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  1. Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South A...

    Authors: Sheryl L Maher-Sturgess, Naomi L Forrester, Paul J Wayper, Ernest A Gould, Roy A Hall, Ross T Barnard and Mark J Gibbs
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:16
  2. Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properti...

    Authors: Magdalena Escorcia, Lourdes Vázquez, Sara T Méndez, Andrea Rodríguez-Ropón, Eduardo Lucio and Gerardo M Nava
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:15
  3. N-linked glycosylation is a major mechanism for minimizing virus neutralizing antibody response and is present on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein. Although it is known that glycosy...

    Authors: Yung Shwen Ho, Ana B Abecasis, Kristof Theys, Koen Deforche, Dominic E Dwyer, Michael Charleston, Anne Mieke Vandamme and Nitin K Saksena
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:14
  4. An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (Spli NPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (Ac MNPV). Compa...

    Authors: AlaaEddeen M Seufi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:13
  5. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its know...

    Authors: Adam Monier, Jens Borggaard Larsen, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Gunnar Bratbak, Jean-Michel Claverie and Hiroyuki Ogata
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:12
  6. Retroviral transduction involves integrase-dependent linkage of viral and host DNA that leaves an intermediate that requires post-integration repair (PIR). We and others proposed that PIR hijacks the host cell...

    Authors: Johanna A Smith, Feng-Xiang Wang, Hui Zhang, Kou-Juey Wu, Kevin Jon Williams and René Daniel
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:11
  7. Single-stranded RNA viruses, infectious to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, with typically no apparent signs of infection observed in the honeybees. Reverse ...

    Authors: Andrea C Baker and Declan C Schroeder
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:10
  8. Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the...

    Authors: Clarissa PC Gomes, Tatsuya Nagata, Waldir C de Jesus Jr, Carlos R Borges Neto, Georgios J Pappas Jr and Darren P Martin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:9
  9. Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiform...

    Authors: Elena E Paskaleva, Xudong Lin, Karen Duus, James J McSharry, Jean-Claude L Veille, Carol Thornber, Yanze Liu, David Yu-Wei Lee and Mario Canki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:8
  10. The Balkan region and Kosovo in particular, is a well-known Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic region, with frequent epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring with a hospitalized case fatalit...

    Authors: Darja Duh, Stuart T Nichol, Marina L Khristova, Ana Saksida, Iva Hafner-Bratkovič, Miroslav Petrovec, Iusuf Dedushaj, Salih Ahmeti and Tatjana Avšič-Županc
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:7
  11. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), a member of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor family, can serve as a co-receptor along with CD4 for entry into the cell of T-cell tropic X4 human immunodeficiency virus...

    Authors: Bongkun Choi, Paul J Gatti, Cesar D Fermin, Sandor Vigh, Allyson M Haislip and Robert F Garry
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:6
  12. Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M...

    Authors: Angelina Plyusnina, Juha Laakkonen, Jukka Niemimaa, Kirill Nemirov, Galina Muruyeva, Boshikto Pohodiev, Åke Lundkvist, Antti Vaheri, Heikki Henttonen, Olli Vapalahti and Alexander Plyusnin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:4
  13. The competitiveness of two Tula hantavirus (TULV) isolates, TULV/Lodz and TULV/Moravia, was evaluated in interferon (IFN) -competent and IFN-deficient cells. The two isolates differ in the length of the open r...

    Authors: Kirsi M Jääskeläinen, Angelina Plyusnina, Åke Lundkvist, Antti Vaheri and Alexander Plyusnin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:3
  14. The initiation of transcription and replication of influenza A virus requires the 5' and 3' ends of vRNA. Here, the role of segment-specific non-coding sequences of influenza A virus on viral RNA synthesis was...

    Authors: Stella SF Ng, Olive TW Li, Timothy KW Cheung, J S Malik Peiris and Leo LM Poon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:2
  15. Co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes has been reported from many parts of the world including India, however concurrent infection with more than one serotype of dengue viruses in the same individu...

    Authors: Preeti Bharaj, Harendra S Chahar, Anubhav Pandey, Kavita Diddi, Lalit Dar, Randeep Guleria, Sushil K Kabra and Shobha Broor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:1
  16. The many Hepadnaviridae sequences available have widely varied functional annotation. The genomes are very compact (~3.2 kb) but contain multiple layers of functional regulatory elements in addition to coding reg...

    Authors: Nattanan Panjaworayan, Stephan K Roessner, Andrew E Firth and Chris M Brown
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:136
  17. Transfusion Transmitted virus (TTV) is a novel single-stranded DNA virus that was identified in patients with post-transfusion hepatitis of non-A-G type. Clinical significance of TTV infection was analyzed in ...

    Authors: Mohamed M Hafez, Sabry M Shaarawy, Amr A Hassan, Rabab F Salim, Fatma M Abd El Salam and Amal E Ali
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:135
  18. Influenza viruses replicate within the nucleus of infected cells. Viral genomic RNA, three polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA), and the nucleoprotein (NP) form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) that are ex...

    Authors: Henju Marjuki, Hui-Ling Yen, John Franks, Robert G Webster, Stephan Pleschka and Erich Hoffmann
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:134
  19. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be acquired sexually and is shed from the genital tract. Cross-sectional studies in women show that changes in genital tract microbial flora affect HCMV infection and/or sheddi...

    Authors: Sailesh C Harwani, Nell S Lurain, M Reza Zariffard and Gregory T Spear
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:133
  20. Lytic bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 forms visually observed aggregates during plaque formation. Aggregates intrinsically lower propagation potential. In the present study, the following observations indicate that lo...

    Authors: Philip Serwer, Shirley J Hayes and Karen Lieman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:131
  21. The choice of an appropriate housekeeping gene for normalisation purposes has now become an essential requirement when designing QPCR experiments. This is of particular importance when using QPCR to measure vi...

    Authors: Sarah Watson, Sarah Mercier, Chris Bye, John Wilkinson, Anthony L Cunningham and Andrew N Harman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:130
  22. Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical app...

    Authors: Saeeda Baig, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Waqaruddin Ahmed, Huma Qureshi and Ambreen Arif
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:128
  23. Papillomaviruses (PVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect keratinocytes in differentiating epithelia and induce hyperproliferative lesions. Here, we used methylcellulose to induce cell differentiation...

    Authors: Xiao Wang, Bo Li and Kong-Nan Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:127
  24. Several subtypes of HIV-1 circulate in infected people worldwide, including subtype B in the United States and subtype C in Africa and India. To understand the biological properties of HIV-1 subtype C, includi...

    Authors: Vasudha Sundaravaradan, Suman R Das, Rajesh Ramakrishnan, Shobha Sehgal, Sarla Gopalan, Nafees Ahmad and Shahid Jameel
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:126
  25. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the prototype representative of the pestivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. It has been shown that the initiation of translation of BVDV RNA occurs by an internal riboso...

    Authors: Lorin Moes and Manfred Wirth
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:124
  26. Mechanisms by which HIV-1 mediates reductions in CD4+ cell levels in infected persons are being intensely investigated, and have broad implications for AIDS drug and vaccine development. Virally induced change...

    Authors: Joshua M Costin, Joshua M Rausch, Robert F Garry and William C Wimley
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:123
  27. According to the World Reference Laboratory for FMD, a new subtype of FMDV serotype A was detected in Iran in 2005. This subtype was designated A/IRN/2005, and rapidly spread throughout Iran and moved westward...

    Authors: Joern Klein, Manzoor Hussain, Munir Ahmad, Preben Normann, Muhammad Afzal and Soren Alexandersen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:122
  28. The HSV-1 UL20 protein (UL20p) and glycoprotein K (gK) are both important determinants of cytoplasmic virion morphogenesis and virus-induced cell fusion. In this manuscript, we examined the effect of UL20 muta...

    Authors: Jeffrey M Melancon, Preston A Fulmer and Konstantin G Kousoulas
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:120
  29. This is a retraction of the article submitted by Zhang et al. Virology J 2007, 4:92

    Authors: Qingrun Zhang, Guanghua Wu, Elliott Richards, Shan'gang Jia and Changqing Zeng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:119

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2007 4:92

  30. The M2 ectodomain (M2e) of influenza A virus (IAV) strains that have circulated in humans during the past 90 years shows remarkably little structural diversity. Since M2e-specific antibodies (Abs) are capable ...

    Authors: Krystyna Mozdzanowska, Darya Zharikova, Mare Cudic, Laszlo Otvos and Walter Gerhard
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:118
  31. HBV remains one of the major pathogens of liver diseases but the outcomes as inflammation, cirrhosis and cancer of the liver are greatly related to different viral genotypes. The aim of this study was to asses...

    Authors: Yi Wei Lu, Tuan Lin Tan, Jianhua Zhang and Wei Ning Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:117
  32. The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) down-regulates surface expression of HLA-I molecules. The molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are so far unknown. Here we show that HPV16 E5 down-...

    Authors: Myriam Gruener, Ignacio G Bravo, Frank Momburg, Angel Alonso and Pascal Tomakidi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:116
  33. The yellow fever virus, a member of the genus Flavivirus, is an arthropod-borne pathogen causing severe disease in humans. The attenuated yellow fever 17D virus strain has been used for human vaccination for 70 y...

    Authors: Myrna C Bonaldo, Samanta M Mello, Gisela F Trindade, Aymara A Rangel, Adriana S Duarte, Prisciliana J Oliveira, Marcos S Freire, Claire F Kubelka and Ricardo Galler
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:115
  34. More than 20 years ago, hantaviral antigens were reported in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and common mole (Talpa europea), suggesting that insectivor...

    Authors: Jin-Won Song, Se Hun Gu, Shannon N Bennett, Satoru Arai, Maria Puorger, Monika Hilbe and Richard Yanagihara
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:114
  35. A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a function...

    Authors: Dorothy M Lang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:113
  36. A human papillomavirus (HPV) virion is composed of capsid proteins L1 and L2. Several cysteine residues are located on L1 of various HPVs at markedly similar relative positions, suggesting their important func...

    Authors: Yoshiyuki Ishii, Kazunari Kondo, Tamae Matsumoto, Keiko Tanaka, Fumiko Shinkai-Ouchi, Ken'ichi Hagiwara and Tadahito Kanda
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:110
  37. Motavizumab (MEDI-524) is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters o...

    Authors: Asunción Mejías, Susana Chávez-Bueno, Martin B Raynor, John Connolly, Peter A Kiener, Hasan S Jafri and Octavio Ramilo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:109
  38. The filoviruses, Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV), cause a lethal hemorrhagic fever. Human isolates of MARV are not lethal to immmunocompetent adult mice and, to date, there are no reports of a mouse-adapted MA...

    Authors: Kelly L Warfield, Derron A Alves, Steven B Bradfute, Daniel K Reed, Sean VanTongeren, Warren V Kalina, Gene G Olinger and Sina Bavari
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:108
  39. Here we investigated the nature and functional consequences of mutations in the HIV-1 tat gene within an epidemiologically-linked AIDS transmission cohort consisting of a non-progressing donor (A) and two normal ...

    Authors: Haran Sivakumaran, Bin Wang, M John Gill, Brenda Beckholdt, Nitin K Saksena and David Harrich
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:107
  40. We have developed a system that isolates and replicates HCV in vitro. These isolates are called CIMM-HCV. This system has made it possible to analyze the biology, nature, and extent of HCV variability, among othe...

    Authors: S Zaki Salahuddin, Katherine A Snyder, Andre Godwin, Renu Grewal, John G Prichard, Ann S Kelley and Dennis Revie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:106
  41. The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus (MARV) is responsible for the encapsidation of viral genomic RNA and the formation of the helical nucleocapsid precursors that accumulate in intracellular inclusions in ...

    Authors: Andrea DiCarlo, Peggy Möller, Angelika Lander, Larissa Kolesnikova and Stephan Becker
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:105
  42. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis during pregnancy is essential for health planners and programme managers. While much data exist concerning viral hepatitis during pregnancy in many African countries, no pro...

    Authors: Rasha M Elsheikh, Ahmed A Daak, Mohamed A Elsheikh, Mubarak S Karsany and Ishag Adam
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:104
  43. Human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been widely explored as a gene delivery vector for a variety of diseases. Many target cells, however, express low levels of Ad5 native receptor, the Coxsackie-Adenovirus R...

    Authors: Tie Han, Yizhe Tang, Hideyo Ugai, Leslie E Perry, Gene P Siegal, Juan L Contreras and Hongju Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:103