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  1. The vaccinia virus (VV) F2L gene encodes a functional deoxyuridine triphosphatase (dUTPase) that catalyzes the conversion of dUTP to dUMP and is thought to minimize the incorporation of deoxyuridine residues i...

    Authors: Mark N Prichard, Earl R Kern, Debra C Quenelle, Kathy A Keith, Richard W Moyer and Peter C Turner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:39
  2. Clinical diagnosis of kidney transplants related illnesses is not a simple task. Several studies were conducted to define diseases and complications after renal transplantation, but there are no comprehensive ...

    Authors: Monica Mischitelli, Anna Bellizzi, Elena Anzivino, Daniela Fioriti, Renzo Boldorini, Umberto Miglio, Fernanda Chiarini, Franco Di Monaco and Valeria Pietropaolo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:38
  3. Intracellular influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) is characterized by a high efficiency of homo-polymers formation, however their antigenic structure is still incompletely known. Herein, we report that RNase-re...

    Authors: Elena N Prokudina, Nataly Semenova, Valery Chumakov and Lothar Stitz
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:37
  4. Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus (ISAV), which causes ISA in marine-farmed Atlantic salmon, is an orthomyxovirus belonging to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISAV agglutinates erythrocytes of se...

    Authors: Samuel T Workenhe, Molly JT Kibenge, Glenda M Wright, Dorota W Wadowska, David B Groman and Frederick SB Kibenge
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:36
  5. Screening wild birds for viral pathogens has become increasingly important. We tested a screening approach based on blood and cloacal and tracheal swabs collected by hunters to study the prevalence of influenz...

    Authors: Erika Lindh, Anita Huovilainen, Osmo Rätti, Christine Ek-Kommonen, Tarja Sironen, Eili Huhtamo, Hannu Pöysä, Antti Vaheri and Olli Vapalahti
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:35
  6. Since 2004, several million indigenous cases of Chikungunya virus disease occurred in Africa, the Indian Ocean, India, Asia and, recently, Europe. The virus, usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, has n...

    Authors: Xavier de Lamballerie, Eric Leroy, Rémi N Charrel, Konstantin Ttsetsarkin, Stephen Higgs and Ernest A Gould
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:33
  7. The human EED protein, a member of the superfamily of Polycomb group proteins, is involved in multiple cellular protein complexes. Its C-terminal domain, which is common to the four EED isoforms, contains seven r...

    Authors: Dina Rakotobe, Sébastien Violot, Saw See Hong, Patrice Gouet and Pierre Boulanger
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:32
  8. Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of Chikungunya virus (CHIK virus) infected Aedes mosquitoes. CHIK virus is a member of the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae....

    Authors: Sudarsanareddy Lokireddy, Sarojamma Vemula and Ramakrishna Vadde
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:31
  9. The human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein (HPV16 E5) is 83 amino acids in length and contains three well-defined hydrophobic regions. The protein is expressed at very limited amounts in transfected cells and...

    Authors: Caroline Lewis, Marta F Baro, Margarita Marques, Myriam Grüner, Angel Alonso and Ignacio G Bravo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:30
  10. The epidemiology of influenza swarms with incongruities, incongruities exhaustively detailed by the late British epidemiologist, Edgar Hope-Simpson. He was the first to propose a parsimonious theory explaining...

    Authors: John J Cannell, Michael Zasloff, Cedric F Garland, Robert Scragg and Edward Giovannucci
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:29
  11. Flaviviruses include the mosquito-borne dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and West Nile and the tick-borne encephalitis viruses. They are responsible for considerable world-wide morbidity and mortali...

    Authors: Stephen J Seligman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:27
  12. Enteritis is caused by a spectrum of viruses that is most likely not fully characterised. When testing stool samples by cell culture, virus isolates are sometimes obtained which cannot be typed by current meth...

    Authors: Luciano Kleber de Souza Luna, Sigrid Baumgarte, Klaus Grywna, Marcus Panning, Jan Felix Drexler and Christian Drosten
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:26
  13. La Crosse virus (LACV), family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. LACV is a major cause o...

    Authors: Richard S Bennett, Christina M Cress, Jerrold M Ward, Cai-Yen Firestone, Brian R Murphy and Stephen S Whitehead
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:25
  14. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural 5A protein (NS5A) contains a highly conserved C-terminal polyproline motif with the consensus sequence Pro-X-X-Pro-X-Arg that is able to interact with the Src-homolog...

    Authors: Holly Shelton and Mark Harris
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:24
  15. Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protecti...

    Authors: Johan Druelle, Caroline I Sellin, Diane Waku-Kouomou, Branka Horvat and Fabian T Wild
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:22
  16. Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR) for s...

    Authors: Parag Saxena, Paban Kumar Dash, SR Santhosh, Ambuj Shrivastava, Manmohan Parida and PV Lakshmana Rao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:20
  17. Cloning of full length genomes of herpesviruses as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) has greatly facilitated the manipulation of the genomes of several herpesviruses to identify the pathogenic determinant...

    Authors: Yuguang Zhao, Lawrence Petherbridge, Lorraine P Smith, Sue Baigent and Venugopal Nair
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:19
  18. The paper analyses the epidemic pattern of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) outbreaks in children in Croatia. Over a period of 11 consecutive winter seasons (1994–2005) 3,435 inpatients from Zagreb County age...

    Authors: Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic, Robert C Welliver, Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Suncanica Ljubin-Sternak, Vladimir Drazenovic, Ivana Galinovic and Vlatka Tomic
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:18
  19. Human adenovirus type 19 (HAdV-19) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis, the only ocular adenoviral infection associated with prolonged corneal inflammation. In this study, we investigated the rol...

    Authors: Jaya Rajaiya, Jingnan Xiao, Raju VS Rajala and James Chodosh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:17
  20. Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South A...

    Authors: Sheryl L Maher-Sturgess, Naomi L Forrester, Paul J Wayper, Ernest A Gould, Roy A Hall, Ross T Barnard and Mark J Gibbs
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:16
  21. Antigenic drift of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been observed in chickens after extended vaccination program, similar to those observed with human influenza viruses. To evaluate the evolutionary properti...

    Authors: Magdalena Escorcia, Lourdes Vázquez, Sara T Méndez, Andrea Rodríguez-Ropón, Eduardo Lucio and Gerardo M Nava
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:15
  22. N-linked glycosylation is a major mechanism for minimizing virus neutralizing antibody response and is present on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein. Although it is known that glycosy...

    Authors: Yung Shwen Ho, Ana B Abecasis, Kristof Theys, Koen Deforche, Dominic E Dwyer, Michael Charleston, Anne Mieke Vandamme and Nitin K Saksena
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:14
  23. An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (Spli NPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (Ac MNPV). Compa...

    Authors: AlaaEddeen M Seufi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:13
  24. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known ds-DNA virus and its 1.2 Mb-genome sequence has revealed many unique features. Mimivirus occupies an independent lineage among eukaryotic viruses and its know...

    Authors: Adam Monier, Jens Borggaard Larsen, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Gunnar Bratbak, Jean-Michel Claverie and Hiroyuki Ogata
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:12
  25. Retroviral transduction involves integrase-dependent linkage of viral and host DNA that leaves an intermediate that requires post-integration repair (PIR). We and others proposed that PIR hijacks the host cell...

    Authors: Johanna A Smith, Feng-Xiang Wang, Hui Zhang, Kou-Juey Wu, Kevin Jon Williams and René Daniel
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:11
  26. Single-stranded RNA viruses, infectious to the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. are known to reside at low levels in colonies, with typically no apparent signs of infection observed in the honeybees. Reverse ...

    Authors: Andrea C Baker and Declan C Schroeder
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:10
  27. Citrus sudden death (CSD), a disease that rapidly kills orange trees, is an emerging threat to the Brazilian citrus industry. Although the causal agent of CSD has not been definitively determined, based on the...

    Authors: Clarissa PC Gomes, Tatsuya Nagata, Waldir C de Jesus Jr, Carlos R Borges Neto, Georgios J Pappas Jr and Darren P Martin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:9
  28. Sargassum fusiforme (Harvey) Setchell has been shown to be a highly effective inhibitor of HIV-1 infection. To identify its mechanism of action, we performed bioactivity-guided fractionation on Sargassum fusiform...

    Authors: Elena E Paskaleva, Xudong Lin, Karen Duus, James J McSharry, Jean-Claude L Veille, Carol Thornber, Yanze Liu, David Yu-Wei Lee and Mario Canki
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:8
  29. The Balkan region and Kosovo in particular, is a well-known Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic region, with frequent epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring with a hospitalized case fatalit...

    Authors: Darja Duh, Stuart T Nichol, Marina L Khristova, Ana Saksida, Iva Hafner-Bratkovič, Miroslav Petrovec, Iusuf Dedushaj, Salih Ahmeti and Tatjana Avšič-Županc
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:7
  30. CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), a member of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor family, can serve as a co-receptor along with CD4 for entry into the cell of T-cell tropic X4 human immunodeficiency virus...

    Authors: Bongkun Choi, Paul J Gatti, Cesar D Fermin, Sandor Vigh, Allyson M Haislip and Robert F Garry
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:6
  31. Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M...

    Authors: Angelina Plyusnina, Juha Laakkonen, Jukka Niemimaa, Kirill Nemirov, Galina Muruyeva, Boshikto Pohodiev, Åke Lundkvist, Antti Vaheri, Heikki Henttonen, Olli Vapalahti and Alexander Plyusnin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:4
  32. The competitiveness of two Tula hantavirus (TULV) isolates, TULV/Lodz and TULV/Moravia, was evaluated in interferon (IFN) -competent and IFN-deficient cells. The two isolates differ in the length of the open r...

    Authors: Kirsi M Jääskeläinen, Angelina Plyusnina, Åke Lundkvist, Antti Vaheri and Alexander Plyusnin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:3
  33. The initiation of transcription and replication of influenza A virus requires the 5' and 3' ends of vRNA. Here, the role of segment-specific non-coding sequences of influenza A virus on viral RNA synthesis was...

    Authors: Stella SF Ng, Olive TW Li, Timothy KW Cheung, J S Malik Peiris and Leo LM Poon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:2
  34. Co-circulation of multiple dengue virus serotypes has been reported from many parts of the world including India, however concurrent infection with more than one serotype of dengue viruses in the same individu...

    Authors: Preeti Bharaj, Harendra S Chahar, Anubhav Pandey, Kavita Diddi, Lalit Dar, Randeep Guleria, Sushil K Kabra and Shobha Broor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:1
  35. The many Hepadnaviridae sequences available have widely varied functional annotation. The genomes are very compact (~3.2 kb) but contain multiple layers of functional regulatory elements in addition to coding reg...

    Authors: Nattanan Panjaworayan, Stephan K Roessner, Andrew E Firth and Chris M Brown
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:136
  36. Transfusion Transmitted virus (TTV) is a novel single-stranded DNA virus that was identified in patients with post-transfusion hepatitis of non-A-G type. Clinical significance of TTV infection was analyzed in ...

    Authors: Mohamed M Hafez, Sabry M Shaarawy, Amr A Hassan, Rabab F Salim, Fatma M Abd El Salam and Amal E Ali
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:135
  37. Influenza viruses replicate within the nucleus of infected cells. Viral genomic RNA, three polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA), and the nucleoprotein (NP) form ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) that are ex...

    Authors: Henju Marjuki, Hui-Ling Yen, John Franks, Robert G Webster, Stephan Pleschka and Erich Hoffmann
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:134
  38. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can be acquired sexually and is shed from the genital tract. Cross-sectional studies in women show that changes in genital tract microbial flora affect HCMV infection and/or sheddi...

    Authors: Sailesh C Harwani, Nell S Lurain, M Reza Zariffard and Gregory T Spear
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:133
  39. Lytic bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 forms visually observed aggregates during plaque formation. Aggregates intrinsically lower propagation potential. In the present study, the following observations indicate that lo...

    Authors: Philip Serwer, Shirley J Hayes and Karen Lieman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:131
  40. The choice of an appropriate housekeeping gene for normalisation purposes has now become an essential requirement when designing QPCR experiments. This is of particular importance when using QPCR to measure vi...

    Authors: Sarah Watson, Sarah Mercier, Chris Bye, John Wilkinson, Anthony L Cunningham and Andrew N Harman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:130
  41. Genotyping of HBV is generally used for determining the epidemiological relationship between various virus strains and origin of infection mostly in research studies. The utility of genotyping for clinical app...

    Authors: Saeeda Baig, Anwar Ali Siddiqui, Waqaruddin Ahmed, Huma Qureshi and Ambreen Arif
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:128
  42. Papillomaviruses (PVs) are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect keratinocytes in differentiating epithelia and induce hyperproliferative lesions. Here, we used methylcellulose to induce cell differentiation...

    Authors: Xiao Wang, Bo Li and Kong-Nan Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2007 4:127