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  1. Severe fever and thrombocytopenia bunyavirus (SFTSV) infection causes severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome with high mortality. It is extremely rare that a transmitting tick can be directly captured in b...

    Authors: Yongxi Tong, Qiujing Wang, Yongfeng Fu, Shibo Li, Zhao Zhang, Zheen Zhang and Xuewen Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:122

    Content type: Case Report

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  2. The protective efficacy of avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccines is unsatisfactory due to the presence of various serotypes generated by genetic reassortment. Thus, immunization with a polyantigen chimeric epit...

    Authors: Lei Yu, Jun Pan, Guangli Cao, Mengsheng Jiang, Yunshan Zhang, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Xing Zhang, Xiaolong Hu, Renyu Xue and Chengliang Gong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:121

    Content type: Research

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  3. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) causes asymptomatic infections, but also causes congenital infections when women were infected with HCMV during pregnancy, and life-threatening diseases in immunocompromised patien...

    Authors: Miho Shibamura, Tomoki Yoshikawa, Souichi Yamada, Takuya Inagaki, Phu Hoang Anh Nguyen, Hikaru Fujii, Shizuko Harada, Shuetsu Fukushi, Akira Oka, Masashi Mizuguchi and Masayuki Saijo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:120

    Content type: Research

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  4. Acute respiratory infections are a common disease in children with high mortality and morbidity. Multiple pathogens can cause acute respiratory infections. A 2-year survey of hospitalized children was conducte...

    Authors: Min Gao, Xing Yao, Wei Mao, Cuifen Shen, Zongxin Zhang, Qiuling Huang, Dawei Cui, Haiyan Sun and Weihua Zou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:119

    Content type: Research

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  5. Dengue fever (DF) is an arthropod-borne disease caused by dengue virus (DENV). DENV is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Recently, DENV has been reported as an important emerging infect...

    Authors: Mawahib H. Eldigail, Hazem A. Abubaker, Fatima A. Khalid, Tajeldin M. Abdallah, Hassan H. Musa, Mohamed E. Ahmed, Gamal K. Adam, Mustafa I. Elbashir and Imadeldin E. Aradaib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:118

    Content type: Research

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  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most economically devastating diseases affecting the pork industry globally. PRRS is caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV). Currently there are no effe...

    Authors: Chang Huang, Denzil Bernard, Jiaqi Zhu, Radha Charan Dash, Alexander Chu, Alec Knupp, Anna Hakey, M. Kyle Hadden, Antonio Garmendia and Young Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:116

    Content type: Research

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  7. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection has spread rapidly across the world and become an international public health emergency. Both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV belong to subfamily Coronav...

    Authors: Yicheng Yang, Zhiqiang Xiao, Kaiyan Ye, Xiaoen He, Bo Sun, Zhiran Qin, Jianghai Yu, Jinxiu Yao, Qinghua Wu, Zhang Bao and Wei Zhao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:117

    Content type: Review

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  8. The oxygen levels organ and tissue microenvironments vary depending on the distance of their vasculature from the left ventricle of the heart. For instance, the oxygen levels of lymph nodes and the spleen are ...

    Authors: Esther Shuyi Gan and Eng Eong Ooi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:115

    Content type: Review

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  9. Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy ...

    Authors: Billal Musah Obeng, Evelyn Yayra Bonney, Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Nicholas Israel Nii-Trebi, Gifty Mawuli, Christopher Zaab-Yen Abana and Kwamena William Coleman Sagoe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:114

    Content type: Research

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  10. eIF2α is a regulatory node that controls protein synthesis initiation by its phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. General control nonderepressible-2 (GCN2), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase ...

    Authors: Yuanzhi Liu, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Shaqiu Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhao, Juan Huang, Sai Mao, Xumin Ou, Qun Gao, Yin Wang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:112

    Content type: Review

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  11. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are highly contagious, pathogenic Novirhabdoviruses affecting fish and are thusly notifiable diseases with the World...

    Authors: Bartolomeo Gorgoglione, Jeffery L. Ringiesn, Loc H. Pham, Brian S. Shepherd and Douglas W. Leaman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:110

    Content type: Research

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  12. HIV-infected patients have immunological and clinical features that might affect the pathogenesis, as well as the outcome of the HIV/HEV co-infection. The current study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of...

    Authors: Reza Shahriarirad, Amirhossein Erfani, Mohammad Rastegarian, Ali Zeighami, Nasir Arefkhah, Fariba Ghorbani, Jamal Sarvari and Bahador Sarkari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:109

    Content type: Research

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  13. H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) has a worldwide geographic distribution and affects poultry of different types of production. H9N2 AIV was first reported in the Northeast of Algeria in April 2017, following...

    Authors: Abdelheq Barberis, Amine Boudaoud, Angelina Gorrill, Josianne Loupias, Abdeljelil Ghram, Jihene Lachheb, Nadir Alloui and Mariette F. Ducatez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:108

    Content type: Research

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  14. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV) is a key player in inhibiting antiviral response in host cells, thereby facilitating its replication. However, other roles of NS1, which are indepe...

    Authors: Tim Wai Sha, Michaela Weber, Dacquin M. Kasumba, Takeshi Noda, Masahiro Nakano, Hiroki Kato and Takashi Fujita

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:107

    Content type: Research

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  15. Long control region (LCR) of human papillomavirus (HPV) has shown multiple functions on regulating viral transcription. The variations of LCR related to different lineages/sub-lineages have been found to affec...

    Authors: Liyuan Fang, Xiaoli Lin, Yasi Yang, Zhilin Song, Xianping Ding, Liping Tan and Peng Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:106

    Content type: Research

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  16. Liao ning virus (LNV) is a member of the genus Seadornavirus, family Reoviridae and has been isolated from kinds of vectors in Asia and Australia. However, there are no systematic studies describe the molecular g...

    Authors: Jun Zhang, Hong Liu, Jiahui Wang, Jiheng Wang, Jianming Zhang, Jiayue Wang, Xin Zhang, Hongfang Ji, Zhongfeng Ding, Han Xia, Chunyang Zhang, Qian Zhao and Guodong Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:105

    Content type: Research

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  17. Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women. Early detection and diagnosis play an important role in secondary prevention of cervical cancer. This study aims to provide more information to develo...

    Authors: Yidi Liu, Qing Ang, Huan Wu, Jingjiang Xu, Defu Chen, Hongyou Zhao, Haolin Liu, Xianghuan Guo, Ying Gu and Haixia Qiu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:104

    Content type: Research

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  18. Notwithstanding the efforts of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the treatment of chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients, concerns exist regarding the emergence of resistance-associated substi...

    Authors: Valeria Caputo, Roberta Antonia Diotti, Enzo Boeri, Hamid Hasson, Michela Sampaolo, Elena Criscuolo, Sabrina Bagaglio, Emanuela Messina, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Matteo Castelli, Roberto Burioni, Nicasio Mancini, Massimo Clementi and Nicola Clementi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:103

    Content type: Research

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  19. Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) is an important ssDNA virus which causes yellowing, stunting and leaf rolling symptoms on legumes. In China, the virus causes great economic losses and has recently been found to i...

    Authors: Yuhao Cao, Dankan Yan, Xinyang Wu, Ziqiang Chen, Yuchao Lai, Lanqing Lv, Fei Yan, Jianping Chen, Hongying Zheng and Xuemei Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:102

    Content type: Methodology

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  20. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can cause encephalitis. Its infected cell polypeptide 47 (ICP47), encoded by immediate-early gene US12, promotes immune escape. ICP47 was modified in the clinically approved oncolytic H...

    Authors: Jun-Ting Cheng, Ying-Ying Wang, Lin-Zhong Zhu, Ying Zhang, Wen-Qi Cai, Zi-Wen Han, Yang Zhou, Xian-Wang Wang, Xiao-Chun Peng, Ying Xiang, Hui-Yu Yang, Shu-Zhong Cui, Zhaowu Ma, Bing-Rong Liu and Hong-Wu Xin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:101

    Content type: Research

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  21. HPV persistent infection is a strong carcinogenic factor that can induce cervical cancer. Investigation of HPV epidemiology and genotype distribution is of great meaning for the development of cervical cancer ...

    Authors: Qing Luo, Ni Jiang, Qiaoyuan Wu, Jiaqiang Wang and Jialing Zhong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:100

    Content type: Research

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  22. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), a group of non-enveloped small viruses with double-stranded circular DNA which lead to multiple skin diseases such as benign warts, are commonly seen in clinics. The current HPV ...

    Authors: Yining Wang, Ge Ge, Rui Mao, Zhuo Wang, Yu-Zhe Sun, Yu-Guang Du, Xing-Hua Gao, Rui-Qun Qi and Hong-Duo Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:99

    Content type: Research

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  23. Enteric infections caused by Salmonella spp. remain a major public health burden worldwide. Chickens are known to be a major reservoir for this zoonotic pathogen. The presence of Salmonella in poultry farms and a...

    Authors: Robert Joseph Atterbury, Adriano Marcelo Gigante, María de la Salud Rubio Lozano, Ruben Danilo Méndez Medina, Gareth Robinson, Habib Alloush, Paul Andrew Barrow and Vivien Mary Allen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:98

    Content type: Research

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  24. Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, many studies have reported the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the conjunctival sac of pa...

    Authors: Dongyu Guo, Jianhua Xia, Yang Wang, Xuhong Zhang, Ye Shen and Jian-Ping Tong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:97

    Content type: Case Report

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  25. Coronaviruses are large family-RNA viruses that belong to the order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae. The novel COVID-19 infection, caused by a beta coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2, is a n...

    Authors: Endeshaw Chekol Abebe, Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie, Mestet Yibeltal Shiferaw and Tabarak Malik

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:96

    Content type: Review

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  26. Following acute infection, Herpes Simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency and recurrent reactivation in the sensory neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG). Infected tree shrew differs from mouse and s...

    Authors: Erlin Wang, Yunshuang Ye, Ke Zhang, Jinlong Yang, Daohua Gong, Jianhua Zhang, Renjun Hong, Huan Zhang, Lihong Li, Guijun Chen, Liping Yang, Jianmei Liu, Hanyu Cao, Ting Du, Nigel W. Fraser, Le Cheng…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:95

    Content type: Research

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  27. The emergence of influenza viruses resistant to anti-influenza drugs is a threat to global public health. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention operates the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Virus...

    Authors: Heui Man Kim, Namjoo Lee, Mi-Seon Kim, Chun Kang and Yoon-Seok Chung

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:94

    Content type: Research

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  28. More than 3 years since the last Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil, researchers are still deciphering the molecular mechanisms of neurovirulence and vertical transmission, as well as the best way to control...

    Authors: Paula A. Faria Waziry, Aarti Raja, Chloe Salmon, Nathalia Aldana, Sruthi Damodar, Andre Rinaldi Fukushima and Bindu S. Mayi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:93

    Content type: Research

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  29. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is an inhibitory signaling pathway that maintains the balance between the immune response and immunotolerance, and its overactivation in cancer and viral infections inhibits T cell funct...

    Authors: Qian Zhang, Xiang Mu, Hong Dong, Ge Hu, Tao Zhang, Cheng He and Naila Siddique

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:92

    Content type: Research

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  30. SLC10A1 gene codes NTCP, a receptor through which the hepatitis B virus (HBV) gets access into hepatocytes - a stage of the viral cycle necessary for replication. Polymorphism variants of SLC10A1 play roles in...

    Authors: Eric Nyarko, Christian Obirikorang, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, Evans Asamoah Adu, Emmanuel Acheampong, Freeman Aidoo, Emmanuel Ofori, Bright Selorm Addy and Henry Asare-Anane

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:91

    Content type: Research

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  31. Three different genotypes of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have been classified: East/Central/South African (ECSA), West African (WA), and Asian. Previously, a rapid immunochromatographic (IC) test detecting CHIKV...

    Authors: Keita Suzuki, Ralph Huits, Juthamas Phadungsombat, Aekkachai Tuekprakhon, Emi E. Nakayama, Riemsdijk van den Berg, Barbara Barbé, Lieselotte Cnops, Rummana Rahim, Abu Hasan, Hisahiko Iwamoto, Pornsawan Leaungwutiwong, Marjan van Esbroeck, Mizanur Rahman and Tatsuo Shioda

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:90

    Content type: Research

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  32. Reactivation of hepatitis B virus is a common complication that occurs in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who have received cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy. This clinical ph...

    Authors: Jie Ruan, Shuo Sun, Xin Cheng, Pengyu Han, Yinge Zhang and Dianxing Sun

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:89

    Content type: Research

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  33. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a cause of substantial economic loss to the cattle industry worldwide, and there are currently no effective treatment or preventive measures. Bovine enterovirus (BEV) has ...

    Authors: Xiao Ren, Shan Zhang, Xintao Gao, Xiaoyu Guo, Ting Xin, Hongfei Zhu, Hong Jia and Shaohua Hou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:88

    Content type: Research

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  34. This study was designed to investigate the invasion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive human cervical carcinoma cell lines in human leiomyoma-based extracellular matrices in vitro, and to test the suitability...

    Authors: Heidi Tuominen, Ahmed Al-Samadi, Tuula Salo and Jaana Rautava

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:87

    Content type: Research

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  35. The need for timely establishment of a complete diagnostic protocol of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is demanded worldwide. We selected 15 positive novel coronavirus disease 19 (...

    Authors: Alvaro Mesoraca, Katia Margiotti, Antonella Viola, Antonella Cima, Davide Sparacino and Claudio Giorlandino

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:86

    Content type: Short report

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  36. Human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV2 or JCPyV) is persistent in the environment due to its excretion in urine and feces; it is detected in samples of wastewater, surface water and drinking water. A lack of basic sanita...

    Authors: Isabella Nogueira Abreu, Jacqueline Monteiro Cortinhas, Mike Barbosa dos Santos, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Andréa Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:85

    Content type: Research

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  37. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of genital diseases. It can cause a series of cervical lesions. The distribution of HPV genotypes indicates that the increased prevalence of high-risk ...

    Authors: Huaping Li, Peiqun Li, Luyi Huang, Liping Sun, He Ren and Ping Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:84

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  38. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Lili Xu, Linlin Bao, Wei Deng, Hua Zhu, Ting Chen, Qi Lv, Fengdi Li, Jing Yuan, Zhiguang Xiang, Kai Gao, Yanfeng Xu, Lan Huang, Yanhong Li, Jiangning Liu, Yanfeng Yao, Pin Yu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:83

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2013 10:253

  39. Reverse genetics is used in many laboratories around the world and enables the creation of tailor-made influenza viruses with a desired genotype or phenotype. However, the process is not flawless, and difficul...

    Authors: Sushant Bhat, Dagmara Bialy, Joshua E. Sealy, Jean-Remy Sadeyen, Pengxiang Chang and Munir Iqbal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:82

    Content type: Methodology

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  40. LIN28B is involved in multiple cellular developmental processes, tissue inflammatory response and tumourigenesis. The association of LIN28B polymorphisms with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unknown.

    Authors: Qunying Han, Jiao Sang, Xiude Fan, Xiaoyun Wang, Lu Zeng, Xiaoge Zhang, Kun Zhang, Na Li, Yi Lv and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:81

    Content type: Research

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  41. Convalescent plasma (CP) transfusion was reported to be effective in treating critically ill patients with COVID-19, and hydroxychloroquine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Herein, we reported a cas...

    Authors: Tian-min Xu, Bin Lin, Cong Chen, Long-gen Liu and Yuan Xue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:80

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  42. A prevalent PEDV strain, designated FJLY06, was isolated from Fujian, China. The four of structural genes sequences of PEDV obtained were analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationships and homology res...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Ailing Dai, Xiaohua Li and Xiaoyan Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:79

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  43. The low pathogenic H9N2 AIV caused the serious impact on the poultry industry and public safety. Our purpose was to investigate the molecular evolutionary characteristics of the new isolated H9N2 virus and inv...

    Authors: Yuan Nan Yu, Yang Zheng, Shan Shan Hao, Ze Zhang, Jia Xi Cai, Man Man Zong, Xiu Li Feng and Qing Tao Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:78

    Content type: Research

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  44. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging virus that infects humans and camels with no approved antiviral therapy or vaccine. Some vaccines are in development for camels as a one-h...

    Authors: Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Osman H. Ibrahim, Ali Alhafufi, Samy Kasem, Ali Aldowerij, Raed Albrahim, Ali Abu-obaidah, Ali Alkarar, Faisal Altaib Bayoumi, Ali Mohammed Almansour, Musaad Aldubaib, Hail M. Al-Abdely, Hanan H. Balkhy and Ibrahim Qasim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:77

    Content type: Research

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  45. Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is a major global health issue around the world. There are approximately 15–20 million individuals infected with HDV worldwide. HDV infection usually causes increased mortalit...

    Authors: Guan-Yu Lin, Yi-Le Wu, Cheng-Si Wang, Chia-Yun Ko, Chien-Hung Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Po-Hsin Peng and Chao-Wei Hsu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:76

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The genetic variation and origin of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were poorly studied. The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs has been described as a puzzle and has never been reported in the...

    Authors: He Liu, Liping Shen, Shuang Zhang, Feng Wang, Guomin Zhang, Zundong Yin, Feng Qiu, Xiaofeng Liang, Fuzhen Wang and Shengli Bi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  47. Although influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to evade IFN responses by inhibiting the synthesis of IFN, how IAV regulates signaling downstream of IFN is incompletely understood.

    Authors: Yinping Du, Fan Yang, Qiuxia Wang, Nuo Xu, Yizhang Xie, Sujuan Chen, Tao Qin and Daxin Peng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:74

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  48. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) generally causes self-limiting viral hepatitis. However, in pregnant women, HEV infection can be severe and has been associated with up to 30% mortality in the third trimester. Addition...

    Authors: Chunchen Wu, Xiaoxue Wu and Jianbo Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:73

    Content type: Review

    Published on: