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  1. There are few data on the prevalence of acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRs) in Hunan Province, China, that could affect the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART).

    Authors: Xiaobai Zou, Jianmei He, Jun Zheng, Roberta Malmgren, Weisi Li, Xiuqing Wei, Guoqiang Zhang and Xi Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Human herpesviruses (HHVs) remain latent after primary infection and can be reactivated in response to immunosuppression and chemotherapy. Little is known about their incidence, potential relationships, risk f...

    Authors: Imene Handous, Bechir Achour, Manel Marzouk, Sana Rouis, Olfa Hazgui, Ines Brini, Abderrahim Khelif, Naila Hannachi and Jalel Boukadida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:37

    Content type: Research

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  3. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is typically evaluated based on the current rate of positivity of anti-HCV antibody; however, HCV RNA positivity is considered the main criterion for antivir...

    Authors: Yurong Li, Lianrong Zhao, Nan Geng, Weijia Zhu, Hongbo Liu and Han Bai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:36

    Content type: Research

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  4. To the best of our knowledgedd, there is currently no case in the literature reporting the comorbidity of Wilson’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), linked through copper.

    Authors: Effrosyni Koutsouraki, Dimitrios Michmizos, Olga Patsi, John Tzartos, Martha Spilioti, Marianthi Arnaoutoglou and Magda Tsolaki

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:35

    Content type: Case Report

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  5. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs about 22 nucleotides in length, which play an important role in gene regulation of both eukaryotes and viruses. They can promote RNA cleavage and repress translatio...

    Authors: Lichen Zhang, Jiaqi Yu and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:34

    Content type: Review

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  6. Chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV), which belongs to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae, mainly infects solanaceous plants and has caused serious economic losses in Asia and Africa. Tobacco plants inf...

    Authors: Yubing Jiao, Chuantao Xu, Jialun Li, Yong Gu, Chun Xia, Qiang Xie, Yunbo Xie, Mengnan An, Zihao Xia and Yuanhua Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:33

    Content type: Research

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  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a primary cause of cervical cancer. Although epidemiologic study revealed that carcinogenic risk differs according to HPV genotypes, the expression patterns of HPV-deriv...

    Authors: Satoshi Baba, Ayumi Taguchi, Akira Kawata, Konan Hara, Satoko Eguchi, Mayuyo Mori, Katsuyuki Adachi, Seiichiro Mori, Takashi Iwata, Akira Mitsuhashi, Daichi Maeda, Atsushi Komatsu, Takeshi Nagamatsu, Katsutoshi Oda, Iwao Kukimoto, Yutaka Osuga…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:32

    Content type: Research

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  8. After viral fusion with the cell membrane, the conical capsid of HIV-1 disassembles by a process called uncoating. Previously we have utilized the CsA washout assay, in which TRIM-CypA mediated restriction of ...

    Authors: Zachary Ingram, Melanie Taylor, Glister Okland, Richard Martin and Amy E. Hulme

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:31

    Content type: Research

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  9. Several reports indicate that a portion (5–10%) of men living with HIV-1 intermittently shed HIV-1 RNA into seminal plasma while on long term effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). This is highly suggestive o...

    Authors: Samuel Mundia Kariuki, Philippe Selhorst, Jennifer Norman, Karen Cohen, Kevin Rebe, Carolyn Williamson and Jeffrey R. Dorfman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:29

    Content type: Short report

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  10. The detection of antibodies against capripoxvirus has become easier with a commercially available ELISA validated for serum and plasma. In order to explore its suitability for immunological investigations on a...

    Authors: Milovan Milovanović, Vesna Milićević, Sonja Radojičić, Miroslav Valčić, Bernd Hoffmann and Klaas Dietze

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:28

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Dengue virus (DENV) infects hundreds of thousands of people annually in Indonesia. However, DENV sequence data from the country are limited, as samples from outbreaks must be shipped across long-distances to s...

    Authors: Samuel C. B. Stubbs, Barbara A. Blacklaws, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Rahma F. Hayati, Brian Schwem, Edsel M. Salvaña, Raul V. Destura, James S. Lester, Khin S. Myint, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Simon D. W. Frost

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:24

    Content type: Research

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  12. During severe immunosuppression or treatment with specific biological drugs, human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) may establish a lytic infection in oligodendrocytes, leading to progressive multifocal leukoencephalop...

    Authors: Maria Rosa Ciardi, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Marco Iannetta, Carla Prezioso, Valentina Perri, Patrizia Pasculli, Miriam Lichtner, Gabriella d’Ettorre, Marta Altieri, Antonella Conte, Valeria Pietropaolo, Claudio Maria Mastroianni and Vincenzo Vullo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:23

    Content type: Case Report

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  13. Transfection, the process of introducing purified nucleic acids into cells, and viral transduction, viral-mediated nucleic acid transfer, are two commonly utilized techniques for gene delivery in the research ...

    Authors: Jeffrey Sebrow, Stephen P. Goff and Daniel O. Griffin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:22

    Content type: Short report

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  14. Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a non-enveloped virus that has a single stranded positive sense RNA genome. In a previous study, we showed that miR-876-5p upregulation was observed in the serum of patients wi...

    Authors: Peng Xu, Hwa Xu, Hsu Sheng Cheng, Han-Hsiang Chan and Robert Y. L. Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:21

    Content type: Research

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  15. Standardized and sensitive assays for Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) are needed to define universal cutoff for treatment initiation in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplant recipients. In a context of accre...

    Authors: Maud Salmona, Karl Stefic, Nadia Mahjoub, Flore Sicre de Fontbrune, Sarah Maylin, François Simon, Catherine Scieux, Gérard Socié, Marie-Christine Mazeron and Jérôme LeGoff

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:20

    Content type: Research

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  16. Porcine parvovirus (PPV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV) are the important etiological agents of swine infectious diseases, resulting in huge economic losses to the Chinese swine industry. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) ha...

    Authors: Hui-Hua Zheng, Lin-Qing Wang, Peng-Fei Fu, Lan-Lan Zheng, Hong-Ying Chen and Fang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:19

    Content type: Research

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  17. Porcine β-defensin 2 (PBD-2), produced by host cells, is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich cationic peptide with multi-functions. Previous studies have demonstrated that PBD-2 can kill various bacteria, regulate ...

    Authors: Jing Huang, Yanhua Qi, Antian Wang, Chao Huang, Xiao Liu, Xi Yang, Lu Li and Rui Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:18

    Content type: Research

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  18. Anhui Province in China is facing a severe HIV epidemic with an increasing number of newly diagnosed cases.

    Authors: Dong Zhang, Jianjun Wu, Yu Zhang, Yuelan Shen, Sheying Dai, Xiaolin Wang, Hui Xing, Jin Lin, Jingwan Han, Jingyun Li, Yizu Qin, Yongjian Liu, Lifeng Miao, Bin Su, Hanping Li and Lin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:17

    Content type: Research

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  19. Aquatic bird bornavirus 1 (ABBV-1) has been associated with neurological diseases in wild waterfowls. In Canada, presence of ABBV-1 was demonstrated by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry in tissues of waterfowls...

    Authors: Phuc H. Pham, Alexander Leacy, Li Deng, Éva Nagy and Leonardo Susta

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:16

    Content type: Research

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  20. Hantaan virus (HTNV) can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans with severe morbidity and high mortality. Although inactivated HFRS vaccines are given annually for prevention in populatio...

    Authors: Yan Ma, Kang Tang, Yusi Zhang, Chunmei Zhang, Yun Zhang, Boquan Jin and Ying Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:15

    Content type: Research

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  21. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a public health issue for which an effective universal screening method is urgently needed. An oral anti-HCV test could provide a noninvasive and rapid screening strategy f...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Mingyuan Zhang, Lei Hang, Fei Kong, Hongqing Yan, Yumei Zhang, Xiangwei Feng, Yuanda Gao, Chang Wang, Heming Ma, Xu Liu, Mengru Zhan, Yu Pan, Hongqin Xu and Junqi Niu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:14

    Content type: Research

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  22. Viruses are the most numerous entities on Earth and have also been central to many episodes in the history of humankind. As the study of viruses progresses further and further, there are several limitations in...

    Authors: Gabriel Augusto Pires de Souza, Victória Fulgêncio Queiroz, Maurício Teixeira Lima, Erik Vinicius de Sousa Reis, Luiz Felipe Leomil Coelho and Jônatas Santos Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:13

    Content type: Research

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  23. Influenza A virus (IAV) continues to pose serious threats to public health. The current prophylaxis and therapeutic interventions for IAV requires frequent changes due to the continuous antigenic drift and ant...

    Authors: Huan Cui, Chunmao Zhang, Zongzheng Zhao, Cheng Zhang, Yingying Fu, Jiaming Li, Guanxi Chen, Mengxi Lai, Zhixiang Li, Shishan Dong, Ligong Chen, Zhaoyang Li, Chengyu Wang, Juxiang Liu, Yuwei Gao and Zhendong Guo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:12

    Content type: Research

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  24. Current molecular target-dependent methods are used to detect only known viruses. However, metagenomics based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique is a target-independent assay that enables simultaneo...

    Authors: Hawraa Adel Mohammad, Nada Mohammed Madi and Widad Al-Nakib

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:10

    Content type: Research

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  25. Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral disease, affecting humans and non-human primates (NHP), caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV). Despite the existence of a safe vaccine, YF continues to cause morbidity and ...

    Authors: Natalia Ingrid Oliveira Silva, Lívia Sacchetto, Izabela Maurício de Rezende, Giliane de Souza Trindade, Angelle Desiree LaBeaud, Benoit de Thoisy and Betânia Paiva Drumond

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:9

    Content type: Review

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  26. The separation of exfoliated cells from the brushes used during cervico-vaginal smears is difficult, a problem which may affect the quality of ribonucleic acid (RNA) extracted. We compared the results of RNA e...

    Authors: Gun Oh. Chong, Hyung Soo Han, Seon Duk Lee and Yoon Hee Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:8

    Content type: Short report

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  27. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes. In the 2017, a dengue epidemic occurred in Hanoi in a short time interval and many cases were serious with associated mortality. ...

    Authors: Thuy Thi Dang, My Ha Pham, Huy Vu Bui and Duyet Van Le

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:7

    Content type: Research

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  28. Pneumonia and stomatitis represent severe and often fatal diseases in different captive snakes. Apart from bacterial infections, paramyxo-, adeno-, reo- and arenaviruses cause these diseases. In 2014, new viru...

    Authors: Silvia Blahak, Maria Jenckel, Dirk Höper, Martin Beer, Bernd Hoffmann and Kore Schlottau

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:6

    Content type: Research

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  29. BK Polyomavirus (BKPyV) causes premature graft failure in 1 to 15% of kidney transplant (KT) recipients. High-level BKPyV-viruria and BKPyV-DNAemia precede polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PyVAN), and guid...

    Authors: Elias Myrvoll Lorentzen, Stian Henriksen, Amandeep Kaur, Grete Birkeland Kro, Clara Hammarström, Hans H. Hirsch, Karsten Midtvedt and Christine Hanssen Rinaldo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:5

    Content type: Case Report

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  30. A previously isolated a bacteriophage, vB_EcoS_AKFV33 of T5virus, demonstrated great potential in biocontrol of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157. This study further evaluated its potential as a biocon...

    Authors: Yan D. Niu, Hui Liu, Roger P. Johnson, Tim A. McAllister and Kim Stanford

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:3

    Content type: Short report

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  31. Bufavirus is a newly discovered zoonotic virus reported in numerous mammals and humans. However, the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of porcine bufaviruses (PBuVs) in China remain unclear.

    Authors: Yan-Kuo Sun, Yong-Jie Chen, Yu Cai, Di-Hua Zhu, Hao-Ming Pan, Ying-Fang Wei, Xiao-Liang Han, Chi-Hai Ji, Gang Lu, Heng Wang, Chun-Quan Ma and Gui-Hong Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:2

    Content type: Research

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  32. Sanitary quality of recreational waters worldwide is assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as Escherichia coli and enterococci. However, fate and transport characteristics of FIB in aquatic habitats...

    Authors: Brian R. McMinn, Eric R. Rhodes, Emma M. Huff and Asja Korajkic

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:1

    Content type: Research

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  33. Developing African countries face health problems that they struggle to solve. The major causes of this situation are high therapeutic and logistical costs. Plant-made therapeutics are easy to produce due to t...

    Authors: Pingdwende Kader Aziz Bamogo, Christophe Brugidou, Drissa Sérémé, Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Florencia Wendkuuni Djigma, Jacques Simpore and Séverine Lacombe

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:167

    Content type: Review

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  34. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the two main etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). Simple and rapid detection of EV71 and CA16 is critical in resource-limited setti...

    Authors: Xin-na Li, Xin-xin Shen, Ming-hui Li, Ju-ju Qi, Rui-huan Wang, Qing-xia Duan, Rui-qing Zhang, Tao Fan, Xue-ding Bai, Guo-hao Fan, Yao Xie and Xue-jun Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:166

    Content type: Research

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  35. The paramyxovirus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) is a multifunctional protein that is responsible for attachment to receptors, removal of receptors from infected cells to prevent viral self-aggregation (neu...

    Authors: Yaqing Liu, Miaomiao Chi, Ying Liu, Hongling Wen, Li Zhao, Yanyan Song, Na Liu and Zhiyu Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:164

    Content type: Research

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  36. Patchouli alcohol (PA) is a tricyclic sesquiterpene extracted from Pogostemonis Herba, which is a traditional Chinese medicine used for therapy of inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have shown that PA has vari...

    Authors: Yunjia Yu, Yang Zhang, Shuyao Wang, Wei Liu, Cui Hao and Wei Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:163

    Content type: Research

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  37. RNA secondary structures play a key role in splicing, gene expression, microRNA biogenesis, RNA editing, and other biological processes. The importance of RNA structures has been demonstrated in the life cycle...

    Authors: Irina Baranovskaya, Mariia Sergeeva, Artem Fadeev, Renata Kadirova, Anna Ivanova, Edward Ramsay and Andrey Vasin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:162

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Adenovirus (AdV) infection is ubiquitous in the human population and causes acute infection in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. In addition to lytic infections in epithelial cells, AdV can persist ...

    Authors: Megan L. Dickherber and Charlie Garnett-Benson

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:161

    Content type: Research

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  39. EOS plays an important role in maintaining the suppressive function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), and induces a regulated transformation of Tregs into T helper-like cells, which are capable of secreting proin...

    Authors: Tadasuke Naito, Hiroshi Ushirogawa, Takuya Fukushima, Yuetsu Tanaka and Mineki Saito

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:160

    Content type: Research

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  40. Live-cell imaging is a powerful tool for visualization of the spatio-temporal dynamics of moving signals in living cells. Although this technique can be utilized to visualize nucleocapsid transport in Marburg ...

    Authors: Yuki Takamatsu, Olga Dolnik, Takeshi Noda and Stephan Becker

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:159

    Content type: Research

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  41. After the isolation of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APMV), the study and search for new giant viruses has been intensified. Most giant viruses are associated with free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeb...

    Authors: Fernanda Souza, Rodrigo Rodrigues, Erik Reis, Maurício Lima, Bernard La Scola and Jônatas Abrahão

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:158

    Content type: Research

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  42. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), which is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus, is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leukosis, a disease characterized by a highly prolonged course involving persis...

    Authors: Lanlan Bai, Shin-nosuke Takeshima, Masaaki Sato, William C. Davis, Satoshi Wada, Junko Kohara and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:157

    Content type: Short report

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  43. The foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus is classified into seven serotypes, of which the South African types have South African Territories (SAT)1, SAT2, and SAT3 that are prevalent in Africa. Especially SAT2 h...

    Authors: Hye-Eun Jo, Su-Hwa You, Joo-Hyung Choi, Mi-Kyeong Ko, Sung Ho Shin, Jisoo Song, Hyundong Jo, Min Ja Lee, Su-Mi Kim, Byounghan Kim and Jong-Hyeon Park

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:156

    Content type: Research

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  44. Porcine circovirus (PCV) disease caused by PCV type 2 (PCV2) is mainly attributed to immunosuppression and immune damage. PCV2 can infect vascular endothelial cells and induce high expression of endothelial IL...

    Authors: Shiyu Liu, Qiuming Li, Jinzeng Qiao, Jianfang Wang, Defeng Cui, Kewei Gu, Shuanghai Zhou and Huanrong Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:154

    Content type: Research

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