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  1. African swine fever (ASF), a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease, affects domestic pigs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where regular outbreaks are reported leading to high mortality rates approach...

    Authors: Patrick N. Bisimwa, Juliette R. Ongus, Lucilla Steinaa, Espoir B. Bisimwa, Edwina Bochere, Eunice M. Machuka, Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner, Edward Okoth and Roger Pelle

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic factor in influenza A virus infection. It has been found that reactive oxygen species induced by the H9N2 influenza virus is associated with viral replication. Howev...

    Authors: Rui-hua Zhang, Hong-liang Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Chun-hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Jun Li, Tong Xu, Xue-jing Wang, Cun-lian Wang, Hui-chen Zhang, Ming-ju Xu and Shu-fei Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:22

    Content type: Research

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  3. The generation of accurate and reproducible viral sequence data is necessary to understand the diversity present in populations of RNA viruses isolated from clinical samples. While various sequencing methods a...

    Authors: Ryan V. Moriarty, Nicolas Fesser, Matthew S. Sutton, Vanessa Venturi, Miles P. Davenport, Timothy Schlub and Shelby L. O’Connor

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:21

    Content type: Research

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  4. Coinfections of HIV-positive individuals with Hepatitis B and D virus (HBV and HDV) are common and can be associated with rapid liver damage. Several antiretroviral drugs for HIV exhibit anti-HBV effect; howev...

    Authors: Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye, Olusola Anuoluwapo Akanbi, Folakemi Abiodun Osundare, Bo Wang, Olufisayo Adesina, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Sola Thomas Sunday, Abiodun Akeem Akindele, Patrycja Klink and C. Thomas Bock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:20

    Content type: Research

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  5. In China, more than 20 million patients with chronic hepatitis B need antiviral treatment. Side effects of antiviral treatment such as renal complications can be problematic, particularly in an aging population.

    Authors: Jueqing Gu, Guodong Yu, Xiaoli Zhang, Shanyan Zhang, Huan Cai, Chanyuan Ye, Yida Yang, Dezhou Li, Zhaowei Tong, Huajiang Shen, Huazhong Chen, Feng Ding, Xijie Lai, Junyan Liu, Meiling Xu and Weiti Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:19

    Content type: Research

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  6. Integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV replication that catalyzes insertion of the reverse-transcribed viral genome into the host chromosome during the early steps of viral infection. Highly active ant...

    Authors: Ki Hoon Park, Minjee Kim, Seoung Eun Bae, Hee Jung Lee, Kyung-Chang Kim, Byeong Sun Choi and Young Bong Kim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:17

    Content type: Research

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  7. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety l...

    Authors: Hideki Tani, Miyuki Kimura, Long Tan, Yoshihiro Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hiroyuki Kishi, Shuetsu Fukushi, Masayuki Saijo, Kaori Sano, Tadaki Suzuki, Hitoshi Kawasuji, Akitoshi Ueno, Yuki Miyajima, Yasutaka Fukui, Ippei Sakamaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  8. The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the leading causes of acute, chronic and occult hepatitis (OBI) representing a serious public health threat. Cytokines are known to be important chemical mediators that re...

    Authors: Camilla Rodrigues de Almeida Ribeiro, Nathalia Alves Araújo de Almeida, Katrini Guidolini Martinelli, Marcia Amendola Pires, Carlos Eduardo Brandao Mello, José J. Barros and Vanessa Salete de Paula

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:15

    Content type: Research

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  9. To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/...

    Authors: Ting Zhang, Haiwei Du, Li Guo, Feng Liu, Haoxiang Su and Fan Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:14

    Content type: Research

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  10. COVID-19 is diagnosed via detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA using real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR). Performance of many SARS-CoV-2 rtRT-PCR assays is not entirely known due to the...

    Authors: Jamil N. Kanji, Nathan Zelyas, Clayton MacDonald, Kanti Pabbaraju, Muhammad Naeem Khan, Abhaya Prasad, Jia Hu, Mathew Diggle, Byron M. Berenger and Graham Tipples

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:13

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Chemokine levels in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been shown to be markedly elevated. But the role of chemokines in mild COVID-19 has not yet been established. According to the epide...

    Authors: Xueyan Xi, Yang Guo, Min Zhu, Yuhui Wei, Gang Li, Boyu Du and Yunfu Wang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:12

    Content type: Research

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  12. Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient...

    Authors: Guohong Zhu, Dan Xu, Yuanyuan Zhang, Tianlin Wang, Lingyan Zhang, Weizhong Gu and Meiping Shen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Nowadays, hundreds of thousands of deaths per year are caused by antibiotic resistant nosocomial infections and the prognosis for future years is much worse, as evidenced by modern research. Bacteria of the Klebs...

    Authors: Fedor Zurabov and Evgeniy Zhilenkov

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:9

    Content type: Research

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  14. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major antigen that can induce protective antibodies in poultry. However, its antigenic epitopes have not been fully elucidated...

    Authors: Zhongyuan Jin, Qiaolin Wei, Youkun Bi, Yongshan Li, Na Huo, Sujing Mou, Wenbin Wang, Haijin Liu, Zengqi Yang, Hongjun Chen and Sa Xiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:8

    Content type: Research

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  15. Tobamoviruses, including tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) on tomato and pepper, and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) on cucumber and watermelon, have caused many disease outbreaks around the ...

    Authors: Bidisha Chanda, Md Shamimuzzaman, Andrea Gilliard and Kai-Shu Ling

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Advances in sequencing and analysis tools have facilitated discovery of many new viruses from invertebrates, including ants. Solenopsis invicta is an invasive ant that has quickly spread worldwide causing signifi...

    Authors: César Augusto Diniz Xavier, Margaret Louise Allen and Anna Elizabeth Whitfield

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  17. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV RNA) has been reported to be a surrogate marker of intrahepatic cccDNA during nucleos(t)ide analogs therapy. However, in HBeAg-positive patients treated with peg-interferon (pe...

    Authors: Xiaomei Wang, Xiumei Chi, Ruihong Wu, Hongqin Xu, Xiuzhu Gao, Lei Yu, Longgen Liu, Mingxiang Zhang, Youwen Tan, Junqi Niu and Qinglong Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  18. Tomato production is threatened worldwide by the occurrence of begomoviruses which are associated with tomato leaf curl diseases. There is little information on the molecular properties of tomato begomoviruses...

    Authors: Edith Khamonya Avedi, Adedapo Olutola Adediji, Dora Chao Kilalo, Florence Mmogi Olubayo, Isaac Macharia, Elijah Miinda Ateka, Eunice Magoma Machuka and Josiah Musembi Mutuku

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:2

    Content type: Research

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  19. Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion partic...

    Authors: Yue Zheng, Erin T. Larragoite, Elizabeth S. C. P. Williams, Juan Lama, Isabel Cisneros, Julio C. Delgado, Patricia Slev, Jenna Rychert, Emily A. Innis, Mayte Coiras, Matthew T. Rondina, Adam M. Spivak and Vicente Planelles

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:1

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  20. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:199

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:192

  21. Rodent borne hantaviruses are emerging viruses infecting humans through inhalation. They cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hemorrhagic cardiopulmonary syndrome. Recently, hantaviruses have been d...

    Authors: Olivia Wesula Lwande, Nahla Mohamed, Göran Bucht, Clas Ahlm, Gert Olsson and Magnus Evander

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:198

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  22. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is posing a serious threat to global public health. Reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used as...

    Authors: Yang Zhang, Chunyang Dai, Huiyan Wang, Yong Gao, Tuantuan Li, Yan Fang, Zuojun Shen, Lichang Chen, Zhaowu Chen, Xuejun Ma and Ming Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:197

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  23. The fight against the COVID-19 pandemic has created an urgent need to rapidly detect infected people. The challenge for clinical laboratories has been finding a high throughput, cost-efficient, and accurate te...

    Authors: Wesley Freppel, Natacha Merindol, Fabien Rallu and Marco Bergevin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:196

    Content type: Methodology

    Published on:

  24. Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) is a pathogenic virus that infects dogs, causing a highly infectious disease. Monitoring CPV-2 spread is an important part of prevention; however, the prevalence and epidemiological...

    Authors: Bo Dong, Gaoqiang Zhang, Jiajia Zhang, Junyu Bai and Weiming Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:195

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. CD83 is known to regulate lymphocyte maturation, activation, homeostasis, and antibody response to immunization and infection. While CD83 has a major part in B cell function, its role in influenza A virus infe...

    Authors: Madhav Akauliya, Avishekh Gautam, Sony Maharjan, Byoung Kwon Park, Jinsoo Kim and Hyung-Joo Kwon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:194

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. The new emerging coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) overall shares similar symptoms with other common respiratory viral infections. We aimed in this study to compare COVID-19 and human adenovirus (HAdV) infec...

    Authors: Kuanrong Li, Ling Li, Xianfeng Wang, Hui Li, Jun Chen, Lei Liu, Jianbo Shao, Yi Xu, Liya He, Sitang Gong, Huimin Xia and Huiying Liang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:193

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. In the past decades, researchers have demonstrated the critical role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the innate immune system. They recognize viral components and trigger immune signal cascades to subsequentl...

    Authors: Wenjin Zheng, Qing Xu, Yiyuan Zhang, Xiaofei E, Wei Gao, Mogen Zhang, Weijie Zhai, Ronaldjit Singh Rajkumar and Zhijun Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:192

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2020 17:199

  28. Influenza virus remains a continuous and severe threat to public health worldwide, and its prevention and treatment have always been a major international issue. Because of its ability to evade immune surveill...

    Authors: Jingjin Huang, Nan Huang, Menglu Fan, Lingcai Zhao, Yan Luo, Pingyun Ding, Miao Tian, Qingzheng Liu, Yanna Guo, Jinhua Zhao, Yiqing Zheng, Haitao Zhang and Jihui Ping

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:191

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in millions of infections worldwide. While the search for an effective antiviral is still ongoing, experimental ...

    Authors: Mohamed Mahdi, János András Mótyán, Zsófia Ilona Szojka, Mária Golda, Márió Miczi and József Tőzsér

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:190

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Lassa fever and Ebola are characterized by non-specific initial presentations that can progress to severe multisystem illnesses with high fatality rates. Samples from additional subjects are examined to extend...

    Authors: Trevor V. Gale, John S. Schieffelin, Luis M. Branco, Robert F. Garry and Donald S. Grant

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:188

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  31. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants, children, immunocompromised adults, and elderly individuals. Currently, there are few therapeutic optio...

    Authors: Saisai Wang, Yiting Ling, Yuanyuan Yao, Gang Zheng and Wenbin Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:187

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek’s disease, MD). MD is currently controlled by vaccination; however, MDV strains have a tendency to develop increased virulence. Distinc...

    Authors: Shiro Murata, Yuka Machida, Masayoshi Isezaki, Naoya Maekawa, Tomohiro Okagawa, Satoru Konnai and Kazuhiko Ohashi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:186

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. To investigate distributions of cervical lesions and factors associated with the severity of the cervical lesions in high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significa...

    Authors: Zhiling Wang, Ying Gu, Hui Wang, Junyu Chen, Yawen Zheng, Baoxia Cui and Xingsheng Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:185

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. The study of transient gene expression in cassava plants during virus infection using existing protocols is laborious and may take approximately fifteen weeks due to cassava’s recalcitrance to transformation. ...

    Authors: Patience Chatukuta and Marie Emma Christine Rey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:184

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been a catastrophic burden to global healthcare systems. The fast spread of the etiologic agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), h...

    Authors: Wai Sing Chan, Chun Hang Au, Ho Yin Lam, Candy Ling Na Wang, Dona Ngar-Yin Ho, Yuk Man Lam, Daniel Ka Wing Chu, Leo Lit Man Poon, Tsun Leung Chan, Jonpaul Sze-Tsing Zee, Edmond Shiu Kwan Ma and Bone Siu Fai Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:183

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  36. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have undergone rapid evolution, and in recent years the complementary and antagonistic effects of HA and NA have gathered more attentions; however, the effects of co-occurring mu...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Baiyi Liu, Xu Cong, Ying Ji, Xiaolin Guo and Yan Gao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:182

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. African swine fever (ASF) leads to high mortality in domestic pigs and wild boar and is caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). Currently, no vaccine is commercially available for prevention, and the e...

    Authors: Zhihua Feng, Jianghua Chen, Wangwang Liang, Wenzhi Chen, Zhaolong Li, Qi Chen and Shaoli Cai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:180

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Although, there is a variable burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women infected with HIV in developing countries, there are few studies that attempted to surmise such variable evidences. This review aimed...

    Authors: Agajie Likie Bogale, Nega Berhe Belay, Girmay Medhin and Jemal Haidar Ali

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:179

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. Several molecular kits are available for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, mostly lacking of proper clinical evaluation due to the emergency caused by COVID19 pandemia, particularly at developing countries like Ecuador.

    Authors: Byron Freire-Paspuel and Miguel Angel Garcia-Bereguiain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:178

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:41

  40. The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronav...

    Authors: Chutikarn Chaimayo, Bualan Kaewnaphan, Nattaya Tanlieng, Niracha Athipanyasilp, Rujipas Sirijatuphat, Methee Chayakulkeeree, Nasikarn Angkasekwinai, Ruengpung Sutthent, Nattawut Puangpunngam, Theerawoot Tharmviboonsri, Orawan Pongraweewan, Suebwong Chuthapisith, Yongyut Sirivatanauksorn, Wannee Kantakamalakul and Navin Horthongkham

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:177

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes significant morbidity and mortality globally primarily due to its ability to cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Kenya National Blood Transfusion S...

    Authors: Patrick Okoti Aluora, Margaret Wangui Muturi and George Gachara

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:176

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Mohsen Keshavarz, Mir Saeed Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Hassan Dianat-Moghadam, Seyedeh Sara Ghorbanhosseini, Seyed Reza Mohebbi, Hossein Keyvani and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:175

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2020 17:64

  43. Influenza virus infection is among the most detrimental threats to the health of humans and some animals, infecting millions of people annually all around the world and in many thousands of cases giving rise t...

    Authors: Ailar Sabbaghi, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Mohsen Keshavarz, Mehran Mahooti, Arghavan Zebardast and Amir Ghaemi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2020 17:174

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

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