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  1. H5-subtype highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause high mortality in domestic birds and sporadic infections in humans with a frequently fatal outcome, while H5N1 viruses have pandemic poten...

    Authors: Violetta Sączyńska, Katarzyna Florys-Jankowska, Anna Porębska and Violetta Cecuda-Adamczewska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerging has put global public health institutes on high alert. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human coronaviruses infections in relatio...

    Authors: Yanjun Zhang, Lingxuan Su, Yin Chen, Sicong Yu, Dan Zhang, Haiyan Mao and Lei Fang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:89

    Content type: Research

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  3. Although most enterovirus (EV) infections can be asymptomatic, these viral agents can cause serious conditions associated with central nervous system, respiratory disease and uncommon manifestations of hand, f...

    Authors: Ivanildo Pedro de Sousa Jr, Heloísa Ihle Giamberardino, Sonia Mara Raboni, Maria Carmo Debur, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira, Fernanda Marcicano Burlandy and Edson Elias da Silva

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:88

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. The emergence and rapid spread of the B.1.1.7 lineage (VOC-202012/01) SARS-CoV-2 variant has aroused global concern. The N501Y substitution is the only mutation in the interface between the RBD of B.1.1.7 and ...

    Authors: Lin Cheng, Shuo Song, Bing Zhou, Xiangyang Ge, Jiazhen Yu, Mingxia Zhang, Bin Ju and Zheng Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:87

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Newcastle disease is a devastating disease in poultry caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a paramyxovirus endemic in many regions of the world despite intensive vaccination. Phylogenetic analyses...

    Authors: Ibrahim Moharam, Olayinka Asala, Sven Reiche, Hafez Hafez, Martin Beer, Timm Harder and Christian Grund

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:86

    Content type: Research

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  6. Gene delivery of antiviral therapeutics to anatomical sites where viruses accumulate and persist is a promising approach for the next generation of antiviral therapies. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AA...

    Authors: Rossana Colón-Thillet, Keith R. Jerome and Daniel Stone

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:85

    Content type: Review

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  7. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the neurotropic pathogen that has been associated with severe neurological forms of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. The limited ...

    Authors: Yanli Chen, Heng Li, Jinxi Yang, Huiwen Zheng, Lei Guo, Weiyu Li, Zening Yang, Jie Song and Longding Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:84

    Content type: Research

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  8. Sacbrood is an infectious disease of the honey bee caused by Scbrood virus (SBV) which belongs to the family Iflaviridae and is especially lethal for Asian honeybee Apis cerana. Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a...

    Authors: Liping Sun, Xueqi Zhang, Shufa Xu, Chunsheng Hou, Jin Xu, Dongxiang Zhao and Yanping Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:83

    Content type: Research

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  9. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:82

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:71

  10. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) vp39 is conserved in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. In previous studies, VP39 has been identified as the major capsid structure protein of baculov...

    Authors: Sainan Li, Bingming Ou, Yina Lv, Tian Gan, Haizhou Zhao and Wenhua Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:81

    Content type: Short report

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  11. Data about the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in the Czech Republic is limited. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and concordance of genotype-specific HPV infection detected in semen...

    Authors: Hana Jaworek, Vladimira Koudelakova, Ivana Oborna, Blazena Zborilova, Jana Brezinova, Dagmar Ruzickova, Jana Vrbkova, Pavla Kourilova and Marian Hajduch

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:80

    Content type: Research

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  12. Raccoon dog parvovirus (RDPV) causes acute infectious diseases in raccoon dogs and may cause death in severe cases. The current treatment strategy relies on the extensive usage of classical inactivated vaccine...

    Authors: Linya Xia, Guoliang Luo, Mingjie Wu, Lei Wang, Ning Zhang, Congmei Wu and Yuhe Yin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:79

    Content type: Research

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  13. The HIV-1 epidemic is still considered a global public health problem, but great advances have been made in fighting it by antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART has a considerable impact on viral replication and h...

    Authors: Lorena Leticia Peixoto de Lima, Allysson Quintino Tenório de Oliveira, Tuane Carolina Ferreira Moura, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Sandra Souza Lima, Andrea Nazaré Monteiro Rangel da Silva, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak and Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:78

    Content type: Research

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  14. Maintaining adequate drug adherence is crucial to ensure the HIV prevention benefits of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We developed an enzymatic assay for rapidly measuring tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) con...

    Authors: Ayokunle O. Olanrewaju, Benjamin P. Sullivan, Ashley R. Bardon, Tiffany J. Lo, Tim R. Cressey, Jonathan D. Posner and Paul K. Drain

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:77

    Content type: Short report

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  15. Aphids are important vectors of numerous plant viruses. Besides plant viruses, a number of insect specific viruses (ISVs), such as nege/nege-like viruses, have been recently discovered in aphids of the genera Aph...

    Authors: Yu-Hua Qi, Liao-Yuan Xu, Jing Zhai, Zhuang-Xin Ye, Gang Lu, Jian-Ping Chen, Chuan-Xi Zhang and Jun-Min Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:76

    Content type: Short report

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  16. H9N2 influenza virus, a subtype of influenza A virus, can spread across different species and induce the respiratory infectious disease in humans, leading to a severe public health risk and a huge economic los...

    Authors: Shaohua Wang, Na Li, Shugang Jin, Ruihua Zhang and Tong Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:75

    Content type: Research

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  17. Liver cancer has become one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate. Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common liver cancers, and its occurrence and development process are associated...

    Authors: Jinyan Xie, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Dekang Zhu, Mafeng Liu, Shun Chen, XinXin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Qihui Luo, Yin Wang, Zhiwen Xu, Zhengli Chen, Ling Zhu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:74

    Content type: Review

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  18. We stratified post-COVID patients into four newly established clinical groups based on the presence or absence of at least one subjective respiratory symptom and at least one objective sign of pulmonary involv...

    Authors: Mikulas Skala, Michal Svoboda, Michal Kopecky, Eva Kocova, Martin Hyrsl, Michal Homolac, Viktor Chrobok, Pavel Bostik, Miroslav Fajfr, Petr Prasil, Stanislav Plisek, Radek Sleha and Vladimir Koblizek

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:73

    Content type: Short report

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  19. Human papillomavirus type 39 associated with genital intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers, has a high prevalence in Southwest China. HPV E6, E7 are two main papillomavirus oncoproteins, closely relat...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Tianjun Li, Youliang Wang, Zhilin Song, Qiufu Li, Yiran Liu, Yanru Cui, Siyu Ma, Junhang Deng, Xia Wei and Xianping Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:72

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. At the beginning of the pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), little was known about its actual rate of infectivity and any COVID-19 patient positive in laboratory te...

    Authors: Sissy Therese Sonnleitner, Julian Dorighi, Bianca Jansen, Carmen Schönegger, Sarah Gietl, Stephan Koblmüller, Christian Sturmbauer, Wilfried Posch and Gernot Walder

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:71

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:82

  21. The porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is divided into eight genotypes including the previously described genotypes PCV2a to PCV2f and the two new genotypes PCV2g and PCV2h. PCV2 genotyping has become an importa...

    Authors: Ellen Kathrin Link, Matthias Eddicks, Liangliang Nan, Mathias Ritzmann, Gerd Sutter and Robert Fux

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:70

    Content type: Research

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  22. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and goat pox (GTP) are two devastating animal epidemic diseases that affect small ruminants. Vaccination is one of the most important measures to prevent and control these two ...

    Authors: Dajun Zhang, Bo Yang, Ting Zhang, Xijuan Shi, Chaochao Shen, Haixue Zheng, Xiangtao Liu and Keshan Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:69

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:128

  23. H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) including highly and low pathogenic viruses have been detected in China since 2013. H7N9 AIV has a high mortality rate after infection in humans, and most human cases have clos...

    Authors: Ge Li, Xun Wang, Qingmei Li, Jifei Yang, Xiao Liu, Wenbao Qi, Junqing Guo, Ruiguang Deng and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:68

    Content type: Research

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  24. Risk scores are needed to predict the risk of death in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the context of rapid disease progression.

    Authors: Xiude Fan, Bin Zhu, Masoud Nouri-Vaskeh, Chunguo Jiang, Xiaokai Feng, Kyle Poulsen, Behzad Baradaran, Jiansong Fang, Erfan Ahmadi Ade, Akbar Sharifi, Zhigang Zhao, Qunying Han, Yong Zhang, Liming Zhang and Zhengwen Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:67

    Content type: Research

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  25. Beginning in late 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged as a novel pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 111 mi...

    Authors: Zachary A. Krumm, Grace M. Lloyd, Connor P. Francis, Lith H. Nasif, Duane A. Mitchell, Todd E. Golde, Benoit I. Giasson and Yuxing Xia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:66

    Content type: Review

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  26. Quality of the nucleic acids extracted from Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) samples largely depends on pre-analytic, fixation and storage conditions. We assessed the differential sensitivity of viral a...

    Authors: Sara Nicolás-Párraga, Montserrat Torres, Laia Alemany, Ana Félix, Eugenia Cruz, Silvia de Sanjosé, Francesc Xavier Bosch and Ignacio G. Bravo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:65

    Content type: Research

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  27. Variation in host genetic factors may result in variation in the host immune response to the infection. Some chronic diseases may also affect individuals’ susceptibility to infectious diseases. The aim of this...

    Authors: Parvaneh Mehrbod, Sana Eybpoosh, Behrokh Farahmand, Fatemeh Fotouhi and Majid Khanzadeh Alishahi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:64

    Content type: Research

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  28. Encephalomyocarditis virus, member of Cardiovirus genus within Picornaviridae family, is an important pathogen that infects different domestic and wild animals. However, the molecular mechanism of its entry remai...

    Authors: Qiongyi Li, Yang Liu, Shujuan Xu, Kexue Zhao, Ying Ling, Rongxiu Liu, Amjad Ali and Jialin Bai

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:63

    Content type: Research

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  29. Citrus industry is worldwide dramatically affected by outbreaks of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Controls should be applied to nurseries, which could act as diversity hotspots for CTV. Early detection and chara...

    Authors: Aderito Tomàs Pais da Cunha, Michela Chiumenti, Laurindo Chambula Ladeira, Raied Abou Kubaa, Giuliana Loconsole, Vitantonio Pantaleo and Angelantonio Minafra

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:62

    Content type: Research

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  30. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has been applied successfully for virus and viroid discovery in many agricultural crops leading to the current drive to apply this technology in routine pathogen detection. The...

    Authors: Rachelle Bester, Glynnis Cook, Johannes H. J. Breytenbach, Chanel Steyn, Rochelle De Bruyn and Hans J. Maree

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:61

    Content type: Research

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  31. DNA vaccine is one of the research hotspots in veterinary vaccine development. Several advantages, such as cost-effectiveness, ease of design and production, good biocompatibility of plasmid DNA, attractive bi...

    Authors: Xing-Bo Liu, Guo-Wei Yu, Xin-Yu Gao, Jin-Long Huang, Li-Ting Qin, Hong-Bo Ni and Chuang Lyu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:60

    Content type: Research

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  32. The sample collection procedure for SARS-CoV-2 has a strong impact on diagnostic capability, contact tracing approach, ultimately affecting the infection containment performance. This study demonstrates that s...

    Authors: Silvia Ricci, Lorenzo Lodi, Francesco Citera, Francesco Nieddu, Maria Moriondo, Valentina Guarnieri, Mattia Giovannini, Giuseppe Indolfi, Massimo Resti, Alberto Zanobini and Chiara Azzari

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:59

    Content type: Short report

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  33. With the novel coronavirus pandemic, the impact on the healthcare system and workers cannot be overlooked. However, studies on the infection status of medical personnel are still lacking. It is imperative to e...

    Authors: Golnar Sabetian, Mohsen Moghadami, Leila Hashemizadeh Fard Haghighi, Reza Shahriarirad, Mohammad Javad Fallahi, Naeimehossadat Asmarian and Yalda Sadat Moeini

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:58

    Content type: Research

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  34. Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a transforming gammaherpesvirus. Like other herpesviruses, KSHV infection is for life long and there is no treatment that can cure patients from the virus. In ...

    Authors: Coral Orel Haddad, Inna Kalt, Yehuda Shovman, Lei Xia, Yehuda Schlesinger, Ronit Sarid and Oren Parnas

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:56

    Content type: Research

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  35. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: David R. McIlwain, Han Chen, Maria Apkarian, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Kenneth Kim, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Garry P. Nolan and Monica M. McNeal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:55

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:45

  36. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains ongoing around the world, including in areas where dengue is endemic. Dengue and COVID-19, to some extent, have similar clinical and laboratory features...

    Authors: Marsha S. Santoso, Sri Masyeni, Sotianingsih Haryanto, Benediktus Yohan, Martin L. Hibberd and R. Tedjo Sasmono

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:54

    Content type: Short report

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  37. The sudden arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic placed significant stresses on supply chains including viral transport medium (VTM). The VTM that was urgently required needed to support viral replication, as well ...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Claire Fraser, Elena Paraskeva, Elizabeth Trajcevska, Michelle Sait, Nancy Wang, Eric Bert, Damian Purcell and Richard Strugnell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:53

    Content type: Short report

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  38. Efficient monitoring and control of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) require access to diagnostic tests, and serological diagnostic testing is desirable. In the current study, antibodies were investigated i...

    Authors: Jira Chansaenroj, Ritthideach Yorsaeng, Nawarat Posuwan, Jiratchaya Puenpa, Natthinee Sudhinaraset, Chintana Chirathaworn and Yong Poovorawan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is currently the main cause of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions in female patients. By analyzing 6-year patient data from Shanghai Zhoupu Hospital in China, we retr...

    Authors: Ping Li, Qing Liu, Wei Li, Zhou Liu, Baoling Xing, Suqin Wu, Zhaoli Zhou, Liping Sun, He Ren, Hengfeng Li and Huaping Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) ubiquitin ligases belong to a RING finger domain E3 ligases family. Recent studies have demonstrated that MARCH proteins play critical roles during various viral infections....

    Authors: Chunfu Zheng and Yan-Dong Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:49

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  41. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a serious health problem in several tropical countries, is the causative agent of chikungunya fever. Approved antiviral therapies or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of CHIKV...

    Authors: Poonam Patil, Megha Agrawal, Shahdab Almelkar, Manish Kumar Jeengar, Ashwini More, Kalichamy Alagarasu, Naveen V. Kumar, Prathama S. Mainkar, Deepti Parashar and Sarah Cherian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:47

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broke out as a global pandemic in late 2019. The acidic pH environment of endosomes is believed to be essential for SARS-CoV-2 to be able to ente...

    Authors: Chao Shang, Xinyu Zhuang, He Zhang, Yiquan Li, Yilong Zhu, Jing Lu, Chenchen Ge, Jianan Cong, Tingyu Li, Mingyao Tian, Ningyi Jin and Xiao Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. Influenza places a significant burden on global health and economics. Individual case management and public health efforts to mitigate the spread of influenza are both strongly impacted by our ability to accur...

    Authors: David R. McIlwain, Han Chen, Maria Apkarian, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Kenneth Kim, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Garry P. Nolan and Monica M. McNeal

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:45

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:55

  44. Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a highly contagious swine disease resulting in large economical losses worldwide. The viral envelope glycoprotein E2 and Erns are ma...

    Authors: Qiang Wei, Yilin Bai, Yapeng Song, Yunchao Liu, Wei Yu, Yaning Sun, Li Wang, Ruiguang Deng, Guangxu Xing and Gaiping Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:44

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  45. Pepper vein yellows viruses (PeVYV) are phloem-restricted viruses in the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Typical viral symptoms of PeVYV including interveinal yellowing of leaves and upward leaf curling w...

    Authors: Kuangjie Zhao, Yueyan Yin, Mengying Hua, Shaoxiang Wang, Xiaohan Mo, Enping Yuan, Hongying Zheng, Lin Lin, Hairu Chen, Yuwen Lu, Jianping Chen, Jiejun Peng and Fei Yan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:42

    Content type: Short report

    Published on: