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  1. DNA-launched infectious system is a useful tool with high rescue efficiency that allows the introduction of mutations in specific positions to investigate the function of an individual viral element. Rescued v...

    Authors: Junhao Chen, Ruihua Zhang, Shaoli Lin, Pengfei Li, Jingjing Lan, Zhijing Xie, Yu Wang and Shijin Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:212

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Sibe...

    Authors: Eric M. Mucker, Christopher Hartmann, Donna Hering, Wendy Giles, David Miller, Robert Fisher and John Huggins

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:210

    Content type: Methodology

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  3. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), an oncogenic member of the Deltaretrovirus genus, is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I and II). BLV infects cattle worldwide and causes important economic losses....

    Authors: Meripet Polat, Shin-nosuke Takeshima and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:209

    Content type: Review

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  4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and subtypes are considered an important tool for epidemiological and clinical studies and valuable markers for disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. The aim ...

    Authors: Amen Bawazir, Fahad AlGusheri, Hoda Jradi, Mohammed AlBalwi and Abdel-Galil Abdel-Gader

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:208

    Content type: Research

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  5. Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction.

    Authors: Dunwu Qi, Tongling Shan, Zhijian Liu, Xutao Deng, Zhihe Zhang, Wenlei Bi, Jacob Robert Owens, Feifei Feng, Lisong Zheng, Feng Huang, Eric Delwart, Rong Hou and Wen Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:207

    Content type: Research

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  6. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease, which mostly affects infants and children and leads to severe neurological diseases. Vaccination offers the best option for...

    Authors: Ting Yang, Hua Li, Lei Yue, Xia Song, Tianhong Xie, Shaohui Ma, Huaqing Meng, Ye Zhang, Xin He, Runxiang Long, Rong Yang, Fangyu Luo, Zhongping Xie and Qihan Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:206

    Content type: Research

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  7. Hydrodynamic injection (HI) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mouse model is an useful tool for HBV related research in vivo. However, only 40% of C57/BL6 mice injected with 10 μg HBV genome contained plasmid (pAAV-H...

    Authors: Lei Li, Sheng Li, Yun Zhou, Lu Yang, Di Zhou, Yan Yang, Mengji Lu, Dongliang Yang and Jingjiao Song

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:205

    Content type: Research

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  8. Marburg virus (MARV) causes severe haemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates and has a high mortality rate. However, effective drugs or licensed vaccines are not currently available to control the out...

    Authors: Weiwei Gai, Xuexing Zheng, Chong Wang, Hualei Wang, Yongkun Zhao, Qi Wang, Gary Wong, Weijiao Zhang, Na Feng, Boning Qiu, Hang Chi, Nan Li, Tiecheng Wang, Yuwei Gao, Junjie Shan, Songtao Yang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:204

    Content type: Research

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  9. The pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between HBV polymerase (P...

    Authors: Shan Gao, Shivali S. Joshi, Carla Osiowy, Y. Chen, Carla S. Coffin and Z-P. Duan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:203

    Content type: Research

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  10. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative pathogen of Classical swine fever (CSF), a highly contagious disease of swine. Viperin is one of the hundreds of interferon-stimulat...

    Authors: Wenliang Li, Li Mao, Yongguo Cao, Bin Zhou, Leilei Yang, Linxiao Han, Fei Hao, Tao Lin, Wenwen Zhang and Jieyuan Jiang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:202

    Content type: Research

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  11. Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the serum and/or liver in HBsAg-negative individuals. OBI is associated with the risk of viral transmission, espe...

    Authors: Yan Mardian, Yoshihiko Yano, Widya Wasityastuti, Neneng Ratnasari, Yujiao Liang, Wahyu Aristyaning Putri, Teguh Triyono and Yoshitake Hayashi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:201

    Content type: Research

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  12. Small RNA (sRNA) associated gene regulation has been shown to play a significant role during plant-pathogen interaction. In commercial citrus orchards co-infection of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and viroids oc...

    Authors: Marike Visser, Glynnis Cook, Johan T. Burger and Hans J. Maree

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:200

    Content type: Research

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  13. Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), Cacao swollen shoot CD virus (CSSCDV), and Cacao swollen shoot Togo A virus (CSSTAV) cause cacao swollen shoot disease (CSSD) in West Africa. During 2...

    Authors: Nomatter Chingandu, Koffie Kouakou, Romain Aka, George Ameyaw, Osman A. Gutierrez, Hans-Werner Herrmann and Judith K. Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:199

    Content type: Research

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  14. African swine fever (ASF) is a re-expanding devastating viral disease currently threatening the pig industry worldwide. MicroRNAs are a class of 17–25 nucleotide non- coding RNAs that have been shown to have c...

    Authors: Fernando Núñez-Hernández, Lester Josué Pérez, Marta Muñoz, Gonzalo Vera, Francesc Accensi, Armand Sánchez, Fernando Rodríguez and José I. Núñez

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:198

    Content type: Research

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  15. Virus infections often result in quasispecies of viral strains that can have dramatic impacts on disease outcomes. However, sequencing of viruses to determine strain composition is time consuming and often cos...

    Authors: Lina S. Franco, Susan A. Holechek, Michael R. Caplan and Joseph N. Blattman

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:197

    Content type: Methodology

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  16. Conflicting results regarding the association of MMTV with human breast cancer have been reported. Published sequence data have indicated unique MMTV strains in some human samples. However, concerns regarding ...

    Authors: Raisa Perzova, Lynn Abbott, Patricia Benz, Steve Landas, Seema Khan, Jordan Glaser, Coleen K. Cunningham and Bernard Poiesz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:196

    Content type: Research

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  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan was determined by screening blood samples of expectant mothers seeking antenatal care in gynecological units of district hospitals. The ...

    Authors: Zobia Afsheen, Bashir Ahmad and Shumaila Bashir

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:195

    Content type: Research

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  18. Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus ...

    Authors: Qiaoling Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Peng Zhou, Yonglu Wang and Yongguang Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:194

    Content type: Short Report

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  19. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is closely associated with many human diseases, including a variety of deadly human malignant tumours. However, due to the lack of ideal animal models,the biological characteristics of...

    Authors: Zhi Wang, Xiang Yi, Long Du, Hong Wang, Jie Tang, Menglin Wang, Chenglin Qi, Heng Li, Yongjing Lai, Wei Xia and Anzhou Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:193

    Content type: Research

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  20. Mucins are large O-linked glycosylated proteins which give mucus their gel-forming properties. There are indications that mucus and mucins in saliva, breast milk and in the cervical plug inhibit the human immu...

    Authors: Anwar Suleman Mall, Habtom Habte, Yolanda Mthembu, Julia Peacocke and Corena de Beer

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:192

    Content type: Review

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  21. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a very small, non-enveloped and icosahedral virus, with circular single stranded DNA genome. This virus is the most ubiquitous and persistent pathogen currently affecting th...

    Authors: Victor Neira, Natalia Ramos, Rodrigo Tapia, Juan Arbiza, Andrónico Neira-Carrillo, Manuel Quezada, Álvaro Ruiz and Sergio A. Bucarey

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:191

    Content type: Research

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  22. The aim of this study were to investigate the possible pro-apoptotic mechanisms of the recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain rL-RVG, which expresses the rabies virus glycoprotein, in A549 lung adeno...

    Authors: Yulan Yan, Chunxiang Su, Min Hang, Hua Huang, Yinghai Zhao, Xiaomei Shao and Xuefeng Bu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:190

    Content type: Research

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  23. Dengue virus (DV) infection causes a spectrum of clinical diseases ranging from dengue fever to a life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever. Four distinct serotypes (DV1–4), which have similar genome sequences...

    Authors: Wen-Hung Chen, Feng-Pai Chou, Yu-Kuo Wang, Sheng-Cih Huang, Chuan-Hung Cheng and Tung-Kung Wu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:189

    Content type: Research

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  24. Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) are important crops that are vulnerable to aphid herbivory and aphid-transmitted viruses. In East and Central...

    Authors: Francis O. Wamonje, George N. Michuki, Luke A. Braidwood, Joyce N. Njuguna, J. Musembi Mutuku, Appolinaire Djikeng, Jagger J. W. Harvey and John P. Carr

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:188

    Content type: Research

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  25. The Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein in canine distemper virus (CDV), playing an important role in CDV viral replication and assembly.

    Authors: Li Yi, Zhigang Cao, Mingwei Tong, Yuening Cheng, Yong Yang, Shuang Li, Jianke Wang, Peng Lin, Yaru Sun, Miao Zhang and Shipeng Cheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:187

    Content type: Research

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  26. For many years, ND has been one of the most important infectious pigeon diseases in China. In recent years, a high mortality has been observed in ND-infected pigeons in China. Mortality is from 40% to 80% or 1...

    Authors: Xusheng Qiu, Chunchun Meng, Yuan Zhan, Shengqing Yu, Shichao Li, Tingting Ren, Weifeng Yuan, Shuqin Xu, Yingjie Sun, Lei Tan, Cuiping Song, Ying Liao, Zhuang Ding, Xiufan Liu and Chan Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:186

    Content type: Research

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  27. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe diseases in avian species. Its fusion protein cleavage site (Fcs) is a major contributor to virulence and membrane fusion. Previous studies showed that a change from...

    Authors: Yanhong Wang, Youkun Bi, Wanqi Yu, Ning Wei, Wenbin Wang, Qiaolin Wei, Xinglong Wang, Shuxia Zhang, Zengqi Yang and Sa Xiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:185

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  28. As rabies still represents a major public threat with tens of thousands of deaths per year, particularly in developing countries, adequate surveillance based on rapid and reliable rabies diagnosis for both hum...

    Authors: Kore Schlottau, Conrad M. Freuling, Thomas Müller, Martin Beer and Bernd Hoffmann

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:184

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2017 14:225

  29. There is little information regarding the duck enteritis virus (DEV) US10 gene and its molecular characterization.

    Authors: Daixi Zhang, Maoyin Lai, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Ying Wu, Qiao Yang, Mafeng Liu, Dekang Zhu, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Kunfeng Sun, Xinxin Zhao and Xiaoyue Chen

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:183

    Content type: Research

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  30. Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step...

    Authors: Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J. Leendertz and Fabian H. Leendertz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:181

    Content type: Research

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  31. Since the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza caused thousands of deaths of wild bird in this area in 2005, Qinghai Lake in China has become a hot spot for study of the influence of avian influenza to migratory w...

    Authors: Jie Dong, Hong Bo, Ye Zhang, Libo Dong, Shumei Zou, Weijuan Huang, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang and Yuelong Shu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:180

    Content type: Research

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  32. Infections in poultry are an economic and health problem in Europe and worldwide. The most common infections are associated with salmonellosis, colibacillosis, campylobacteriosis, and others. The prevalence of Ca...

    Authors: Andrzej Wernicki, Anna Nowaczek and Renata Urban-Chmiel

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:179

    Content type: Review

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  33. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. As the clinical utility of current therapies is limited, the development of new therapeut...

    Authors: Huifang Li, Junru Li, Yuan Tang, Lin Lin, Zhanglian Xie, Jia Zhou, Liyun Zhang, Xiaoyong Zhang, Xiaoshan Zhao, Zhengliang Chen and Daming Zuo

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:178

    Content type: Research

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  34. There are an estimated 400 million chronic carriers of HBV worldwide; between 15 and 20 million have serological evidence of exposure to HDV. Traditionally, regions with high rates of endemicity are central an...

    Authors: Luan Felipo Botelho-Souza, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Alcione de Oliveira dos Santos, Juan Miguel Villalobos Salcedo and Deusilene Souza Vieira

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:177

    Content type: Review

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  35. The need to investigate the contribution of non-polio enteroviruses to acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cannot be over emphasized as we move towards a poliovirus free world. Hence, we aim to identify non-polio en...

    Authors: T. O. C. Faleye, M. O. Adewumi, M. O. Japhet, O. M. David, A. O. Oluyege, J. A. Adeniji and O. Famurewa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:175

    Content type: Research

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  36. Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) is an important disease causing agent affecting psittacines. BFDV is highly infectious and can present as acute, chronic or subclinical disease. The virus causes immunodef...

    Authors: Guy L. Regnard, Edward P. Rybicki and Inga I. Hitzeroth

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:174

    Content type: Research

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  37. Human BST2 (hBST2, also called Tetherin) is a host restriction factor that blocks the release of various enveloped viruses. BST2s from different mammals also possess antiviral activity. Bovine BST2s (bBST2s), ...

    Authors: Zhibin Liang, Yang Zhang, Jie Song, Hui Zhang, Suzhen Zhang, Yue Li, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:173

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  38. The composition of the porcine virome includes viruses that infect pig cells, ancient virus-derived elements including endogenous retroviruses inserted in the pig chromosomes, and bacteriophages that infect a ...

    Authors: Joachim Denner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:171

    Content type: Review

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  39. Salmon are paramount to the economy, ecology, and history of the Pacific Northwest. Viruses constitute one of the major threats to salmon health and well-being, with more than twenty known virus species that i...

    Authors: Negar Makhsous, Nicole L. Jensen, Katherine H. Haman, William N. Batts, Keith R. Jerome, James R. Winton and Alexander L. Greninger

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:170

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. In recent years, two of the crinivirus, Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) have gained increasing attention due to their rapid spread and devastating impacts on vegetable pr...

    Authors: Xin Tang, Xiaobin Shi, Deyong Zhang, Fan Li, Fei Yan, Youjun Zhang, Yong Liu and Xuguo Zhou

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:169

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:14

  41. Cationic derivatives of polyprenols (trimethylpolyprenylammonium iodides – PTAI) with variable chain length between 6 and 15 isoprene units prepared from naturally occurring poly-cis-prenols were tested as DNA va...

    Authors: Anna Stachyra, Monika Rak, Patrycja Redkiewicz, Zbigniew Madeja, Katarzyna Gawarecka, Tadeusz Chojnacki, Ewa Świeżewska, Marek Masnyk, Marek Chmielewski, Agnieszka Sirko and Anna Góra-Sochacka

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:168

    Content type: Research

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  42. Human pegivirus-1 (HPgV-1) is a member of the Flaviviridae family whose genomic organization and mode of cellular entry is similar to that of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The E2 glycoprotein of HPgV-1 is the principl...

    Authors: Yakov Vitrenko, Iryna Kostenko, Kateryna Kulebyakina and Khrystyna Sorochynska

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:167

    Content type: Research

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  43. Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) is one of the most widespread and economically important virus infecting both crop and ornamental species of the family Brassicaceae. TuMV isolates can be cl...

    Authors: Xiangdong Li, Tiansheng Zhu, Xiao Yin, Chengling Zhang, Jia Chen, Yanping Tian and Jinliang Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:165

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment are tolerable and highly effective in a shorter period of time than before. However, resistance-associated variants (RAVs) can affect the...

    Authors: Jung Hwan Yu, Jung Il Lee, Kwan Sik Lee and Ja Kyung Kim

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:164

    Content type: Research

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  45. Induction of broad immune responses at mucosal site remains a primary goal for most vaccines against mucosal pathogens. Abundance of evidence indicates that the co-delivery of mucosal adjuvants, including cyto...

    Authors: Xianliang Sun, Han Zhang, Shuiling Xu, Lili Shi, Jingjian Dong, Dandan Gao, Yan Chen and Hao Feng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:163

    Content type: Research

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  46. Influenza A virus (IAV) PB1-F2 protein has been linked to viral virulence. Strains of the H3N2 subtype historically express full-length PB1-F2 proteins but during the 2010–2011 influenza seasons, nearly half o...

    Authors: Julie McAuley, Yi-Mo Deng, Brad Gilbertson, Charley Mackenzie-Kludas, Ian Barr and Lorena Brown

    Citation: Virology Journal 2017 14:162

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on: