-EEB-Tat and T7-EEB phage were selected by using plaque-PCR assay with the primers T7 558–578 / T7 579–599 (Table 1) to amplify the region surrounding the insert site 578. The PCR products were sequenced (GenScript, Nanjing, China). The whole genome of T7-EEB-Tat and T7-EEB were prepared by phenol extraction method referred to T7 Select® system manual, and identified by using restriction digestion enzyme (Swa I, position 3805).
Amplification and purification of T7 phages
The T7-EEB-Tat, T7-EEB and T7 select 415-1b phages were propagated in E. coli BL21. Briefly, 300 ml of M9LB medium was inoculated with 3 mL of an overnight culture of BL21 and incubated at 37 °C to reach a density at 600 nm (OD600) of 0.8–1. BL21 was infected with the phage nanoparticles above at a MOI of 0.001, and kept shaking at 37 °C more than 3 h until complete lysis of cells was observed. DNase I and RNase A (Takara, Dalian, China) were added 30 min before harvesting the phages from the culture medium. The suspension was centrifuged for 15 min at 6000 rpm (Avanti ® J-26 XPI, JLA-162500 Rotor) to separate the bacterial debris from the phage nanoparticles. 10% polyethylene glycol 8000 was added into the supernatant, then centrifuged for 20 min at 11000 rpm with the same rotor. The pellet was dissolved in 30 mL TBS buffer, followed by extracted with 0.1% Triton-114 to remove endotoxin and with an equal volume of chloroform to remove bacterial debris [29, 30]. The endotoxin residue was assayed by ToxinSensor™ Chromogenic LAL Endotoxin Assay Kit (Genscript, China), data not shown. Purified phage particles were examined under an electron microscope (ZEISS, Germany) by negative staining, using 1% uranyl acetate .
T7 Select 415-1b, T7-Tat, T7-EEB and T7-EEB-Tat phage clones were characterized for their affinity towards eukaryotic cell by using binding assay method described as previously . All cell culture was performed in a humidified 37 °C incubator with 5% CO2. Vero (ATCC® CCL-81™), BHK-21 (ATCC® CCL-10™), MDCK (ATCC® CCL-34™) and Marc-145 (Gift from National Research Center of Engineering and Technology for Veterinary Biologicals) cells were cultured in formulated EMEM (Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium), supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Cells were seeded at 5.0 × 105 cells/well, in 24-wells plate, and cultured for 12 h. The cells were washed once with medium and incubated with 500 μL of medium containing recombinant phage (1 × 108 pfu) for 1 h. Unbound phages were removed by washing with Washing Buffer (0.5% BSA, 0.1% Tween 20 in EMEM) for 5 min for a total of eight washes. Cells were lysed with CHAPS (3-[(3-Cholamidoproply) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) Lysis Buffer (2.5% CHAPS, 0.5% BSA in EMEM) for 10 min with gentle shaking on a rocker. The remaining cell lysis was then titered for phage with E. coli BL21. Phage recovery was calculated as the ratio of recovered phage versus the input phage as follows: Phage Recovery (100%) = Output phage / Input phage × 100%.
For the titration of internalized phage particles, the mode of internalization was studied as previous described . Vero cells were cultured as mentioned above. Vero cells grown on 24-wells plate were washed, preincubated in serum-free EMEM medium for 30 min, and then treated with 108 pfu of recombinant phages suspended in medium at 37 °C for 4 h. First, unbound phages were removed and cells were washed 8 times with Washing Buffer to remove any remaining unbound phage particles. Vero cell-bound phages were eluted with Elution Buffer (1% SDS) for 10 min on ice. Then, the cells were washed twice in Washing Buffer to remove remaining bound phages. The washes were designated as post-elution washing (PEW). Finally, Cells were lysed with CHAPS Lysis Buffer for 10 min with gentle shaking on a rocker. Phage in each fraction was kept and titrated with E. coli BL21.
In vitro gene transfer
A standard protocol for gene transfer into cultured cells was followed. Vero cells were seeded at 5.0 × 105 cells/ well, in 24-well plates, and cultured for 12 h. The cells were washed once with medium and incubated with 500 μL of medium containing T7-EEB and T7-EEB-Tat phage (1 × 108 pfu), or purified T7-EEB genomic DNA (4.5 ng, 1 × 108 copies) complexed with Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) for 6 h at 37 °C. The cells were washed twice with medium and then cultured for 48 h before assaying for the expression of EGFP genes. Purified phage genomic DNA complexed with Lipofectamine 2000 was set as positive control, the transfection process was carried out according to the procedures recommended by the suppliers. An untreated cell was set as negative control. The report gene EGFP was detected with fluorescence microscopy.
Construction and identification of recombinant phage
Electron microscopy observation of T7 phages
Tat peptides enhance the binding and internalization efficiency of phage particle towards eukaryotic cells
T7-EEB-tat mediated report EGFP gene expression in cultured cells
Phage nanobiotechnology evolved from phage surface display technology has been widely used in diverse areas. Filamentous phage M13, bacteriophage T4 and λ have been used as vectors for DNA delivery into mammalian cells [34–36]. Nevertheless, the application of phage particles vector in DNA vaccine delivery is largely limited by the poor gene transfer efficiency due to the lack of eukaryotic cell targeting receptor. Previous studies have shown that the efficiency of phage mediated DNA transfer can be improved by surfacing displaying Tat targeting peptide [35, 36]. In this study, we examined the potential of T7 phage with surface-displayed Tat peptide as a DNA vaccine delivery vector. We engineered the T7 phage as a unique eukaryotic expression box delivery vector, because its size and structure resemble a condensed DNA-polymer complex. In addition, the peptide display system established using T7 phage extend its function in DNA transfer. T7 phage has several attractive characteristics that make it suitable for our experimental purpose. T7 phage particles can display various peptides as chimeras at the C terminal of the capsid protein p10 (415 copies /particle). Moreover, the genomes of T7 Select 415-1b and T7 wild type phage are different by a 2000 bp deletion at a single site, at which foreign gene can be inserted.
Due to the rapid reproductive performance of T7 phage, it is impossible to identify a recombinant phage without a selection marker. Meanwhile, the low efficiency of random homologous recombination may further increase the level of challenge. Therefore, how to effectively identify the recombinant phage that containing the eukaryotic expression box has been extremely important. The host bacterial cells were infected at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI = 0.0001–0.00001) to increase the replication cycles of the progeny phages, which contributed to yield the EEB inserted phages. T7-EEB produced smaller plaques than the T7 select 415-1b due to the replication burden of foreign gene insertion. We therefore selected the small plaques for subsequent PCR analysis. In total, four T7-EEB phages were identified out of fifty phage plaques. Further, we found that the progeny T7-EEB phage had intact particle structure, indicating that T7 phage could tolerate 2 kb insertion of foreign gene without detriment to its structure integrity. Because the foreign gene was inserted into the T7 phage genome, the loading capacity of its genome need to be further tested.
Various publications have explained the mechanism of Tat peptide in improving the transfer efficiency. Tat peptide has net positive charge, which has been proposed to enhance low affinity binding of Tat protein to the cell surface . Therefore, we observed variation in the binding capacity among the different cell lines in this study (Fig. 4), which might be associated with the differences in the number of low affinity binding sites for Tat-phage. Tat peptide-mediated phage penetrate the plasma membrane is not considered to rely on endocytic pathway , but through caveolae . By comparative analysis between the binding and internalization efficiency (Fig. 5), it was easy to find a positive correlation between it. It may indicate a possibility that Tat peptide promote phage bind with the cell surface, and then enhance the odds of phage penetrate into cell through caveolae pathway. Although the amount of Tat-phage penetrate into the cells was much higher than the phage without Tat displayed, the gene transfer efficiency mediated by Tat peptide was lower than that via Lipofectamine 2000 transfection. As shown in Fig. 6, the expression of marker gene EGFP in liposome transfection group was stronger compared with Tat-T7 phage mediate delivery. This result indicated that the liposome transfection offered advantage over the Tat-T7 phage. In this case, it would be questioned whether the design of phage mediate gene transfer is worth it. However, the Tat-T7 phage mediate internalization efficiency was about 0.002% which consistent with the previous report of Tat-M13 (0.001~ 0.005%) . Considering an in vivo environment, under the protection of phage capsid protein, the effective gene content should be higher in the form of Tat phage than naked DNA. So, the next step is to switch the marker gene to an antigen gene and evaluate the potential of T7 phage as a DNA vaccine delivery vector.
T7 phage is suitable for engineering and tolerancing the insertion of a certain length of foreign gene sequences in its genome. T7-EEB-Tat phage can facilitate phage targeting eukaryotic cell and achieve report gene expression. T7 phage may be potentially useful as a delivery vector for DNA vaccine transfer. The surface display capability of T7 phage also enlarge the use in vaccine design, for it can surface display antigen epitope and carry DNA vaccine within one particles. All of these possibilities remain as future challenges.
We sincerely thank Dr. Petrenko (College of veterinary medicine, Auburn University) for advising us on the experimental design.
No funding was received.
Availability of data and materials
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
HX carried out most of the experiments, conducted the data analysis and drafted the manuscript. XB helped to amplify and purify T7 phages. YW carried out the electron microscopes examination. YX performed SDS-PAGE and Western blot. BD helped to cell culture. YL participated in the design of the study. JH conceived the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
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