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  1. Reducing the pool of HIV-1 reservoirs in patients is a must to achieve functional cure. The most prominent HIV-1 cell reservoirs are resting CD4 + T cells and brain derived microglial cells. Infected microglia...

    Authors: Sepideh Saeb, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza Pourkarim, Fadoua Daouad, Kazem Baesi, Olivier Rohr, Clémentine Wallet and Christian Schwartz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:107

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that has limited tissue and species specificity. Due to the persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cell...

    Authors: Ruirui Xu, Pingping Hu, Yuwen Li, Anran Tian, Jun Li and Chuanlong Zhu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:105

    Content type: Review

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  3. Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are leading causes of viral severe acute respiratory illnesses in childhood. Both the two viruses belong to the Pneumoviridae family and show ove...

    Authors: John W. Oketch, Everlyn Kamau, James R. Otieno, Anthony Mwema, Clement Lewa, Everlyne Isoe, D. James Nokes and Charles N. Agoti

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:104

    Content type: Research

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  4. The emergence of drug resistance and cross-resistance to existing drugs has warranted the development of new antivirals for Herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Hence, we have designed this study to evaluate the anti...

    Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Saikat De, Alok Kumar Moharana, Tapas Kumar Nayak, Tanuja Saswat, Ankita Datey, Prabhudutta Mamidi, Priyadarsee Mishra, Bharat Bhusan Subudhi and Soma Chattopadhyay

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:103

    Content type: Research

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  5. Although more than a year past since COVID-19 was defined, there is no specific treatment yet. Since COVID-19 management differs over time, it is hard to determine which therapy is more efficacious. In this st...

    Authors: Anıl Ucan, Pamir Cerci, Serdar Efe, Hakan Akgun, Ahmet Ozmen, Aysel Yagmuroglu, Muzaffer Bilgin and Deniz Avci

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:102

    Content type: Research

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  6. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major challenge facing the world. Certain guidelines issued by National Health Commission of the People's Repubilic of China recommend intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)...

    Authors: Xiao Hou, Li Tian, Lei Zhou, Xinhua Jia, Li Kong, Yitao Xue, Hao Hao, Xianqing Meng, Feihu Zhang and Xiaobin Dong

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:101

    Content type: Research

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  7. Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) is one of the most devastating viral diseases for cassava production in Africa and Asia. Accurate yet affordable diagnostics are one of the fundamental tools supporting successful ...

    Authors: Saengsoon Charoenvilaisiri, Channarong Seepiban, Mallika Kumpoosiri, Sombat Rukpratanporn, Nuchnard Warin, Bencharong Phuangrat, Phakamat Chitchuea, Sirima Siripaitoon, Orawan Chatchawankanphanich and Oraprapai Gajanandana

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:100

    Content type: Research

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  8. Sensitive, rapid, and accessible diagnostics continue to be critical to track the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. RT-qPCR is the gold standard test, and comparison of methodologies and reagen...

    Authors: Joel D. Pearson, Daniel Trcka, Suying Lu, Sharon J. Hyduk, Mark Jen, Marie-Ming Aynaud, J. Javier Hernández, Philippos Peidis, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Kin Chan, Jim Woodgett, Tony Mazzulli, Liliana Attisano, Laurence Pelletier, Myron I. Cybulsky, Jeffrey L. Wrana…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:99

    Content type: Research

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  9. In recent years, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have drawn attention as a novel therapy to various types of cancers, both in clinical and preclinical cancer studies all around the world. Consequently, researchers hav...

    Authors: Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Tehjeeb Noor, Ziaul Haque Munim, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:98

    Content type: Review

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  10. African swine fever (ASF), characterized by acute, severe, and fast-spreading, is a highly lethal swine infectious disease caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV), which has caused substantial economic ...

    Authors: Zhan Gao, Jun-Jun Shao, Guang-Lei Zhang, Su-Dan Ge, Yan-Yan Chang, Lei Xiao and Hui-Yun Chang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:97

    Content type: Methodology

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  11. Human parvovirus B19V is a DNA virus, and a member of the family Parvoviridae, that causes various clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to persistent infection that is associated with different autoimmune d...

    Authors: Dayakar Seetha, Heera R. Pillai, Sai Ravi Chandra Nori, Sanu Ghosh Kalpathodi, Vineetha P. Thulasi and Radhakrishnan R. Nair

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:96

    Content type: Short report

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  12. The early identification of asymptomatic yet infectious cases is vital to curb the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and to control the disease in the post-pandemic era. In this paper, we propose a fast, in...

    Authors: Eva Kriegova, Regina Fillerova, Milan Raska, Jirina Manakova, Martin Dihel, Ondrej Janca, Pavel Sauer, Martina Klimkova, Petra Strakova and Petr Kvapil

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:95

    Content type: Short report

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  13. Variations in human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 have been shown to be closely related to the persistence of the virus and the occurrence and development of cervical cancer. Long control region (LCR) of HPV ...

    Authors: Zhilin Song, Yanru Cui, Qiufu Li, Junhang Deng, Xianping Ding, Jiaoyu He, Yiran Liu, Zhuang Ju and Liyuan Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:94

    Content type: Research

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  14. SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do...

    Authors: Natalie C. Marshall, Ruwandi M. Kariyawasam, Nathan Zelyas, Jamil N. Kanji and Mathew A. Diggle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:93

    Content type: Research

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  15. H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic poten...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska and Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

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  16. A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relatio...

    Authors: Yanjun Zhang, Lingxuan Su, Yin Chen, Sicong Yu, Dan Zhang, Haiyan Mao and Lei Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:89

    Content type: Research

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  17. Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, f...

    Authors: Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr, Heloísa Ihle Giamberardino, Sonia Mara Raboni, Maria Carmo Debur, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy and Edson Elias da Silva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:88

    Content type: Case Report

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  18. The emergence and rapid spread of the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC-202012/01) SARS-CoV-2 variant has aroused global concern. The N501Y substitution is the only mutation in the interface between the RBD of B.1.1.7 and ...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Xiangyang Ge, Jiazhen Yu, Mingxia Zhang, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:87

    Content type: Short report

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  19. Newcastle disease is a devastating disease in poultry caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a paramyxovirus endemic in many regions of the world despite intensive vaccination. Phylogenetic analyses...

    Authors: Ibrahim Moharam, Olayinka Asala, Sven Reiche, Hafez Hafez, Martin Beer, Timm Harder and Christian Grund

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:86

    Content type: Research

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  20. Gene delivery of antiviral therapeutics to anatomical sites where viruses accumulate and persist is a promising approach for the next generation of antiviral therapies. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AA...

    Authors: Rossana Colón-Thillet, Keith R. Jerome and Daniel Stone

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:85

    Content type: Review

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  21. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the neurotropic pathogen that has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. The limited ...

    Authors: Yanli Chen, Heng Li, Jinxi Yang, Huiwen Zheng, Lei Guo, Weiyu Li, Zening Yang, Jie Song and Longding Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:84

    Content type: Research

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  22. Sacbrood is an infectious disease of the honey bee caused by Scbrood virus (SBV) which belongs to the family Iflaviridae and is especially lethal for Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a...

    Authors: Liping Sun, Xueqi Zhang, Shufa Xu, Chunsheng Hou, Jin Xu, Dongxiang Zhao and Yanping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

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  23. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:82

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:71

  24. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vp39 is conserved in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. In previous studies, VP39 has been identified as the major capsid structure protein of baculov...

    Authors: Sainan Li, Bingming Ou, Yina Lv, Tian Gan, Haizhou Zhao and Wenhua Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:81

    Content type: Short report

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  25. Data about the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the Czech Republic is limited. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and concordance of genotype-specific HPV infection detected in semen...

    Authors: Hana Jaworek, Vladimira Koudelakova, Ivana Oborna, Blazena Zborilova, Jana Brezinova, Dagmar Ruzickova, Jana Vrbkova, Pavla Kourilova and Marian Hajduch

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:80

    Content type: Research

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  26. Raccoon dog parvovirus (RDPV) causes acute infectious diseases in raccoon dogs and may cause death in severe cases. The current treatment strategy relies on the extensive usage of classical inactivated vaccine...

    Authors: Linya Xia, Guoliang Luo, Mingjie Wu, Lei Wang, Ning Zhang, Congmei Wu and Yuhe Yin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:79

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. The HIV-1 epidemic is still considered a global public health problem, but great advances have been made in fighting it by antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART has a considerable impact on viral replication and h...

    Authors: Lorena Leticia Peixoto de Lima, Allysson Quintino Tenório de Oliveira, Tuane Carolina Ferreira Moura, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Sandra Souza Lima, Andrea Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:78

    Content type: Research

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  28. Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) con...

    Authors: Ayokunle O. Olanrewaju, Benjamin P. Sullivan, Ashley R. Bardon, Tiffany J. Lo, Tim R. Cressey, Jonathan D. Posner and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:77

    Content type: Short report

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  29. Aphids are important vectors of numerous plant viruses. Besides plant viruses, a number of insect specific viruses (ISVs), such as nege/nege-like viruses, have been recently discovered in aphids of the genera Aph...

    Authors: Yu-Hua Qi, Liao-Yuan Xu, Jing Zhai, Zhuang-Xin Ye, Gang Lu, Jian-Ping Chen, Chuan-Xi Zhang and Jun-Min Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:76

    Content type: Short report

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  30. H9N2 influenza virus, a subtype of influenza A virus, can spread across different species and induce the respiratory infectious disease in humans, leading to a severe public health risk and a huge economic los...

    Authors: Shaohua Wang, Na Li, Shugang Jin, Ruihua Zhang and Tong Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Liver cancer has become one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common liver cancers, and its occurrence and development process are associated...

    Authors: Jinyan Xie, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Shun Chen, XinXin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Qihui Luo, Yin Wang, Zhiwen Xu, Zhengli Chen, Ling Zhu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:74

    Content type: Review

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  32. We stratified post-COVID patients into four newly established clinical groups based on the presence or absence of at least one subjective respiratory symptom and at least one objective sign of pulmonary involv...

    Authors: Mikulas Skala, Michal Svoboda, Michal Kopecky, Eva Kocova, Martin Hyrsl, Michal Homolac, Viktor Chrobok, Pavel Bostik, Miroslav Fajfr, Petr Prasil, Stanislav Plisek, Radek Sleha and Vladimir Koblizek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:73

    Content type: Short report

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  33. Human papillomavirus type 39 associated with genital intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers, has a high prevalence in Southwest China. HPV E6, E7 are two main papillomavirus oncoproteins, closely relat...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Tianjun Li, Youliang Wang, Zhilin Song, Qiufu Li, Yiran Liu, Yanru Cui, Siyu Ma, Junhang Deng, Xia Wei and Xianping Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:72

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. At the beginning of the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little was known about its actual rate of infectivity and any COVID-19 patient positive in laboratory te...

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:71

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:82

  35. The porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is divided into eight genotypes including the previously described genotypes PCV2a to PCV2f and the two new genotypes PCV2g and PCV2h. PCV2 genotyping has become an importa...

    Authors: Ellen Kathrin Link, Matthias Eddicks, Liangliang Nan, Mathias Ritzmann, Gerd Sutter and Robert Fux

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:70

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and goat pox (GTP) are two devastating animal epidemic diseases that affect small ruminants. Vaccination is one of the most important measures to prevent and control these two ...

    Authors: Dajun Zhang, Bo Yang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Chaochao Shen, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu and Keshan Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:69

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:128

  37. H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have clos...

    Authors: Ge Li, Xun Wang, Qingmei Li, Jifei Yang, Xiao Liu, Wenbao Qi, Junqing Guo, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Risk scores are needed to predict the risk of death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the context of rapid disease progression.

    Authors: Xiude Fan, Bin Zhu, Masoud Nouri-Vaskeh, Chunguo Jiang, Xiaokai Feng, Kyle Poulsen, Behzad Baradaran, Jiansong Fang, Erfan Ahmadi Ade, Akbar Sharifi, Zhigang Zhao, Qunying Han, Yong Zhang, Liming Zhang and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research

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  39. Beginning in late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 111 mi...

    Authors: Zachary A. Krumm, Grace M. Lloyd, Connor P. Francis, Lith H. Nasif, Duane A. Mitchell, Todd E. Golde, Benoit I. Giasson and Yuxing Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:66

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  40. Quality of the nucleic acids extracted from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) samples largely depends on pre-analytic, fixation and storage conditions. We assessed the differential sensitivity of viral a...

    Authors: Sara Nicolás-Párraga, Montserrat Torres, Laia Alemany, Ana Félix, Eugenia Cruz, Silvia de Sanjosé, Francesc Xavier Bosch and Ignacio G. Bravo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research

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  41. Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Behrokh Farahmand, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Majid Khanzadeh Alishahi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Encephalomyocarditis virus, member of Cardiovirus genus within Picornaviridae family, is an important pathogen that infects different domestic and wild animals. However, the molecular mechanism of its entry remai...

    Authors: Qiongyi Li, Yang Liu, Shujuan Xu, Kexue Zhao, Ying Ling, Rongxiu Liu, Amjad Ali and Jialin Bai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  43. Citrus industry is worldwide dramatically affected by outbreaks of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Controls should be applied to nurseries, which could act as diversity hotspots for CTV. Early detection and chara...

    Authors: Aderito Tomàs Pais da Cunha, Michela Chiumenti, Laurindo Chambula Ladeira, Raied Abou Kubaa, Giuliana Loconsole, Vitantonio Pantaleo and Angelantonio Minafra

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has been applied successfully for virus and viroid discovery in many agricultural crops leading to the current drive to apply this technology in routine pathogen detection. The...

    Authors: Rachelle Bester, Glynnis Cook, Johannes H. J. Breytenbach, Chanel Steyn, Rochelle De Bruyn and Hans J. Maree

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:61

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  45. DNA vaccine is one of the research hotspots in veterinary vaccine development. Several advantages, such as cost-effectiveness, ease of design and production, good biocompatibility of plasmid DNA, attractive bi...

    Authors: Xing-Bo Liu, Guo-Wei Yu, Xin-Yu Gao, Jin-Long Huang, Li-Ting Qin, Hong-Bo Ni and Chuang Lyu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  46. The sample collection procedure for SARS-CoV-2 has a strong impact on diagnostic capability, contact tracing approach, ultimately affecting the infection containment performance. This study demonstrates that s...

    Authors: Silvia Ricci, Lorenzo Lodi, Francesco Citera, Francesco Nieddu, Maria Moriondo, Valentina Guarnieri, Mattia Giovannini, Giuseppe Indolfi, Massimo Resti, Alberto Zanobini and Chiara Azzari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:59

    Content type: Short report

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  47. With the novel coronavirus pandemic, the impact on the healthcare system and workers cannot be overlooked. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnel are still lacking. It is imperative to e...

    Authors: Golnar Sabetian, Mohsen Moghadami, Leila Hashemizadeh Fard Haghighi, Reza Shahriarirad, Mohammad Javad Fallahi, Naeimehossadat Asmarian and Yalda Sadat Moeini

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

    Published on: