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  1. Viral hepatitis, the most common cause of inflammatory liver disease, affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. It is most commonly associated with one of the five nominal hepatitis viruses (hepatitis ...

    Authors: Howra Bahrulolum, Hossein Tarrahimofrad, Fatemeh Nouri Rouzbahani, Saghi Nooraei, Mehdi Mousavi Sameh, Abbas Hajizade and Gholamreza Ahmadian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:91
  2. Insufficient tracking of virus introduction, spread, and new lineage emergence for the human monkeypox (mpox) virus 1 (hMPXV1) outbreak of 2022 hindered epidemiological studies and public health response. hMPX...

    Authors: Michael S. Bosmeny, Adam A. White, Adrian A. Pater, Jennifer Crew, Joshua Geltz and Keith T. Gagnon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:90
  3. Solid-organ transplantation due to end-stage organ disease is increasingly performed in people living with HIV. Despite improved transplant outcomes, management of these patients remains challenging due to hig...

    Authors: Andrea Erba, Catia Marzolini, Katharina Rentsch, Marcel Stoeckle, Manuel Battegay, Michael Mayr and Maja Weisser
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:89
  4. Increased systematic pro-inflammatory cytokines is the main cause of the inflammatory conditions of the hospitalized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. In this proj...

    Authors: Omidreza Sarrafi, Ashraf Kariminik and Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:88
  5. Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) is a major pathogenic agent of upper respiratory tract infections and eye damage in felines worldwide. Current FHV-1 vaccines offer limited protection of short duration, and therefore,...

    Authors: Aoxing Tang, Meng Zhu, Jie Zhu, Da Zhang, Shiqiang Zhu, Xiao Wang, Chunchun Meng, Chuangfeng Li and Guangqing Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:87
  6. Bacteriophages (phages) are one of the most promising alternatives to traditional antibiotic therapies, especially against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered to be an opportunistic ...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Fayez, Toka A. Hakim, Bishoy Maher Zaki, Salsabil Makky, Mohamed Abdelmoteleb, Kareem Essam, Anan Safwat, Abdallah S. Abdelsattar and Ayman El-Shibiny
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:86

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2023 20:113

  7. Infection with the novel pandemic SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to elicit a cross-reactive immune response that could lead to a back-boost of memory recall to previously encountered seasonal (endemic) corona...

    Authors: Wouter L. Smit, Sophie van Tol, Lenneke E. M. Haas, Gijs J. M. Limonard, Ailko Bossink, Chantal Reusken, Michiel Heron and Steven F. T. Thijsen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:85
  8. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) circulation in humans and swine has been extensively studied in South America over the last two decades. Nevertheless, only 2.1% of reported HEV strains are available as complete genome...

    Authors: Debora Regina Lopes dos Santos, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Lais Ceschini Machado, Vanessa Salete de Paula, Gabriel da Luz Wallau, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Lindomar José Pena, Marcelo Alves Pinto, Laura Helena Vega Gonzalez Gil and Edmilson Ferreira de Oliveira-Filho
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:83
  9. Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PM NBs), often referred to as membraneless organelles, are dynamic macromolecular protein complexes composed of a PML protein core and other transient or permanent compon...

    Authors: Boris Ryabchenko, Vojtěch Šroller, Lenka Horníková, Alexey Lovtsov, Jitka Forstová and Sandra Huérfano
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:82
  10. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major foodborne pathogen that contaminates aquatic products and causes great economic losses to aquaculture. Because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant V. parahaemolyticus strain...

    Authors: Yubing Chen, Wenqing Li, Keming Shi, Zheng Fang, Yunlan Yang and Rui Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:81
  11. There is a close correlation between HPV infection and systemic immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine which lymphocytes in peripheral blood influence human papillomavirus (HPV) infection an...

    Authors: Ye Li, Yebin Feng, Yanlin Chen, Wenyu Lin, Hangjing Gao, Ming Chen, Kelvin Stefan Osafo, Xiaodan Mao, Yafang Kang, Leyi Huang, Dabin Liu, Shuxia Xu, Lixiang Huang, Binhua Dong and Pengming Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:80
  12. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically important pathogen, characterized by its genetic and antigenic variation. The PRRSV vaccine is widely used, however, the unsatisfi...

    Authors: Xingzhen Tang, Cong Wang, Weifeng Sun, Weixin Wu, Shaohui Sun, Jin Wan, Guangshan Zhu, Nini Ma, Xiaoping Ma, Ruihua Xu, Qiushi Yang, Yindi Dai and Lei Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:79
  13. Caspases and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) have been shown to promote influenza A virus (IAV) replication. However, the relative importance and molecular mechanisms of specific caspases and their down...

    Authors: Sourabh Soni, Stephanie Walton-Filipczak, Richard S. Nho, Yohannes Tesfaigzi and Yohannes A. Mebratu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:78

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2023 20:95

  14. H9N2 virus is mainly transmitted through the respiratory mucosal pathway, so mucosal immunity is considered to play a good role in controlling avian influenza infection. It is commonly accepted that no adequat...

    Authors: Ruihua Zhang, Tong Xu, Ziping Li, Longfei Li, Chunhong Li, Xinrui Li, Zhiyue Wang, Shaohua Wang, Xuejing Wang and Hongliang Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:76
  15. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes non-symptomatic infection, mild influenza-like symptoms to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death, reflect...

    Authors: Tian Qin, Beilei Shen, Entao Li, Song Jin, Rongbo Luo, Yiming Zhang, Jing Qi, Xiuwen Deng, Zhuangzhuang Shi, Tiecheng Wang, Yifa Zhou and Yuwei Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:75
  16. CVB5 can cause respiratory infections. However, the molecular epidemiological information about CVB5 in respiratory tract samples is still limited. Here, we report five cases in which CVB5 was detected in sput...

    Authors: Miao Tan, Jiale Suo, Zhilei Zhang, Wenji He, Li Tan, Haiyan Jiang, Ming Li, Juan He, Yue Pan, Bin Xu, Lingmei Yan, Songtao Bin, Zhengyan Gan, Yuxing Sun, Hongchao Jiang, Qiangming Sun…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:74
  17. The genome of the largest known animal virus, the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) responsible for huge economic losses and loss of employment in aquaculture, suffers from inconsistent annotation nomenclature....

    Authors: Karthic Krishnan, Vinaya Kumar Katneni, Sudheesh K. Prabhudas, Nimisha Kaikkolante, Ashok Kumar Jangam, Upendra Kumar Katneni, Chris Hauton, Luca Peruzza, Shashi Shekhar Mudagandur, Vijayan K. Koyadan, Jithendran Karingalakkandy Poochirian and Joykrushna Jena
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:72
  18. Omono River virus (OMRV) is a newly reported, unclassified RNA virus in the family Totiviridae, which infects mosquitoes and bats. In this study, we report the isolation of an OMRV strain SD76 from Culex tritaeni...

    Authors: Xiaojuan Lin, Bo Sun, Guifang Liu, Yunjiao Wu, Yao Liu, Feng Ji, Zexin Tao and Aiqiang Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:71
  19. Since January 2020, measures has been adopted in the Chaoshan area to limit the spread of COVID-19. Restrictions were removed after August 2020. At the same time, children returned to school. We previously rep...

    Authors: Chuang-Xing Lin, Hao-bin Lian, Guang-Yu Lin, Dan-gui Zhang, Xiao-Ying Cai and Fei-qiu Wen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:70
  20. Influenza is a contagious viral airborne disease that adds to the clinical and economic burden on the healthcare system. It could be prevented substantially by seasonal influenza vaccination. Seasonal influenz...

    Authors: Roberta Vaikutyte, Monika Kuliese, Aukse Mickiene, Ligita Jancoriene, Birute Zablockiene and Giedre Gefenaite
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:67
  21. Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) is a pathogenic fish virus belonging to family Alloherpesviridae. The CyHV-2 gene encoding thymidine kinase (TK) is an important virulence-associated factor. Therefore, we aimed...

    Authors: Min Qian, Simin Xiao, Yapeng Yang, Fei Yu, Jinxuan Wen, Liqun Lu and Hao Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:66
  22. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a worldwide pandemic with over 627 million cases and over 6.5 million deaths...

    Authors: Rui Chen, Kenrie Pui-Yan Hui, Yingmin Liang, Ka-Chun Ng, John Malcolm Nicholls, Mary Sau-Man Ip, Malik Peiris, Michael Chi-Wai Chan and Judith Choi-Wo Mak
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:65
  23. The mRNA vaccine technology was developed rapidly during the global pandemic of COVID-19. The crucial role of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in preventing viral infection also have been beneficial to the exploratio...

    Authors: Xiao Guo, Dongying Liu, Yukai Huang, Youcai Deng, Ying Wang, Jingrui Mao, Yuancheng Zhou, Yongai Xiong and Xinghong Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:64
  24. Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type I (FHV-1) are the most common viral pathogens responsible for cat respiratory diseases, and coinfection with these two pathogens is often found. In veterina...

    Authors: Bo Chen, Haoyang Zhang, Hanhong Wang, Shoujun Li and Pei Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:62
  25. A group of DNA viruses called parvoviruses that have significant effects on cancer therapy and genetic engineering applications. After passing through the cell membrane to reach the cytosol, it moves along the...

    Authors: Jiuming Shi, Yifeng Pei, Qian Yu and Hao dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:61
  26. Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis among children. Previous studies based on symptomatic infections indicated that mutations, rather than recombination drove the evolution of the norovirus O...

    Authors: Li-Na Chen, Si-Jie Wang, Song-Mei Wang, Xiao-Li Fu, Wen-Jing Zheng, Zhi-Yong Hao, Hai-Song Zhou, Xin-Jiang Zhang, Yu-Liang Zhao, Chao Qiu, Lorenz von Seidlein, Tian-Yi Qiu and Xuan-Yi Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:60
  27. The World Health Organization (WHO) has currently detected five Variants of Concern of SARS-CoV-2 having the WHO labels of ‘Alpha’, ‘Beta’, ‘Gamma’, ‘Delta’ and ‘Omicron’. We aimed to assess and compare the tr...

    Authors: S. S. Manathunga, I. A. Abeyagunawardena and S. D. Dharmaratne
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:59
  28. Multiple host factors are involved in modulating type I interferon expression induced by viruses; however, the mechanism is not fully elucidated. Influenza A virus infection causes severe respiratory symptoms ...

    Authors: Shengyu Wang, Zhenrong Li, Yaping Chen, Sanli Gao, Junhua Qiao, Haoru Liu, Hong Song, Dishu Ao and Xin Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:58
  29. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of ten (10) SARS-CoV-2 serological rapid diagnostic tests in comparison with the WANTAI SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA test in a laboratory setting.

    Authors: Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Abdou Azaque Zoure, Tegwinde Rebeca Compaoré, Herve Ky, Sylvie Zida, Dezemon Zingué, Oumarou Ouedraogo, Serge Théophile Soubeiga, Tani Sagna, Charlemagne Dabiré, Dinanibè Kambiré, Dramane Zongo, Albert Théophane Yonli, Abdoul Rahamani Nikiema, Désiré Nezien, Gnintassa Cyrille Bansé…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:57
  30. One year after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the focus of attention has shifted to the emergence and spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of conce...

    Authors: Jean-Robert Makulo, Roger Wumba, Madone Ndona Mandina, Placide Mbala, Adrienne Amuri Aziza, Yannick Mayamba Nlandu, Benjanmin Kabwe, Donatien Mangala, Ben Izizag Bepouka, Jerome Ossam Odio, Murielle Longokolo, Eric Mukenge, Guyguy Kamwiziku, Eddy Lusamaki Kingand, Constantin Bashengezi, Gilbert Kabanda…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:56
  31. When viruses like SARS-CoV-2 infect cells, they reprogram the repertoire of cellular and viral transcripts that are being translated to optimize their strategy of replication, often targeting host translation ...

    Authors: Nadejda Korneeva, Md Imtiaz Khalil, Ishita Ghosh, Ruping Fan, Thomas Arnold and Arrigo De Benedetti
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:55
  32. African swine fever (ASF) is a severe infectious disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), seriously endangering the global pig industry. ASFV possesses a large genome, strong mutation ability, a...

    Authors: Jinke Yang, Xingguo Yuan, Yu Hao, Xijuan Shi, Xing Yang, Wenqian Yan, Lingling Chen, Dajun Zhang, Chaochao Shen, Dan Li, Zixiang Zhu, Xiangtao Liu, Haixue Zheng and Keshan Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:54
  33. Hyperimmune convalescent COVID-19 plasma (CCP) containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) was proposed as a therapeutic option for patients early in the new coronavirus disease pandemic. The eff...

    Authors: Katerina Jazbec, Mojca Jež, Klemen Žiberna, Polonca Mali, Živa Ramšak, Urška Rahne Potokar, Zdravko Kvrzić, Maja Černilec, Melita Gracar, Marjana Šprohar, Petra Jovanovič, Sonja Vuletić and Primož Rožman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:53
  34. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by neuroinflammation and demyelination orchestrated by activated neuroglial cells, CNS infiltrating leukocytes, and their reciprocal interactions through inflammatory s...

    Authors: Mithila Kamble, Fareeha Saadi, Saurav Kumar, Bhaskar Saha and Jayasri Das Sarma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:51
  35. Plants are used in traditional healing practices of many cultures worldwide. Momordica balsamina is a plant commonly used by traditional African healers as a part of a treatment for HIV/AIDS. It is typically give...

    Authors: Mahfuz Khan, Amad Diop, Erick Gbodossou, Peng Xiao, Morgan Coleman, Kenya De Barros, Hao Duong, Vincent C. Bond, Virginia Floyd, Kofi Kondwani, Valerie Montgomery Rice, Sandra Harris-Hooker, Francois Villinger and Michael D. Powell
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:50
  36. The human skin contains a diverse microbiome that provides protective functions against environmental pathogens. Studies have demonstrated that bacteriophages modulate bacterial community composition and facil...

    Authors: Ema H. Graham, Wesley A. Tom, Alison C. Neujahr, Michael S. Adamowicz, Jennifer L. Clarke, Joshua R. Herr and Samodha C. Fernando
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:49
  37. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of different vaginal administration on cervical persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection after excisional treatment for high-grade squamous intraepithelial...

    Authors: Yiqian Tang, Qing Tong, Ning Dai and Cai Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:47
  38. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused great economic losses in the global pig industry. There have been published records of wild rats acting as the reservoirs of PCV2 (only PCV2a and PCV2b), but almost ...

    Authors: Min Zhao, Siwen Bao, Diandian Xu, Jingxian He, Han Zhang, Likai Ji, Shixing Yang, Xiaochun Wang, Quan Shen, Jia Liu, Qing Zhang, Xiao Ma, Wen Zhang and Tongling Shan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:46
  39. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a highly contagious, immunosuppressive, and oncogenic chicken pathogen causing marek’s disease (MD). In this outbreak-based study, 70 dual-purpose chickens that originated from p...

    Authors: Mastewal Birhan, Esayas Gelaye, Saddam Mohammed Ibrahim, Nega Berhane, Takele Abayneh, Belayneh Getachew, Aragaw Zemene, Kassahun Birie, Getaw Deresse, Kassaye Adamu, Bereket Dessalegn, Abebe Tesfaye Gessese, Mebrie Zemene Kinde and Molalegne Bitew
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:45
  40. Previously developed TaME-seq method for deep sequencing of HPV, allowed simultaneous identification of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA consensus sequence, low-frequency variable sites, and chromosomal inte...

    Authors: Alexander Hesselberg Løvestad, Milan S. Stosic, Jean-Marc Costanzi, Irene Kraus Christiansen, Hege Vangstein Aamot, Ole Herman Ambur and Trine B. Rounge
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:44
  41. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a major public health threat, making the study of its biology a matter of great importance. By analyzing the viral–host protein interactions, new drug targets may be proposed. In...

    Authors: Dan Israel Zavala-Vargas, Giovani Visoso-Carbajal, Leticia Cedillo-Barrón, Jessica Georgina Filisola-Villaseñor, Romel Rosales-Ramirez, Juan E. Ludert and Edgar Morales-Ríos
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:43
  42. As the worldwide spreading epidemic of SARS-CoV-2, quick inspection and quarantine of passengers for SARS-CoV-2 infection are essential for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2, especially the cross-border tra...

    Authors: Runzi Qi, Gang Wang, Xu Wang, Cheng Li, Lei Huang, Weixi Xiao, Bing Shao, Chunya Zhou, Xun Ding, Feng Li and Wei Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2023 20:42