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  1. The dengue epidemic in Guangzhou has imposed a rising burden on society and health infrastructure. Here, we present the genotype data for dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) to improve understanding of this dengu...

    Authors: Liyun Jiang, Yuan Liu, Wenzhe Su, Yimin Cao, Qinlong Jing, Xinwei Wu and Zhicong Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:47
  2. Enteroviruses (EVs) are considered the main causative agents responsible for aseptic meningitis worldwide. This study was conducted in the Monastir region of Tunisia in order to know the prevalence of EV infec...

    Authors: Yosra Rmadi, Aida Elargoubi, Rubén González-Sanz, Maha Mastouri, Maria Cabrerizo and Mahjoub Aouni
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:45
  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly refractory cancer associated with increasing mortality, which currently lacks effective treatment options. Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is a novel tumor suppressor cytokine...

    Authors: Lili Deng, Xue Yang, Yuedi Ding, Jun Fan, Ying Peng, Dong Xu, Biao Huang and Zhigang Hu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:44
  4. Since December 14, 2020, New York City (NYC) has started the first batch of COVID-19 vaccines. However, the shortage of vaccines is currently an inevitable problem. Therefore, optimizing the age-specific COVID...

    Authors: Miaolei Li, Jian Zu, Yue Zhang, Le Ma, Mingwang Shen, Zongfang Li and Fanpu Ji
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:43
  5. Inclusion of high throughput technologies in the field of biology has generated massive amounts of data in the recent years. Now, transforming these huge volumes of data into knowledge is the primary challenge...

    Authors: Dibyendu Ghosh, Srija Chakraborty, Hariprasad Kodamana and Supriya Chakraborty
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:42
  6. Human pegivirus 1 (HPgV-1) is a Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ ssRNA) virus, discovered in 1995 as a Flaviviridae member, and the closest human virus linked to HCV. In comparison to HCV, HPgV-1 seems to...

    Authors: Mehdi Samadi, Vahid Salimi, Mohammad Reza Haghshenas, Seyed Mohammad Miri, Seyed Reza Mohebbi and Amir Ghaemi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:41
  7. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most significant threats to the global swine industry. It is of great importance to understand viral-host interactions to develop novel...

    Authors: Jing Zhang, Lipeng Gan, Pu Sun, Jian Wang, Dong Li, Yimei Cao, Yuanfang Fu, Pinghua Li, Xingwen Bai, Kun Li, Xueqing Ma, Huifang Bao, Yingli Chen, Jie Zhang, Zaixin Liu and Zengjun Lu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:40
  8. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are zoonotic, segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The rapid mutation of IAVs results in host immune response escape and antiviral drug and vaccine resistance. RUNX1 is a transcr...

    Authors: Yixiang Hu, Qi Pan, Kun Zhou, Yuehuan Ling, Hao Wang and Yan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:39
  9. Idiopathic CD4 + T lymphocytopenia (ICL) is a rare immunodeficiency syndrome, unaccompanied by various opportunistic infections. Cryptococcus and varicella-zoster viruse are the most common opportunistic infec...

    Authors: Li Fang, Junli Zhang and Fangfang Lv
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:38
  10. Persistent high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes infection has been implicated as a causative of cervical cancer. Distribution and genotypes of HPV infection among females and their variations would as...

    Authors: Xiuli Wang, Shuizhong Han, Xingwei Li, Xiaochuan Wang, Shan Wang and Li Ma
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:37
  11. Despite the clinical burden attributable to rhinovirus (RV) infections, the RV transmission dynamics and the impact of interventions on viral transmission remain elusive.

    Authors: Kim Tien Ng, Liang Jie Ng, Xiang Yong Oong, Jack Bee Chook, Kok Gan Chan, Yutaka Takebe, Adeeba Kamarulzaman and Kok Keng Tee
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:36
  12. SARS-CoV-2, a novel corona virus, has caused clusters of fatal pneumonia worldwide. Immune compromised patients are among the high risk groups with poor prognosis of the disease. The presence of bacterial or f...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Zahra Shekari, Arash Boorboor, Zahra Zare, Sara Arabsheybani and Nazanin Azadeh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:35
  13. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is classified as a class C notifiable infectious disease in China and poses a great threat to public health. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological trends an...

    Authors: Rong Liu, Yuxing Chen, Hao Liu, Xihui Huang and Fang Zhou
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:34
  14. Rubella virus (RV) is the causative agent of rubella or German measles. Although most infections cause only mild self-limited measles-like illness, the infection in pregnant women can cause severe foetal malfo...

    Authors: Wenyue Xing, Li Li, Jingnan Zhang, Chunli Ma, Xin Xue, Shumei Ye, Huiting Xue, Ruiping Hu, Yanhua Ma and Hong Yuan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:33
  15. The immunosuppressive microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a major factor that limits the benefits of immunotherapy, especially immune checkpoint blockade. One viable strategy for reverting ...

    Authors: Sijia Tang, Lei Shi, Breona T. Luker, Channen Mickler, Bhavana Suresh, Gregory B. Lesinski, Daping Fan, Yuan Liu and Ming Luo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:32
  16. The worldwide epidemics of diseases as dengue and Zika have triggered an intense effort to repurpose drugs and search for novel antivirals to treat patients as no approved drugs for these diseases are currentl...

    Authors: Emerson de Castro Barbosa, Tânia Maria Almeida Alves, Markus Kohlhoff, Soraya Torres Gaze Jangola, Douglas Eduardo Valente Pires, Anna Carolina Cançado Figueiredo, Érica Alessandra Rocha Alves, Carlos Eduardo Calzavara-Silva, Marcos Sobral, Erna Geessien Kroon, Luiz Henrique Rosa, Carlos Leomar Zani and Jaquelline Germano de Oliveira
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:31
  17. Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) can infect human cells and pose a risk for xenotransplantation when pig cells, tissues or organs are transplanted to human recipients. Xenotransplantation holds great pr...

    Authors: Sabrina Halecker, Ludwig Krabben, Yannick Kristiansen, Luise Krüger, Lars Möller, Dietmar Becher, Michael Laue, Benedikt Kaufer, Christian Reimer and Joachim Denner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:30
  18. Ultraviolet (UV) light has previously been established as useful method of disinfection, with demonstrated efficacy to inactivate a broad range of microorganisms. The advent of ultraviolet light-emitting diode...

    Authors: Arvin T. Persaud, Jonathan Burnie, Laxshaginee Thaya, Liann DSouza, Steven Martin and Christina Guzzo
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:29
  19. Some cytokine signaling pathways can interact with interferon (IFN)-α pathway and thus regulate cell responses to IFN-α. Levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were found to be elevat...

    Authors: Jiaxuan Zhang, Kai Liu, Gaoli Zhang, Ning Ling and Min Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:28
  20. In early 2020, a novel H9N2 AIV immune escape variant emerged in South China and rapidly spread throughout mainland China. The effectiveness of the current H9N2 vaccine is being challenged by emerging immune e...

    Authors: Yiqing Zheng, Yanna Guo, Yingfei Li, Bing Liang, Xiaoyuan Sun, Shijia Li, Huizhi Xia and Jihui Ping
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:26
  21. In this work, six SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody assays were evaluated, namely, two pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) assays [Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (named "Elecsys" in this study) and the PerkinElmer SuperFlex...

    Authors: Masaki Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Okazaki, Yoko Kitai, Koh Shinohara, Satomi Yukawa, Taro Noguchi, Michio Tanaka, Yasufumi Matsumura, Yukiko Nishiyama and Miki Nagao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:24
  22. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor which plays a pivotal role in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been more recently shown to regulate inflammatory ...

    Authors: Li Zhang, Jiao Wang, Zhan Wang, Ying Li, Hui Wang and Hongtu Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:23
  23. Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA is a surrogate biomarker for intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) transcriptional activity and persistence. In this retrospective study, we investigated its pr...

    Authors: Andreas Laras, Margarita Papatheodoridi, Eleni Panopoulou, George V. Papatheodoridis, Stephanos J. Hadziyannis and Emilia Hadziyannis
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:22
  24. Glioblastoma is one of the most serious brain cancer. Previous studies have demonstrated that PTEN function disorder affects the causing and exacerbation of glioblastoma. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been...

    Authors: Sung Hoon Jang, Bo-Kyoung Jung, Yong Hee An and Hyun Jang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:21
  25. Reassortment between human and avian influenza viruses (AIV) may result in novel viruses with new characteristics that may threaten human health when causing the next flu pandemic. A particular risk may be pos...

    Authors: Hongrui Cui, Guangsheng Che, Mart C. M. de Jong, Xuesong Li, Qinfang Liu, Jianmei Yang, Qiaoyang Teng, Zejun Li and Nancy Beerens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:20
  26. Pseudorabies virus (PRV) causes Aujeszky’s disease or pseudorabies (PR) in pigs worldwide, which leads to heavy economic losses to the swine industry. Pigs are the natural host, meanwhile, animals such as dogs...

    Authors: Leqiang Sun, Yajie Tang, Keji Yan and Huawei Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:19
  27. Human papillomavirus screen in female cervical cells has demonstrated values in clinical diagnosis of precancerous lesions and cervical cancers. Human papillomavirus tests of cervical cells by utilizing Polyme...

    Authors: Hui Zhao, Yue He, Bei Fan, Yan Wang and Yu-Mei Wu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:18
  28. There are several groups of viruses including Insect Specific Viruses (ISV) such as the taxon Negevirus, a group of viruses phylogenetically related to plant viruses. Negeviruses replicate in mosquito cells, but ...

    Authors: Ana Cláudia da Silva Ribeiro, Lívia Caricio Martins, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Daniele Barbosa de Almeida Medeiros, Keissy Karoline Pinheiro Miranda, Joaquim Pinto Nunes Neto, Hamilton Antônio de Oliveira Monteiro, Bruna Lais Sena do Nascimento, Jose Wilson Rosa Junior, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro Cruz, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos, Valéria Lima Carvalho and Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:17
  29. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly fatal swine disease, which threatens the global pig industry. There is no commercially available vaccine against ASF and effective subunit vaccines would represent a real ...

    Authors: Guanglei Zhang, Wei Liu, Zhan Gao, Yanyan Chang, Sicheng Yang, Qian Peng, Sudan Ge, Bijing Kang, Junjun Shao and Huiyun Chang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:16
  30. Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading pathogens causing acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children under five years old. We aimed to investigate the distribution of HRSV subtypes and expl...

    Authors: Zheng Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Huamei Li and Lizhong Du
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:15
  31. The Alphapapillomavirus 9 (α-9 HPV) is a member of the Alphapapillomavirus genus and Papillomaviridae family. These viruses are almost all carcinogenic HPV, which is closely related to 75% of invasive cervical...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Qiufu Li, Shiyu Ma, Tianjun Li, Yuning Chen, Yiran Liu, Yanru Cui, Jianying Peng, Yunfan Shi, Xia Wei and Xianping Ding
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:14
  32. Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs). It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Ethiopia and globally. To develop efficient vaccination and H...

    Authors: Awoke Derbie, Daniel Mekonnen, Endalkachew Nibret, Melanie Maier, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel and Tamrat Abebe
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:13

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:27

  33. In 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically relate...

    Authors: Joachim R. de Miranda, Laura E. Brettell, Nor Chejanovsky, Anna K. Childers, Anne Dalmon, Ward Deboutte, Dirk C. de Graaf, Vincent Doublet, Haftom Gebremedhn, Elke Genersch, Sebastian Gisder, Fredrik Granberg, Nizar J. Haddad, Rene Kaden, Robyn Manley, Jelle Matthijnssens…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:12
  34. Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during inf...

    Authors: Yafen Liu, Yue Wang, Huan Mai, YuanYuan Chen, Baiyi Liu, YiSi Liu, Ying Ji, Xu Cong and Yan Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:11
  35. Equine herpesvirus-8 (EHV-8) is one of the most economically significant viruses that infect mammals of the genus Equus worldwide, which cause severe respiratory diseases and abortion in horses. However, there...

    Authors: Tongtong Wang, Leyu Hu, Yonghui Wang, Wenqiang Liu, Guiqin Liu, Mingxia Zhu, Wei Zhang, Changfa Wang, Huiying Ren and Liangliang Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:10
  36. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), which develops after a past covid-19 infection. MIS can be described in different tissue inflammation, including the heart, lung, kidney, brain, skin, eye, and or gastr...

    Authors: Yeter Eylul Bayram, Dilek Yildiz-Sevgi, Ayse Yavuz, Merve Cancetin and Mehmet Yavuz Gurler
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:9
  37. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 play a central role in the etiology of the most common neoplasm in horses, the equine sarcoid. The unknown mechanism behind the unique variety in clinical presentation...

    Authors: Lien Gysens, Bert Vanmechelen, Maarten Haspeslagh, Piet Maes and Ann Martens
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:8
  38. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogenic gammaherpesvirus with carcinogenic potential. The EBV transcriptome has previously been analyzed using both Illumina-based short read-sequencing and Pa...

    Authors: Ádám Fülöp, Gábor Torma, Norbert Moldován, Kálmán Szenthe, Ferenc Bánáti, Islam A. A. Almsarrhad, Zsolt Csabai, Dóra Tombácz, János Minárovits and Zsolt Boldogkői
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:7
  39. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause cervical and other cancers, including vulva, vagina, penis, anus, or oropharynx. However, in China's northern Henan Province, data on the prevalence and genotype ...

    Authors: Xiangpeng Wang, Yuan Song, Xiaofei Wei, Guanyu Wang, Ruili Sun, Mingyong Wang and Lijun Zhao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:6
  40. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) prevalence and risk factors exhibit considerable variations across populations in different geographic regions. Determinants and the transmission routes of KSHV ...

    Authors: Xin Zhang, Yiyun Xu, Yi Li, Huangbo Yuan, Zhenqiu Liu and Tiejun Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:5
  41. Transplantation among HIV positive patients may be a valuable therapeutic intervention. This study involves an HIV D+/R+ kidney–liver transplantation, where PBMC-associated HIV quasispecies were analyzed in do...

    Authors: Gabriella Rozera, Ubaldo Visco-Comandini, Emanuela Giombini, Francesco Santini, Federica Forbici, Giulia Berno, Cesare Gruber, Paolo De Paolis, Roberto Colonnelli, Gianpiero D’Offizi, Giuseppe Maria Ettorre, Paolo Grossi, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Giuseppe Ippolito and Isabella Abbate
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:4
  42. Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. I...

    Authors: Munam Raza Jafri, Anna Zaheer, Sahar Fatima, Taiba Saleem and Atif Sohail
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:3
  43. The current COVID-19 pandemic caused by constantly emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants still poses a threat to public health worldwide. Effective next-generation vaccines and optimized booster vaccination strategies ...

    Authors: Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Lin Cheng, Weilong Liu, Qing Fan, Xiangyang Ge, Hua Peng, Yang-Xin Fu, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:2
  44. Surveillance for circulating emerging diseases of economic importance has a major role in the rapid response to major pathogen outbreaks. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is one of the significant endemic v...

    Authors: Ayah M. Hassan, Mostafa R. Zaher, Rabab T. Hassanien, Mervat I. Abd-El-Moniem, Ahmed R. Habashi, Essam M. Ibraheem, Momtaz A. Shahein, Mohamed E. El Zowalaty and Naglaa M. Hagag
    Citation: Virology Journal 2022 19:1
  45. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein determines virus entry and the palmitoylation of S protein affects virus infection. An acyltransferase complex ZDHHC5/GOGAL7 that ...

    Authors: Xiao-Tao Zeng, Xiao-Xi Yu and Wei Cheng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:257

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2022 19:25

  46. Although interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was reported to stimulate virus replication by suppressing the type I interferon signaling pathway, because cell cycle arrest was found to promote viral replicati...

    Authors: Kai Ren, Ya Zhu, Honggang Sun, Shilin Li, Xiaoqiong Duan, Shuang Li, Yujia Li, Bin Li and Limin Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:256