Comparison of the expression of cytokine genes in the bursal tissues of the chickens following challenge with infectious bursal disease viruses of varying virulence
© Liu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 3 October 2010
Accepted: 8 December 2010
Published: 8 December 2010
Cytokines are important mediators and regulators of host responses against foreign antigen, with their main function to orchestrate the functional activities of the cells of the immune system. However little is known about the role of cytokines in pathogenesis and immune responses caused by infectious bursa disease virus (IBDV). The aim of this study was to examine the transcripts of cell-mediated immune response-related cytokine genes in the bursal tissues of chickens infected with IBDVs of varying virulence to gain an understanding of pathological changes and mechanisms of immunosuppression caused by IBDV infection and the immune responses evoked.
Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the expression levels of both Th1 [interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukins (IL)-2 and IL-12p40] and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10) cytokines were significantly up-regulated following challenge with the H strain (vvIBDV) and up to 2- and 30-fold, respectively (P < 0.05). Following infection with the Ts strain (cell-adapted virus) these cytokine transcripts were up-regulated at 5 days post-infection (dpi), 2- and 13-fold respectively (P < 0.05), while the expression levels of IL-2 and IL-4 were not significantly different (P > 0.05). A higher degree of cytokine expression was induced by the H strain compared with the Ts strain.
The results indicate that the expression of cell-mediated immune-related cytokine genes is strongly induced by IBDV, especially by the vvIBDV, H strain and reveal that these cytokines could play a crucial role in driving cellular immune responses during the acute phase of IBDV infection, and the cellular immune responses caused by IBDV of varying virulence are through different signaling pathways.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease in young chickens, resulting in great economic loss in the poultry industry . IBDV can be differentiated into two serotypes (serotype 1 and 2) . Serotype 1 shows different degrees of pathogenicity and mortality in chickens, whereas serotype 2 is avirulent in chickens . Based on virulence, serotype 1 strains are classified as classically, intermediate, very or hypervirulent virulent .
IBDV is a non-enveloped, double-stranded (ds) RNA virus consisting of two segments, segment A (3.2 kb) and B (2.9 kb), encoding five proteins and belongs to the Birnaviridae family [4–6]. IBDV mainly affects young chickens from 3-6 weeks of age . Although viral antigen has been detected in other organs within the first few hours of infection, the most extensive virus replication takes place primarily in the bursa of Fabricius . Activated dividing B lymphocytes that secrete IgM+ serve as target cells for the virus [8, 9]. Viral infection results in lymphoid depletion of B cells and the destruction of bursal tissues , leading to an increased susceptibility to other infectious diseases and poor immune response to vaccines .
Replication of IBDV in the bursa is accompanied by an influx of T cells [8, 11]. The marked influx of T cells into the infected bursa indicates that cell-mediated immunity plays important roles in the clearance of virus particles [12, 13]. The T cells in the bursa of chickens infected by virus are activated, with up-regulated expression of a number of cytokine genes, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and interferon (IFN)-γ . The change in the level of cytokine expression is closely associated with organizational destruction, inflammation and apoptosis . The direct immunosuppressive effects of IBDV on T cells and their function remain unclear. Chickens infected with IBDV resulted in suppression of cellular immune responses and a subsequently reduction in the ability to respond to secondary infections .
The CD4+ helper T (Th) cells play crucial roles in immune responses. The CD4+ T cells have been classified as either Th1 or Th2 based on their cytokine profiles . Th1 cells have evolved to enhance clearance of intracellular pathogens and are defined on the basis of their production of IFN-γ . Th2 cells are critical for the control of certain parasitic infections through the production of the clustered group of cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 . Chickens are able to mount a typical Th1 or Th2 biased cytokine response after experimental viral and helminth parasitic infections, respectively . Cytokines are important mediators and regulators of both types of host responses. However, little is known about the role of cytokine following IBDV infection. It is extremely important to gain an understanding of pathological changes and immunosuppression caused by IBDV infection and the immune responses evoked.
In the present study, our objective was to further investigate the Th1/Th2 paradigm by examining the transcriptional profile of cytokines in the bursal tissues of chickens infected with either vvIBDV H strain or the cell-adapted virus Ts strain at 1, 3 and 5 days post-infection (dpi) and also to test the hypothesis that the IBDVs with varying virulence induces different cytokine profiles during the course of infection.
Generation of standard curves for real-time PCR analysis
Standard curve data from real-time PCR
Equation of standard curve
Correlation coefficient (r2)
Y = -3.48X + 39.02
Y = -3.58X + 39.08
Y = -3.62X + 37.54
Y = -3.36X + 36.05
Y = -3.16X + 39.42
Y = -3.74X + 40.46
Y = -4.02X + 40.87
Y = -3.53X + 37.18
Y = -3.50X + 39.94
Y = -3.60X + 40.50
Changes in IBDV load in the bursa of Fabricius during the course of infection
Th1-cytokines expression during IBDV infection
Th2-cytokine expression during IBDV infection
Avian cytokines, like their mammalian counterparts, are influential in host immune response to pathogenic infection . The cytokine responses to IBDV in the bursa of chickens are poorly described and their role in the pathogenesis of such infections has not yet been extensively studied. Of the seven genes examined in this study, the levels of expression of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12P40 genes in the bursa tissues following H strain infection were increased compared with the IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 genes; the expression levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 genes in Ts-infected chicken bursa had a higher fold-change than the IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p40 genes. The results obtained from gene expression analysis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines revealed that the vvIBDV, H strain induces an immune response characteristic of the Th1 pathway; In contrast, the cell-adapted virus, Ts strain induced an immune response characteristic of the Th2 pathway. The results also revealed the early activation of a variety of antiviral host defenses after infection, for example activation of innate immune responses, cell-mediated immune responses and modulation of host transcription.
Our results showed that the viral load in bursal tissues increased approximately 1000-fold after infection with the H strain compared with the Ts strain (Figure 1). The vvIBDV, H strain had a stronger capability of replication and spread in the bursa of birds than cell-adapted Ts strain. Based on earlier work from our laboratory , the doses used in this study contained 103.4 egg infectious dose50 (EID50) H strain and 106.5 tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) Ts strain and should have demonstrated a positive signal at approximately the bursal tissues the same time. These date indicate that the load and replication of IBDV in the bursa is closely related to clinical symptoms and pathology, which is in accordance with Eldaghayes's study .
The present studies showed that there was a trend of up- or down-regulation in the expression levels of several cytokine genes in the bursa following either H strain or Ts strain infection. A higher viral load in the bursa was associated with significantly higher expression of cytokine genes. This is in agreement with the previous reports made by Abel and Abdul-Careem [22, 23] who studied virus replication and cytokine gene expression following virus infection and found a significant association between higher viral RNA levels and cytokine transcript concentration in various tissues. These results demonstrate that the difference in the expression levels of cytokines was possibly influenced by the different degree of viral replication. However, factors influencing the timing of cytokine regulation in bursal tissues and the cause and effect relationship between host response and viral replication are not clear from the present observations. Future experiments need to be conducted to examine more cytokines during the course of infection with variously virulent IBDVs.
Our results suggest that the H strain tends to up-regulate the Th1 cytokines response. Th1 cells are characterized by the secretion of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p40, and a strong cell-mediated immunity that is geared towards effective elimination of intracellular pathogens such as viruses . IL-2 stimulates proliferation of chicken T lymphocytes and NK cells [24–26]. Production of IL-12 and IFN-γ is critical to host defense against intracellular pathogens , indicating that it is possible to observe simultaneous up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-10 in response to IBDV infection. The observed increase in IFN-γ expression in IBDV-infected bursa presumably reflects the inflammatory response and is consistent with earlier published results [14, 28], suggesting that cell-mediated responses are initiated to resolve infections. IFN-γ-induced activation of macrophages (Mφ) results in the stimulation of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which in turn leads to the production of apoptotic mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) . Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that apoptosis was induced by the vvIBDV H strain in the chicken bursa . Furthermore our observations suggest that enhanced IFN-γ expression was associated with disease progression in IBDV- infected chickens.
However the Ts strain tends to up-regulate effects of the Th2 cytokine response. Th2 cells secrete IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10, and are geared towards a humoral immune response against parasites and allergic reactions . IL-4 has been shown to direct B cells to produce the anti-allergen IgE, to inhibit Th1 cell function and to prevent the production of IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ that are necessary for development of cytotoxic T cells . However our results did not observe that up-regulation in the expression of Th2 cytokines suppressed transcriptional activities of Th1 cytokines. Previous reports by Heidari  have shown that because of the substantial level of IL-4 mRNA expression in the Marek's disease virus (MDV)-infected birds. It is not unusual to observe transcriptional activities of IL-2 being severely suppressed. A change in cytokine expression levels is closely related to virulence and replication of IBDV, but the mechanism by which this occurs is still not fully understood.
As expected, IBDV infection caused cell-mediated immune-related cytokine responses in the bursa, as shown (Figure 2 and 3) by the up-regulation or down-regulation of detected cytokines expression. This is in accordance with the pathology and clinical signs of two distinctly virulent IBDV. Infection with vvIBDV results in lymphoid depletion, marked atrophy of the bursal tissues and high rates of mortality [33, 34], but Ts strain infection does not cause obviously clinical signs .
Of the evaluated cytokines, prolonged expression of IFN-γ and IL-10 genes was up-regulated due to IBDV infection. IL-10 is a potent stimulator of NK cells [35, 36], a function that might contribute to the clearance of the pathogen and facilitate antigen acquisition from dead cells for cross-priming activated antigen-presenting cells (APCs), providing a link between the innate and the adaptive immune responses . The expression of IL-10 in the bursa following IBDV infection has not been studied previously. In the present study our results indicated that IL-10 expression was markedly increased and similar to the extent of up-regulated expression of IFN-γ following infection by the H or Ts strain. This is consistent with the fact that IL-10 plays a dual role in infectious diseases  and is in agreement with the observation made recently by Abdul-Careem  who recorded that the expression of the IL-10 gene followed the pattern of expression of the IFN-γ gene to a certain extent in both pre- and post-hatched herpesvirus of turkey (HVT)-immunized chickens. In general, both IL-10 and IFN-γ are known to be important cytokines in the cell-mediated immune response and evoke host responses to the pathogen in chickens [38, 39]. This also suggests that IL-10 may play a role as an immunostimulatory cytokine similar to IFN-γ after IBDV infection.
In summary, we have shown that infection with IBDV induces changes in the level of expression related to Th1 and Th2 in the chicken bursa and that the vvIBDV, H strain strongly induced an increase in cytokine expression. It is clear that changes in the extent of cytokine expression were closely associated with virulence of the virus and viral replication. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the function of the cytokines in pathogenesis and immunity against IBDV.
Materials and methods
Chickens and virus
Four-week-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens purchased from Meria (Meria, Beijing, China) were housed in isolators with water and food freely available.
The H strain (vvIBDV) [21, 34] was provided by the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. When SPF chickens were inoculated with the H strain at a dose of 2 × 103 egg infectious dose50 (EID50), 60% mortality resulted. The Ts strain, a cell-adapted virus supplied by our laboratory  resulted in 0% mortality and was used as a reference moderately virulent strain. The virus was propagated and the titers of both virus stocks were determined as previously described [21, 40]. The stock of the H strain was 103.4 EID50 per 0.2 ml and was used as an inoculums following 20-fold dilution. The tissue culture infectious dose50 (TCID50) of the Ts strain was 106.5 per 0.1 ml and was diluted 200-fold and used as an inoculum.
Virus infection and collection of bursa samples
Four-week-old SPF chickens were randomly divided into three groups and housed in three isolators under the same conditions. Groups 1 (n = 25) and 2 (n = 15) were infected respectively with either the H or Ts strain by the eyes and nose-drop routes. Each bird was inoculated with 0.2 ml of virus dilution. Chickens in group 3 (n = 12) were inoculated with 0.2 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) per bird to serve as controls. At 1, 3 and 5dpi the bursal tissues (n = 3) were collected separately from the infected and control groups, placed immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until further required.
Extraction of total RNA and cDNA synthesis
Total RNA was isolated from bursal tissues using a total RNA extraction kit (Tiangen, BeiJing, China) according to the manufacturer's instructions and eluted into a 60 μl volume of diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC)-treated water. To eliminate possible contamination with genomic DNA, 0.1 U/μl DNase (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) was applied according to the manufacturer's protocol. A reverse transcription reaction of total RNA (1 μl) was carried out to synthesize cDNA using an iScript™cDNA Synthesis kit (Promega) following the manufacturer's instructions with minor modifications. First, 1 μg of total RNA, 1 μl of random hexamer primers and DEPC-treated water was denatured at 95°C for 10 min, then chilled on ice for 5 min. The RNA was mixed with a previously prepared mixture in a final volume of 20 μl, and left at room temperature for 10 min. the mixture was then incubated at 42°C for 60 min to synthesize cDNA and heated at 95°C for 5 min to inactivate the reverse transcriptase. The synthetic cDNA was stored at -20°C.
Sequence of the primers used in real-time PCR
Accession no. in GenBank
Preparation of standard curves
The standard curves of all genes detected in this study were made with appropriate modifications as previously described [41–43]. For the preparation of the standards curves, all genes were amplified with the following cycling parameters: pre-incubation and denaturation at 95°C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of 95°C for 30 s, 60°C for 30 s, and 72°C for 30 s. A final extension step was carried out at 72°C for 5 min. The PCR products were then eluted from the Agarose gel and linked into the pEGM-T easy vector (Promega) and transformed into competent DH5α Escherichia coli cells (Takara Bio Inc, Japan) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The identified positive clones were grown and plasmid DNA isolated using a miniprep kit from Axygen (Axygen, CA, USA). Subsequently, 10-fold serial dilutions (10-1-10-6) of the plasmid DNA stocks were made and assayed in triplicate by real-time PCR to generate standard curves for quantification by Applied Biosystems SDS 2.2. The correlation coefficient of standard curves exceeded or equaled 0.99 (Table 1).
Real-time PCR and data Processing
The analysis of real-time PCR data and relative quantification of cytokines and IBDV genes was carried out by the 7900HT Sequence Detection System (Applied Biosystems). The PCR was performed in a 20 μl volume containing 1 μl cDNA, 10 μl 2 × power SYBR Green PCR master mix (Applied Biosystems, Forster City, CA), 300 nM of each gene-specific primer. Thermal cycling parameters were as follows: 50°C for 2 min, 95°C for 10 min, 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 60°C for 1 min, followed by one cycle of 95°C for 15 s, 60°C for 15 s and 95°C for 15 s. The final step was to obtain a melt curve for the PCR products to determine the specificity of amplification. All standard dilutions, controls and infected samples were carried out in triplicate on the same plate, and each reaction plate contained two standard curves for both target and reference genes in the same preparation. Furthermore, triplicate samples were assayed for each experiment and GAPDH was utilized as the reference gene.
The quantification of cytokine gene expression by real-time PCR was conducted as detailed elsewhere [42, 44]. Expression levels of cytokine genes were calculated relative to the expression of the GAPDH gene and expressed as an n-fold increase or decrease relative to the control samples.
All date analyses were performed using Microsoft® Excel 2007. Student's t-test was used to detect significant differences between infected and control groups. A P - value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.
We are grateful to Professor Xun Suo from the College of Veterinary Medicine, for his assistance. We also thank Dr. Ling Lian for technical assistance.
- van den Berg TP, Eterradossi N, Toquin D, Meulemans G: Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease). Rev Sci Tech 2000, 19: 509-543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- McFerran JB, McNulty MS, McKillop ER, Connor TJ, McCracken RM, Collins DS, Allan GM: Isolation and serological studies with infectious bursal disease viruses from fowl, turkeys and ducks: demonstration of a second serotype. Avian Pathol 1980, 9: 395-404. 10.1080/03079458008418423PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ismail NM, Saif YM, Moorhead PD: Lack of pathogenicity of five serotype 2 infectious bursal disease viruses in chickens. Avian Dis 1988, 32: 757-759. 10.2307/1590995PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mundt E, Kollner B, Kretzschmar D: VP5 of infectious bursal disease virus is not essential for viral replication in cell culture. J Virol 1997, 71: 5647-5651.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kibenge FS, Dhillon AS, Russell RG: Biochemistry and immunology of infectious bursal disease virus. J Gen Virol 1988,69(Pt 8):1757-1775. 10.1099/0022-1317-69-8-1757PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dobos P, Hill BJ, Hallett R, Kells DT, Becht H, Teninges D: Biophysical and biochemical characterization of five animal viruses with bisegmented double-stranded RNA genomes. J Virol 1979, 32: 593-605.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Hoffmann-Fezer G, Lade R: [Post-hatching development and involution of the Bursa Fabricii in the chicken (Gallus domesticus)]. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat 1972, 124: 406-418. 10.1007/BF00355039PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharma JM, Kim IJ, Rautenschlein S, Yeh HY: Infectious bursal disease virus of chickens: pathogenesis and immunosuppression. Dev Comp Immunol 2000, 24: 223-235. 10.1016/S0145-305X(99)00074-9PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirai K, Calnek BW: In vitro replication of infectious bursal disease virus in established lymphoid cell lines and chicken B lymphocytes. Infect Immun 1979, 25: 964-970.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kaufer I, Weiss E: Significance of bursa of Fabricius as target organ in infectious bursal disease of chickens. Infect Immun 1980, 27: 364-367.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kim IJ, You SK, Kim H, Yeh HY, Sharma JM: Characteristics of bursal T lymphocytes induced by infectious bursal disease virus. J Virol 2000, 74: 8884-8892. 10.1128/JVI.74.19.8884-8892.2000PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Williams AE, Davison TF: Enhanced immunopathology induced by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Pathol 2005, 34: 4-14. 10.1080/03079450400025364PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rautenschlein S, Yeh HY, Njenga MK, Sharma JM: Role of intrabursal T cells in infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection: T cells promote viral clearance but delay follicular recovery. Arch Virol 2002, 147: 285-304. 10.1007/s705-002-8320-2PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eldaghayes I, Rothwell L, Williams A, Withers D, Balu S, Davison F, Kaiser P: Infectious bursal disease virus: strains that differ in virulence differentially modulate the innate immune response to infection in the chicken bursa. Viral Immunol 2006, 19: 83-91. 10.1089/vim.2006.19.83PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim IJ, Karaca K, Pertile TL, Erickson SA, Sharma JM: Enhanced expression of cytokine genes in spleen macrophages during acute infection with infectious bursal disease virus in chickens. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1998, 61: 331-341. 10.1016/S0165-2427(97)00135-9PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Janeway CJ: The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self. Immunol Today 1992, 13: 11-16. 10.1016/0167-5699(92)90198-GPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kunzendorf U, Tran TH, Bulfone-Paus S: The Th1-Th2 paradigm in 1998: law of nature or rule with exceptions. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998, 13: 2445-2448. 10.1093/ndt/13.10.2445PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Avery S, Rothwell L, Degen WD, Schijns VE, Young J, Kaufman J, Kaiser P: Characterization of the first nonmammalian T2 cytokine gene cluster: the cluster contains functional single-copy genes for IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, and GM-CSF, a gene for IL-5 that appears to be a pseudogene, and a gene encoding another cytokinelike transcript, KK34. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2004, 24: 600-610.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Degen WG, Daal N, Rothwell L, Kaiser P, Schijns VE: Th1/Th2 polarization by viral and helminth infection in birds. Vet Microbiol 2005, 105: 163-167. 10.1016/j.vetmic.2004.12.001PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaiser Pete, Stabeli Peter: Avian Cytokines and Chemokines: Avian Immunology. Volume Chapter 10. First edition. Edited by: Fred Davison, Bernd Kaspers, Karel A. Schat, Published by Elsevier Ltd; 2008:203-222.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang MF, Huang GM, Qiao S: Early stages of infectious bursal disease virus infection in chickens detected by in situ reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol 2002, 31: 593-597. 10.1080/0307945021000024580PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abdul-Careem MF, Hunter DB, Lambourne MD, Read LR, Parvizi P, Sharif S: Expression of cytokine genes following pre- and post-hatch immunization of chickens with herpesvirus of turkeys. Vaccine 2008, 26: 2369-2377. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.02.069PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abel K, Rocke DM, Chohan B, Fritts L, Miller CJ: Temporal and anatomic relationship between virus replication and cytokine gene expression after vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus infection. J Virol 2005, 79: 12164-12172. 10.1128/JVI.79.19.12164-12172.2005PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hilton LS, Bean AG, Kimpton WG, Lowenthal JW: Interleukin-2 directly induces activation and proliferation of chicken T cells in vivo. J Interferon Cytokine Res 2002, 22: 755-763. 10.1089/107999002320271341PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lillehoj HS, Min W, Choi KD, Babu US, Burnside J, Miyamoto T, Rosenthal BM, Lillehoj EP: Molecular, cellular, and functional characterization of chicken cytokines homologous to mammalian IL-15 and IL-2. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2001, 82: 229-244. 10.1016/S0165-2427(01)00360-9PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Choi KD, Lillehoj HS: Role of chicken IL-2 on gammadelta T-cells and Eimeria acervulina-induced changes in intestinal IL-2 mRNA expression and gammadelta T-cells. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2000, 73: 309-321. 10.1016/S0165-2427(00)00148-3PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jouanguy E, Doffinger R, Dupuis S, Pallier A, Altare F, Casanova JL: IL-12 and IFN-gamma in host defense against mycobacteria and salmonella in mice and men. Curr Opin Immunol 1999, 11: 346-351. 10.1016/S0952-7915(99)80055-7PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rautenschlein S, Yeh HY, Sharma JM: Comparative immunopathogenesis of mild, intermediate, and virulent strains of classic infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Dis 2003, 47: 66-78. 10.1637/0005-2086(2003)047[0066:CIOMIA]2.0.CO;2PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lowenstein CJ, Alley EW, Raval P, Snowman AM, Snyder SH, Russell SW, Murphy WJ: Macrophage nitric oxide synthase gene: two upstream regions mediate induction by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993, 90: 9730-9734. 10.1073/pnas.90.20.9730PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Renmao HWAMLi: Apoptosis Induction by the 5 NCR of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus. The Open Veterinary Science Journal 2009, 3: 55-63.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Becker Y: The changes in the T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokine balance during HIV-1 infection are indicative of an allergic response to viral proteins that may be reversed by Th2 cytokine inhibitors and immune response modifiers--a review and hypothesis. Virus Genes 2004, 28: 5-18. 10.1023/B:VIRU.0000012260.32578.72PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Heidari M, Zhang HM, Sharif S: Marek's disease virus induces Th-2 activity during cytolytic infection. Viral Immunol 2008, 21: 203-214. 10.1089/vim.2007.0078PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Withers DR, Young JR, Davison TF: Infectious bursal disease virus-induced immunosuppression in the chick is associated with the presence of undifferentiated follicles in the recovering bursa. Viral Immunol 2005, 18: 127-137. 10.1089/vim.2005.18.127PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xia RX, Wang HY, Huang GM, Zhang MF: Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of a Chinese very virulent infectious bursal disease virus. Arch Virol 2008, 153: 1725-1729. 10.1007/s00705-008-0140-8PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Albert ML, Sauter B, Bhardwaj N: Dendritic cells acquire antigen from apoptotic cells and induce class I-restricted CTLs. Nature 1998, 392: 86-89. 10.1038/32183PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Salazar-Onfray F, Petersson M, Franksson L, Matsuda M, Blankenstein T, Karre K, Kiessling R: IL-10 converts mouse lymphoma cells to a CTL-resistant, NK-sensitive phenotype with low but peptide-inducible MHC class I expression. J Immunol 1995, 154: 6291-6298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mocellin S, Panelli MC, Wang E, Nagorsen D, Marincola FM: The dual role of IL-10. Trends Immunol 2003, 24: 36-43. 10.1016/S1471-4906(02)00009-1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Abdul-Careem MF, Hunter BD, Parvizi P, Haghighi HR, Thanthrige-Don N, Sharif S: Cytokine gene expression patterns associated with immunization against Marek's disease in chickens. Vaccine 2007, 25: 424-432. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.08.006PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Djeraba A, Bernardet N, Dambrine G, Quere P: Nitric oxide inhibits Marek's disease virus replication but is not the single decisive factor in interferon-gamma-mediated viral inhibition. Virology 2000, 277: 58-65. 10.1006/viro.2000.0576PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reed MHLJ: A simple method of estimating fifty percent endpoints. 1938, 27: 493-497.Google Scholar
- Abdul-Careem MF, Hunter BD, Nagy E, Read LR, Sanei B, Spencer JL, Sharif S: Development of a real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green chemistry for monitoring Marek's disease virus genome load in feather tips. J Virol Methods 2006, 133: 34-40. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.10.018PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Peirson SN, Butler JN, Foster RG: Experimental validation of novel and conventional approaches to quantitative real-time PCR data analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 2003, 31: e73. 10.1093/nar/gng073PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whelan JA, Russell NB, Whelan MA: A method for the absolute quantification of cDNA using real-time PCR. J Immunol Methods 2003, 278: 261-269. 10.1016/S0022-1759(03)00223-0PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cikos S, Bukovska A, Koppel J: Relative quantification of mRNA: comparison of methods currently used for real-time PCR data analysis. BMC Mol Biol 2007, 8: 113. 10.1186/1471-2199-8-113PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.