Classical swine fever virus NS5A protein changed inflammatory cytokine secretion in porcine alveolar macrophages by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 20 March 2016
Accepted: 24 May 2016
Published: 14 June 2016
The Erratum to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2016 13:135
Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious disease of the pigs. A number of studies have suggested that CSFV non-structural (NS) 5A protein is involved in CSFV-associated pathogenesis, but its mechanism is still uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of NS5A protein in CSFV-associated pathogenesis in cultured porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs).
After PAMs cultured in vitro were transfected with CSFV NS5A, the alterations in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression were determined by ELISA, the RIG-I signaling activity related to inflammatory cytokine secretion was investigated by Western blot and Immunofluorescent staining.
It was suggested that, the stable expressed CSFV NS5A solely had no influence on the expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in PAMs Moreover, NS5A protein could suppressed IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression induced by poly(I:C). It was also showed that NS5A protein did not impair the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, IPS-1, NF-κB and IkBα in cells without poly(I:C) stimulation. Protein expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, IPS-1, NF-κB were not disrupted by NS5A protein in poly(I:C)-stimulated cells, while poly(I:C)-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and activity was obviously suppressed by this protein. A suppression in poly(I:C)-induced IkBα degradation in NS5A-expressing cells was also observed.
These data indicated that CSFV NS5A protein could inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokine induced by poly(I:C) through the suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway, indicating the participation of CSFV NS5A protein in the pathogenesis of CSFV.
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), the member of Flaviviridae family, causes heavily economic losses in pig industries . The CSFV genome consists of a single large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polyprotein of about 4,000 amino acids that is co- and posttranslationally processed by cellular and viral proteases, leading to at least 12 mature proteins- the structural proteins-core (C), Erns, E1 and E2, and the non-structural proteins -p7, NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B [2, 3]. Among these proteins, NS5A protein is receiving an increasing attention as a potential target for anti-CSFV therapy.
CSFV NS5A protein comprises 497 amino acids, and plays an important role in CSFV growth, viral RNA synthesis , induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses . Furthermore, previous reports provided an insight into the mechanism by which CSFV NS5A could alter intracellular events associated with the viral infection. It was demonstrated that CSFV NS5A decreased internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated CSFV translation in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that CSFV NS5A might play an important role in the switch from translation to replication in CSFV . CSFV NS5A could contribute at least partially to modulation of CSFV replication through binding to a 5′untranslated region (UTR) or FKBP8 [7–9]. Our previous study also suggested that CSFV NS5A protein was involved in CSFV replication . Hepatitis C virus (HCV) also belongs to the family of CSFV, and its protein NS5A has been intensely investigated. The mature HCV NS5A protein, generated by the action of the NS3/NS4A serine protease, is a phosphoprotein that exists in a basal or in a hyperphosphorylated state (p56 and p58) . It has shown that HCV NS5A is an essential replicase component that can be complemented in trans [12, 13]. Mutations in HCV NS5A affected the rate of HCV replication, suggesting a role of HCV NS5A in modulating viral expression and replication . Moreover, HCV NS5A was able to interfere with cellular proteins such as PI3K, p53, or Raf-1, enabling cell signal transduction in host to be regulated . In the transgenic mouse model, it was discovered that HCV NS5A could impair both the innate and the adaptive immune response to promote chronic HCV infection . The reports even suggested that HCV NS5A regulated cell cycle progression by modulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes .
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are cytoplasmic DEx(D/H) box helicases that can detect intracellular viral products and transmit the signaling through interferon promoter-stimulating factor 1 (IPS-1) adaptor protein , which serves to activate multiple evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, such as Interferons (IFNs), Nuclear Factor kB (NF-κB) and IFN-regulatory factors 3 (IRF3) . Activation of these pathways often culminates in the induction of an array of antiviral and inflammatory cytokines, which are widely considered as crucial components of innate antiviral immunity [20, 21]. Although the signaling pathways such as MEK/ERK, PKR-p38 and p38MAPK regulated by HCV NS5A have been extensively characterized, so far little is known as to how CSFV NS5A may be linked with the NF-κB signaling and inflammatory cytokine expression. Therefore, in this paper, we took an investigation in the regulation mechanism of CSFV NS5A in poly(I:C)-induced inflammatory secretion in PAMs. The results provided for the first time evidence supporting the inhibitory role of CSFV NS5A in poly(I:C)-induced inflammatory secretion through the suppression of NF-κB translocation and activity, and IkBα degradation, which highlighted a potential mechanism of CSFV pathogenesis.
CSFV NS5A protein down-regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines induced by poly(I:C) in PAMs
At 24 h post-transfection, 100 μg/mL poly(I:C) was added into the cells for another 24 h and the impact of CSFV NS5A on endogenous inflammatory cytokine expression was examined using ELISA. It was suggested that 100 μg/mL poly(I:C) could significantly stimulate the secretion of IL-1β (Fig. 1b), IL-6 (Fig. 1c) and TNF-α (Fig. 1d) in PAMs. However, the over-expression of CSFV NS5A could significantly impair the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α induced by poly(I:C) in the culture supernatant (P < 0.01). In addition, there was no difference in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression between the control expressed vector and the CSFV NS5A-expressed treatment (P > 0.05), indicating that cytokine secretion was not affected in cells without poly(I:C) induction. Taken together, the results above suggested that CSFV NS5A protein had a strong inhibitory effect on the inflammatory responses induced by poly(I:C).
CSFV NS5A protein showed no effects on the RIG-I/MDA5 signaling pathway in PAMs
CSFV NS5A protein suppressed IkBα degradation induced by poly(I:C) PAMs
CSFV NS5A protein inhibited the activation of NF-κB/p65 in PAMs
Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by CSF virus (CSFV) leads to severe economic losses in pig industry especially in developing countries. The role of CSFV NS5A on the molecular level has been well characterized, but much less is known about the relevance of CSFV NS5A for CSFV-associated pathogenesis. To gain more insight in CSFV NS5A protein, this study was conducted to explore the effect of CSFV NS5A on inflammatory cytokines and its mechanisms. Eventually, the results showed that, CSFV NS5A could suppressed poly(I:C)-stimulated inflammatory cytokine secretion by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.
Following recognition of viral RNA, RIG-I and MDA5 undergo conformational changes for signal propagation to activate downstream through interactions with IPS-1 adaptor protein, which serves to activate downstream IRF, NF-κB and other transcription factors . In vitro studies suggest that both RIG-I and MDA5 detect poly(I:C), a synthetic dsRNA analogue . NF-κB, a sequence specific transcription factor, can regulate the expression of numerous cellular and viral genes and plays important roles in cell survival, tumorigenesis, inflammation and innate immune responses. In resting cells, NF-κB stays inactive in the cytoplasm combined with its inhibitory subunit IkBα. After exposure to a variety of agonists, the activation of NF-κB occurs through the degradation of IkBα [24, 25]. CSFV NS5A protein has shown to be involved in viral replication [7–9]. A closely related functional viral protein to the CSFV NS5A is the HCV NS5A protein while HCV belongs to the same Flaviviridae family. HCV NS5A is a remarkable protein as it clearly plays multiple roles in mediating viral replication, host-cell interactions and viral pathogenesis. Now, it is regarded as a new target for antiviral drugs in the treatment of HCV infection . Recent reports have demonstrated that HCV NS5A protein exerts its functions through its regulation via cell signaling pathways such as STAT1 pathway , MEK/ERK pathway , a FoxO1-dependent pathway , and PKR-p38 pathway . Furthermore, HCV NS5A over-expression significantly enhanced survivin transcription by increasing p53 degradation and stimulating NOS2A expression as well as NF-κB relocation to the nucleus . HCV NS5A suppressed p53-mediated transcriptional transactivation and apoptosis during HCV infection , blocked poly(I:C) or interferon (IFN)-α-mediated IRF-7 nuclear translocation  or inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in vitro . Furthermore, HCV NS5A activated NF-κB through oxidative stress or tyrosine phosphorylation of IkBα and its degradation by calpain protease . In the present study, we found that CSFV NS5A did not disrupt the expressions of RIG-I, MDA5, IPS-1 stimulated by poly(I:C) in PAMs. However, CSFV NS5A protein inhibited poly(I:C)-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and activity, and IkBα degradation, which resulted in the suppression of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α secretion induced by poly(I:C).
Early detection of viruses by the innate immune system is critical for host defense. Antiviral immunity is first to be initiated by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Intracellular PRRs then stimulate the production of interferons and cytokines to orchestrate immune responses. The key host factors that are critical for antiviral immunity and for systemic inflammatory reactions include IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α . TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6 are three proinflammatory cytokines that form part of a complex defence network that protects the host against inflammatory agents, microbial invasion and injury . IL secretion is necessary to stimulate immune cell responses and IL-1 is released from CSFV-infected macrophages . Recent studies have demonstrated that the highly active proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β is essential in antiviral host defense. Despite its essential role in host defense, high levels of IL-1β are also responsible for unwanted effects like fever, vasodilatation, hypotension or acute lung injury by fluid accumulation in response to viral infection . In the transgenic mouse model, HCV NS5A could impair both the innate and the adaptive immune response to promote chronic HCV infection  through the blockade of IFN-β induction by NS5B , the inhibition of interferon-alpha signaling , the competed binding to CypA , and a up-regulation of IL-8 . The finding in vivo suggested that CSFV infection promoted serum levels of IFN-α, IL-8 and TNF-α in 6-month-old pigs, indicating the involvement of these cytokines in the immune response during CSFV infection with strains of different virulence . Our previous study in vitro revealed that high virulent CSFV shimen strain could significantly promote the secretion of IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α through the activation of the RIG-I signaling pathway . The present study further demonstrated that the stable expressed CSFV NS5A had no influence on the expressions of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in PAMs without poly (I:C) stimulation. Moreover, CSFV NS5A protein could suppress IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α expression induced by poly (I:C).
In summary, these findings provided novel information on the function of the poorly characterized CSFV NS5A and provided an insight into the mechanism by which CSFV NS5A could alter intracellular events associated with CSFV NS5A over-expression in vitro. It was suggested that CSFV NS5A could regulate poly(I:C)-stimulated inflammatory cytokine secretion by modulating the NF-κB signaling, which might help to find new approaches to prevent the establishment of a chronic CSFV infection.
Porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were purchased from Cell Resource Center of Shanghai College of Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Shanghai, China). PAMs were maintained in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10 % (vol/vol) fetal bovine serum (FBS), penicillin (100 units/mL), and streptomycin (100 mg/mL). All cells were cultured at 37 °C in a humidified 5 % CO2 incubator.
Plasmid pEGFP-NS5A was constructed in our laboratory. Approximately 1 × 106 PAMs were plated into the well of a six-well tissue culture plate 24 h prior to transfection. Then cells were transfected with 1 μg pEGFP-N1 (the control without expressing NS5A gene) or pEGFP-NS5A. The Lipofectamine™2000 transfection reagent (Invitrogen, USA) was used for all transfection experiments. After 24, 36, 48 and 60 h transfection, the expression of NS5A protein was determined by Western Blot.
Western Blot analysis
Western Blot analysis was carried out according to our previous study (Dong et al., 2013). In brief, six-well dishes of cells were transfected with pEGFP-N1 (the control) or pEGFP-NS5A plasmid at concentration of 1 μg for 24 h. Then cells were treated with 100 μg/mL poly(I:C). At indicated time periods, protein were extracted from cells, separated and transferred to the membranes. Following the incubation with primary antibodies monoclonal anti-MDA5 (1:1000, Sigma, USA), monoclonal anti-RIG-I (1:1000, Imgenex, USA), polyclonal anti-IPS-1 (1:400, Abgent, USA), polyclonal anti-NF-κB/p65 (1:1000, Thermo, USA), and polyclonal anti-IkBα (1:1000; Santa Cruz, USA), respectively, the membranes were washed and incubated with HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit secondary antibody (diluted 1/100000, Bioworld, USA). Then the membranes were developed with enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate (Beyotime, China) and exposed to X-ray film. As a control, gels were stripped and re-probed with antibody against monoclonal β-actin (1:1000, Beyotime, China) in this study. Band density was quantitated using Image J software.
In order to further verify the effects of NS5A on the nuclear accumulation of NF-κB, the subcellular localization of NF-κB in NS5A-expressing cells with or without poly(I:C) stimulation was examined by indirect immunofluorescence staining as demonstrated in our published article .
PAMs were seeded in six-well plates one day prior to virus infection and transfected with CSFV NS5A plasmid for 24 h. Then cells were treated with 100 μg/mL poly(I:C) (Sigma, USA) for 24 h. Cell culture supernatants were collected and used to analyze the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α protein using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) kits (Uscn Life Science Inc, China) according to manufacturer’s protocols.
NF-κB luciferase reporter assay
NF-κB Luciferase reporter assay was done as described in previous study . To determine NF-κB luciferase activities, cells were infected with pNF-κB-luc (Beyotime, China) for 16 h. Then cells were transfected with NS5A plasmid for 24 h with/without poly(I:C). Cell protein were extracted using cell lysis buffer (Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA), and luciferase assays were performed using a Microplate Luminometer (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Extract protein concentrations were normalized using Bio-Rad protein assay kits (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).
Results of the present study were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by Student’s t test with Bonferroni correction. All numerical data were collected from at least three separate experiments. Results were expressed as means ± standard deviation of the means. Results were considered statistically significant when a P value of less than 0.05 was obtained.
CSFV, Classical swine fever virus; ECL, Enhanced chemiluminescence; ELISAs, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays; FBS, Fetal bovine serum; HCV, Hepatitis C virus; IRF3, IFN-regulatory factors 3; IFN, Interferon; IPS-1, Interferon promoter-stimulating factor 1; IRES, Internal ribosome entry site; MDA5, Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; NS, Non-structural; NF-κB, Nuclear Factor Kb; ORF, open Reading frame; PAMPs, Pathogen-associated molecular patterns; PRRs, Pattern recognition receptors; PAMs, Porcine alveolar macrophages; RIG-I, Retinoic acid-inducible gene I; UTR, Untranslated region
This work was supported by grants from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31372394) and Guangdong Natural Science Foundations (Nos.2014A030313699 and 2015A030310094), and North Guangdong Collaborative Innovation and Development Center for Swine Farming and Disease Control (No.YJK-2014-52-16).
XY Dong designed this study, cultured PAMs, carried out ELISA analysis and drafted the manuscript; SQ Tang participated in the design of the study, carried out Western Blot analysis, and performed Immunofluorescent staining analysis. Both authors read and approved this version to be published.
XY Dong has a PhD in Preventive Veterinary Medicine and investigates the immune responses in virus-infected cells and animals; SQ Tang holds a PhD in Animal Science and works on cell signaling pathway after viral infection.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Konig M, Lengsfeld T, Pauly T, Stark R, Thiel HJ. Classical swine fever virus: independent induction of protective immunity by two structural glycoproteins. J Virol. 1995;69:6479–86.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Meyers G, Rumenapf T, Thiel HJ. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the genome of hog cholera virus. Virology. 1989;171:555–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stark R, Meyers G, Rumenapf T, Thiel HJ. Processing of pestivirus polyprotein: cleavage site between autoprotease and nucleocapsid protein of classical swine fever virus. J Virol. 1993;67:7088–95.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sheng C, Zhu Z, Yu J, Wan L, Wang Y, Chen J, Gu F, Xiao M. Characterization of NS3, NS5A and NS5B of classical swine fever virus through mutation and complementation analysis. Vet Microbiol. 2010;140:72–80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- He L, Zhang YM, Lin Z, Li WW, Wang J, Li HL. Classical swine fever virus NS5A protein localizes to endoplasmic reticulum and induces oxidative stress in vascular endothelial cells. Virus Genes. 2012;45:274–82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiao M, Wang Y, Zhu Z, Yu J, Wan L, Chen J. Influence of NS5A protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) on CSFV internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2923–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen Y, Xiao J, Xiao J, Sheng C, Wang J, Jia L, Zhi Y, Li G, Chen J, Xiao M. Classical swine fever virus NS5A regulates viral RNA replication through binding to NS5B and 3'UTR. Virology. 2012;432:376–88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li H, Zhang C, Cui H, Guo K, Wang F, Zhao T, Liang W, Lv Q, Zhang Y. FKBP8 interact with classical swine fever virus NS5A protein and promote virus RNA replication. Virus Genes. 2016;52:99–106.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sheng C, Chen Y, Xiao J, Xiao J, Wang J, Li G, Chen J, Xiao M. Classical swine fever virus NS5A protein interacts with 3'-untranslated region and regulates viral RNA synthesis. Virus Res. 2012;163:636–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pei J, Zhao M, Ye Z, Gou H, Wang J, Yi L, Dong X, Liu W, Luo Y, Liao M, Chen J. Autophagy enhances the replication of classical swine fever virus in vitro. Autophagy. 2014;10:93–110.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xiang J, McLinden JH, Chang Q, Jordan EL, Stapleton JT. Characterization of a peptide domain within the GB virus C NS5A phosphoprotein that inhibits HIV replication. PLoS One. 2008;3:e2580.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Grassmann CW, Isken O, Tautz N, Behrens SE. Genetic analysis of the pestivirus nonstructural coding region: defects in the NS5A unit can be complemented in trans. J Virol. 2001;75:7791–802.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Appel N, Herian U, Bartenschlager R. Efficient rescue of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by trans-complementation with nonstructural protein 5A. J Virol. 2005;79:896–909.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ullah S, Rehman HU, Idrees M. Mutations in the NS5A gene are associated with response to interferon + ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 3a infection. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;25:1146–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Girard S, Shalhoub P, Lescure P, Sabile A, Misek DE, Hanash S, Brechot C, Beretta L. An altered cellular response to interferon and up-regulation of interleukin-8 induced by the hepatitis C viral protein NS5A uncovered by microarray analysis. Virology. 2002;295:272–83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kriegs M, Burckstummer T, Himmelsbach K, Bruns M, Frelin L, Ahlen G, Sallberg M, Hildt E. The hepatitis C virus non-structural NS5A protein impairs both the innate and adaptive hepatic immune response in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28343–51.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ghosh AK, Steele R, Meyer K, Ray R, Ray RB. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein modulates cell cycle regulatory genes and promotes cell growth. J Gen Virol. 1999;80:1179–83.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoneyama M, Fujita T. Function of RIG-I-like receptors in antiviral innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15315–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mogensen TH, Paludan SR. Molecular pathways in virus-induced cytokine production. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001;65:131–50.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Stetson DB, Medzhitov R. Type I interferons in host defense. Immunity. 2006;25:373–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamaguchi S, Kitagawa M, Inoue M, Tomizawa N, Kamiyama R, Hirokawa K. Cell dynamics and expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-6, and TNF receptors in angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy-type T cell lymphoma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2000;68:85–94.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Matsui K, Uematsu S, Jung A, Kawai T, Ishii KJ, Yamaguchi O, Otsu K, Tsujimura T, Koh CS, Reis ESC, Matsuura Y, Fujita T, Akira S. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature. 2006;441:101–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Natsukawa T, Shinobu N, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, Taira K, Akira S, Fujita T. The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:730–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Aggarwal AK. A gripping end to NF-kappa B. Nat Struct Biol. 1995;2:184–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kuriyan J, Thanos D. Structure of the NF-kappa B transcription factor: a holistic interaction with DNA. Structure. 1995;3:135–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tripathi LP, Kambara H, Chen YA, Nishimura Y, Moriishi K, Okamoto T, Morita E, Abe T, Mori Y, Matsuura Y, Mizuguchi K. Understanding the biological context of NS5A-host interactions in HCV infection: a network-based approach. J Proteome Res. 2013;12:2537–51.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumthip K, Chusri P, Jilg N, Zhao L, Fusco DN, Zhao H, Goto K, Cheng D, Schaefer EA, Zhang L, Pantip C, Thongsawat S, O'Brien A, Peng LF, Maneekarn N, Chung RT, Lin W. Hepatitis C virus NS5A disrupts STAT1 phosphorylation and suppresses type I interferon signaling. J Virol. 2012;86:8581–91.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wang Q, Wang Y, Li Y, Gao X, Liu S, Cheng J. NS5ATP9 Contributes to Inhibition of Cell Proliferation by Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Nonstructural Protein 5A (NS5A) via MEK/Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase (ERK) Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:10539–51.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Deng L, Shoji I, Ogawa W, Kaneda S, Soga T, Jiang DP, Ide YH, Hotta H. Hepatitis C virus infection promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis through an NS5A-mediated, FoxO1-dependent pathway. J Virol. 2011;85:8556–68.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wu SC, Chang SC, Wu HY, Liao PJ, Chang MF. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein down-regulates the expression of spindle gene Aspm through PKR-p38 signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29396–404.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jiang YF, He B, Li NP, Ma J, Gong GZ, Zhang M. The oncogenic role of NS5A of hepatitis C virus is mediated by up-regulation of survivin gene expression in the hepatocellular cell through p53 and NF-kappaB pathways. Cell Biol Int. 2011;35:1225–32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lan KH, Sheu ML, Hwang SJ, Yen SH, Chen SY, Wu JC, Wang YJ, Kato N, Omata M, Chang FY, Lee SD. HCV NS5A interacts with p53 and inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis. Oncogene. 2002;21:4801–11.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chowdhury JB, Kim H, Ray R, Ray RB. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Protein Modulates IRF-7-Mediated Interferon-alpha Signaling. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2014;34:16–21.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Park CY, Choi SH, Kang SM, Kang JI, Ahn BY, Kim H, Jung G, Choi KY, Hwang SB. Nonstructural 5A protein activates beta-catenin signaling cascades: implication of hepatitis C virus-induced liver pathogenesis. J Hepatol. 2009;51:853–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waris G, Livolsi A, Imbert V, Peyron JF, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis C virus NS5A and subgenomic replicon activate NF-kappaB via tyrosine phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and its degradation by calpain protease. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40778–87.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poeck H, Ruland J. From virus to inflammation: mechanisms of RIG-I-induced IL-1beta production. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:59–64.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fett JD. Inflammation and virus in dilated cardiomyopathy as indicated by endomyocardial biopsy. Int J Cardiol. 2006;112:125–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Knoetig SM, Summerfield A, Spagnuolo-Weaver M, McCullough KC. Immunopathogenesis of classical swine fever: role of monocytic cells. Immunology. 1999;97:359–66.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka S, Mannen K. Role of IL-6 and IL-1beta in reactivation by acetylcholine of latently infecting pseudorabies virus. Exp Anim. 2004;53:457–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moriyama M, Kato N, Otsuka M, Shao RX, Taniguchi H, Kawabe T, Omata M. Interferon-beta is activated by hepatitis C virus NS5B and inhibited by NS4A, NS4B, and NS5A. Hepatol Int. 2007;1:302–10.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lan KH, Lan KL, Lee WP, Sheu ML, Chen MY, Lee YL, Yen SH, Chang FY, Lee SD. HCV NS5A inhibits interferon-alpha signaling through suppression of STAT1 phosphorylation in hepatocyte-derived cell lines. J Hepatol. 2007;46:759–67.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bobardt M, Hopkins S, Baugh J, Chatterji U, Hernandez F, Hiscott J, Sluder A, Lin K, Gallay PA. HCV NS5A and IRF9 compete for CypA binding. J Hepatol. 2013;58:16–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- von Rosen T, Lohse L, Nielsen J, Uttenthal A. Classical swine fever virus infection modulates serum levels of INF-alpha, IL-8 and TNF-alpha in 6-month-old pigs. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:1262–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dong XY, Liu WJ, Zhao MQ, Wang JY, Pei JJ, Luo YW, Ju CM Chen JD. Classical swine fever virus triggers RIG-I and MDA5-dependent signaling pathway to IRF-3 and NF-kappaB activation to promote secretion of interferon and inflammatory cytokines in porcine alveolar macrophages. Virol J. 2013;10:286.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee JY, Kim JS, Kim JM, Kim N, Jung HC, Song IS. Simvastatin inhibits NF-kappaB signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and ameliorates acute murine colitis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:241–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar