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  1. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 play a central role in the etiology of the most common neoplasm in horses, the equine sarcoid. The unknown mechanism behind the unique variety in clinical presentation...

    Authors: Lien Gysens, Bert Vanmechelen, Maarten Haspeslagh, Piet Maes and Ann Martens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:8
  2. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogenic gammaherpesvirus with carcinogenic potential. The EBV transcriptome has previously been analyzed using both Illumina-based short read-sequencing and Pa...

    Authors: Ádám Fülöp, Gábor Torma, Norbert Moldován, Kálmán Szenthe, Ferenc Bánáti, Islam A. A. Almsarrhad, Zsolt Csabai, Dóra Tombácz, János Minárovits and Zsolt Boldogkői
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:7
  3. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) prevalence and risk factors exhibit considerable variations across populations in different geographic regions. Determinants and the transmission routes of KSHV ...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Yiyun Xu, Yi Li, Huangbo Yuan, Zhenqiu Liu and Tiejun Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:5
  4. The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants still poses a threat to public health worldwide. Effective next-generation vaccines and optimized booster vaccination strategies ...

    Authors: Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Lin Cheng, Weilong Liu, Qing Fan, Xiangyang Ge, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:2
  5. Surveillance for circulating emerging diseases of economic importance has a major role in the rapid response to major pathogen outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the significant endemic v...

    Authors: Ayah M. Hassan, Mostafa R. Zaher, Rabab T. Hassanien, Mervat I. Abd-El-Moniem, Ahmed R. Habashi, Essam M. Ibraheem, Momtaz A. Shahein, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty and Naglaa M. Hagag
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:1
  6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein determines virus entry and the palmitoylation of S protein affects virus infection. An acyltransferase complex ZDHHC5/GOGAL7 that ...

    Authors: Xiao-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Xi Yu and Wei Cheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:257

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:25

  7. Although interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was reported to stimulate virus replication by suppressing the type I interferon signaling pathway, because cell cycle arrest was found to promote viral replicati...

    Authors: Kai Ren, Ya Zhu, Honggang Sun, Shilin Li, Xiaoqiong Duan, Shuang Li, Yujia Li, Bin Li and Limin Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:256
  8. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) usually infects infants causing hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), even fatal neurological disease like aseptic meningitis. Effective drug for preventing and treating EV71 infection is unava...

    Authors: Zhuoran Li, Ya’ni Wu, Hui Li, Wenqian Li, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:255
  9. Rotavirus (RV) is a principal cause of diarrhea. However, there is a limited understanding regarding alteration of the gut microbial community structure and abundance during RV infection. This study was to cha...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Mei Ling Yu, XiaoLi Tao, Mei Hui Cheng, Chang Cheng Liu, Yang Liu and Yong Gang Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:254
  10. The uncontrollable spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas during 2015–2017, and its causal link to microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, led the World Health Organisation to decl...

    Authors: Julio Carrera, Alice M. Trenerry, Cameron P. Simmons and Jason M. Mackenzie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:251
  11. Daphnis nerii cypovirus-23 (DnCPV-23) is a new type of cypovirus and has a lethal effect on the oleander hawk moth, Daphnis nerii which feeds on leave of Oleander and Catharanthus et al. After DnCPV-23 infection,...

    Authors: Wendong Kuang, Chenghua Yan, Zhigao Zhan, Limei Guan, Jinchang Wang, Junhui Chen, Jianghuai Li, Guangqiang Ma, Xi Zhou and Liang Jin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:250
  12. Vaccination against HCV is an effective measure in reduction of virus-related public health burden and mortality. However, no prophylactic vaccine is available as of yet. DNA-based immunization is a promising ...

    Authors: Ali Shayeghpour, Roya Kianfar, Parastoo Hosseini, Mehdi Ajorloo, Sepehr Aghajanian, Mojtaba Hedayat Yaghoobi, Tayebeh Hashempour and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:248
  13. Despite the five decades having passed since discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), together with development of an effective anti-HBV vaccine, infection with the virus remains a serious public health probl...

    Authors: Njabulo Mnyandu, Shonisani Wendy Limani, Patrick Arbuthnot and Mohube Betty Maepa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:247
  14. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been described as a causing factor for acute-on-chronic-liver-failure (ACLF) in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), such as chronic hepatitis or cirr...

    Authors: Anabella Fantilli, Sarah Daniela López Villa, Alina Zerega, Guadalupe Di Cola, Luis López, Maribel Wassaf Martínez, María Belén Pisano and Viviana Elizabeth Ré
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:245
  15. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xingxiang Liu, Jianguo Shao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Renfei Lu, Hong Xue, Yunfang Xu, Lijuan Wang, Hui Zhou, Lugang Yu, Ming Yue and Chen Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:244
  16. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are a f...

    Authors: Ali Monfared, Leila Akhondzadeh, Mahsa Mousazadeh, Atefeh Jafari, Masoud Khosravi, Mohammadkazem Lebadi, Pegah Aghajanzadeh, Yalda Haghdar-Saheli, Ali Movassaghi, Elham Ramezanzadeh, Farzaneh Shobeirian, Ehsan Kazemnezhad and Samaneh Esmaeili
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:243
  17. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is a significant public health problem that could benefit from treatment with immunomodulators. Here we describe a set of therapeutic HBV vaccines that target th...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi, Mikhail Novikov, Dakota Newman, ZhiQuan Xiang, Xiang Yang Zhou, Colin Magowan and Hildegund C. J. Ertl
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:242
  18. Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:241

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:225

  19. Members of the family Inoviridae (inoviruses) are characterized by their unique filamentous morphology and infection cycle. The viral genome of inovirus is able to integrate into the host genome and continuously ...

    Authors: Jian Zeng, Yan Wang, Ju Zhang, Shixing Yang and Wen Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:240
  20. HIV and HBV infections remain responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality in many African Countries, affecting women and newborns. This study aims to analyze the spatial pattern of HIV and HBV infecti...

    Authors: Amélia Nkutxi Vueba, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Clarissa Faria and Maria do Céu Sousa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:239
  21. To evaluate viral loads in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia at different stages of disease and compare the viral load between upper and lower respiratory tract samples.

    Authors: Le-Yun Xie, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Tian Yu, Xian Hu, Tao Wang, Le Yang, Li-Li Zhong, Jin-Song Li, Zhao-Jun Duan and Bing Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:238
  22. The highly pathogenic Influenza H7N9 virus is believed to cause multiple organ infections. However, there have been few systematic animal experiments demonstrating the virus distribution after H7N9 virus infec...

    Authors: Xiao-Xin Wu, Song-Jia Tang, Shu-Hao Yao, Yu-Qin Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Lin-Fang Cheng, Fu-Ming Liu, Nan-Ping Wu, Hang-Ping Yao and Lan-Juan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:237
  23. Previous works have observed that younger infants with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are more responsive to antiviral treatment. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, th...

    Authors: Yi Li, Yiwei Xiao, Lili Li, Yarong Song, Xiangjun Zhai, Jianxun Liu, Zhongping Duan, Ling Yan, Feng Ding, Jia Liu, Liguo Zhu, Jie Jiang, Huaibin Zou, Lingxiang Li, Caihong Liang, Jie Wang…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:236
  24. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serum markers during typical acute self-limited infection are usually depicted as a composite of traditional HBV markers. The current study updates and expands our knowledge of acute he...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Vera Holzmayer, Anne L. McNamara, Mark Anderson and Gavin A. Cloherty
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:235
  25. HAdV is one of the common pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We aim to describe the clinical and laboratory features, epidemiological characteristics, and HAdV species...

    Authors: Caiyun Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yumei Mi, Jing Chen, Jing Bi and Yinghu Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:234
  26. Dabieshan tick virus (DTV) was first identified in Haemaphysalis longicornis from Hubei Province, China in 2015. However, its pathogenic potential to animals and human remains to be further explored. In this stud...

    Authors: Lijun Shao, Ruiheng Chang, Lin Liu, Yongjin Wang, Yun Gao, Shaoqing Wang, Hengyi Sun and Guoyu Niu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:233
  27. Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a pr...

    Authors: Ji Heui Kim, Jung Yeon Jang and Yong Ju Jang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:232
  28. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus haemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) is the leading cause of death in captive Asian elephant calves in Asia, North America, and Europe with a mortality rate of ~ 65% in calves t...

    Authors: Mei-Ho Lee, Senthilvel K. S. S. Nathan, Laura Benedict, Pakeeyaraj Nagalingam, Erin Latimer, Tom Hughes, Diana Ramirez and Jum Rafiah Abd Sukor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:231
  29. In 2011, a new influenza virus, named Influenza D Virus (IDV), was isolated from pigs, and then cattle, presenting influenza-like symptoms. IDV is one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD...

    Authors: Yutian Wang, Weiyang Sun, Zhenfei Wang, Menglin Zhao, Xinghai Zhang, Yunyi Kong, Xuefeng Wang, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Yongkun Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Songtao Yang and Yuwei Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:230
  30. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets, dogs, and giant pandas causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervou...

    Authors: Jingjian Dong, Yan Chen, Lili Shi, Bing Shen, Xianliang Sun, Kaiyi Ruan, Xianzhu Xia, Hao Feng and Na Feng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:229
  31. The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regim...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Farbod Shahabinezhad, Tahmoores Niknam, Seyed Ahmad Tara, Elham Haem, Parviz Mardani, Zahra Zare, Sedigheh Jafarian, Khatereh Mirzad Jahromi, Sara Arabsheybani, Yalda Sadat Moeini, Jalile Alavi, Seyed Soroush Jalali, Maryam Salimi, Reza Shahriarirad and Seyed Ali Malekhosseini
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:228
  32. Parechoviruses (PeV-As), which constitute a new genus within the family Picornaviridae, have been associated with numerous localized outbreaks of serious diseases, such as coryza, pneumonia, maculopapular exanthe...

    Authors: Huanhuan Lu, Jinbo Xiao, Keyi Zhang, Zhenzhi Han, Yang Song, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Wenbo Xu and Yong Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:227
  33. Given that many pregnant women have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes, we looked into the relationship betw...

    Authors: Wanchang Yin, Bingjun Chen, Yilin Yang, Xiuzi Li, Ruirui Li, Jiangnan Xie, Guixian Chen, Fang He and Dunjin Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:226
  34. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, pulmonary involvement was one of the most significant concerns in assessing patients. In the current study, we evaluated patient’s signs, symptoms, and laboratory data on the first...

    Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:225

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:241

  35. B-cell proliferative disorders, such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), are increased among persons afflicted by T-cell compromise. Most are Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) + and can first present...

    Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Jun Xie, Rajesh Panigrahi, Sandeep S. Jubbal, Santosh Kumar Guru, Gao Guangping, Mazyar Ziyaeyan and Joyce Fingeroth
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:223
  36. We report a genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Paraná, southern Brazil, from March 2020 to April 2021. Our analysis, based on 333 genomes, revealed that the first variants detected in t...

    Authors: Mauro M. Oliveira, Michelle O. Schemberger, Andreia A. Suzukawa, Irina N. Riediger, Maria do Carmo Debur, Guilherme Becker, Paola Cristina Resende, Tiago Gräf, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antônio de Baura, Emanuel M. de Souza, Fábio O. Pedrosa, Lysangela R. Alves, Lucas Blanes, Sheila Cristina Nardelli, Alessandra M. Aguiar…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:222
  37. The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has elevated several clinical and scientific questions. These include how host genetic factors influence the pathogene...

    Authors: Pooneh Rahimi, Rahil Tarharoudi, Alireza Rahimpour, Jalal Mosayebi Amroabadi, Iraj Ahmadi, Enayat Anvari, Seyed Davar Siadat, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi and Abolfazl Fateh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:221
  38. Interleukin (IL)-38, a novel member of the IL-1 family, has been reported to be involved in several diseases associated with viral infection. However, the expression and functional role of IL-38 in acute viral...

    Authors: Yimin Xue, Mingguang Chen, Qian Chen, Tingfeng Huang, Qiaolian Fan, Fenghui Lin, Jun Ke and Feng Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:220
  39. Most phages infect free-living bacteria but a few have been identified that infect heritable symbionts of insects or other eukaryotes. Heritable symbionts are usually specialized and isolated from other bacter...

    Authors: Bret M. Boyd, Germain Chevignon, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver and Michael R. Strand
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:219
  40. The incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) is consistently increasing, in association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV16. HPV variants show heterogeneity in...

    Authors: Daniela Cochicho, Rui Gil da Costa and Ana Felix
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:217
  41. With the advancement of sequencing technologies, a plethora of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) species have been widely discovered, including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). Howe...

    Authors: Junzhuo Si, Xia Tang, Lei Xu, Huichao Fu, Huayi Li, Yonglin He, Jiajia Bao, Jialing Tang, Anlong Li, Nan Lu and Chun Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:216
  42. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in utero is very common during pregnancy, which can lead to adverse outcomes in both pregnancy and progeny, but its pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. The decreas...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Kong, Jing Li, Li Zhao, Peng Shi, Xiaobei Liu, Cailing Bian, Jing Liu and Tao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:214
  43. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causing agent of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by a huge pro-inflammatory response and coagulation disorders that may lead to for its severe forms, in organ ...

    Authors: Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Alexandre Mansour, Florian Reizine, Patrick Mismetti, Isabelle Gouin-Thibault and Fabrice Cognasse
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:211