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  1. DSB, the 3-O-(3',3'dimethylsuccinyl) derivative of betulinic acid, blocks the last step of protease-mediated processing of HIV-1 Gag precursor (Pr55Gag), which leads to immature, noninfectious virions. When admin...

    Authors: Sandrina DaFonseca, Pascale Coric, Bernard Gay, Saw See Hong, Serge Bouaziz and Pierre Boulanger
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:162
  2. Sera from convalescent Lassa fever patients often contains antibodies to Lassa virus (LASV) glycoprotein 1 (GP1), and glycoprotein 2 (GP2); Immunization of non-human primates with viral vectors expressing the ...

    Authors: Megan M Illick, Luis M Branco, Joseph N Fair, Kerry A Illick, Alex Matschiner, Randal Schoepp, Robert F Garry and Mary C Guttieri
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:161
  3. Positive selection pressure acting on protein-coding sequences is usually inferred when the rate of nonsynonymous substitution is greater than the synonymous rate. However, purifying selection acting directly ...

    Authors: Nobubelo K Ngandu, Konrad Scheffler, Penny Moore, Zenda Woodman, Darren Martin and Cathal Seoighe
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:160
  4. Diarrhea, the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide, causes approximately 2 million deaths a year. Approximately 40% of these cases are of unknown etiology. We previously developed a metagenomic st...

    Authors: Lori R Holtz, Stacy R Finkbeiner, Carl D Kirkwood and David Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:159
  5. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is highly endemic in several African countries with high mortality rate among pregnant women. Nothing is known about the circulation of this virus in central Africa. We evaluated theref...

    Authors: Mélanie Caron and Mirdad Kazanji
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:158
  6. An infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas DPI (Ark DPI) virulent strain was sequenced, analyzed and compared with many different IBV strains and coronaviruses. The genome of Ark DPI consists of 27,620 nucleotide...

    Authors: Arun Ammayappan, Chitra Upadhyay, Jack Gelb Jr and Vikram N Vakharia
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:157
  7. Hepatitis A virus (HAV), the causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans, is an atypical Picornaviridae that grows poorly in cell culture. HAV titrations are laborious and time-consuming because the virus in ...

    Authors: Krishnamurthy Konduru, Maria Luisa Virata-Theimer, Mei-ying W Yu and Gerardo G Kaplan
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:155
  8. In immunopathological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease are often discussed. The Theiler murine encep...

    Authors: Nicolas P Turrin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:154
  9. To perform a retrospective analysis of patients with IgM antibodies to dengue fever infection to determine the serotypes present by molecular techniques. A representative sample (~20%/per year) of patients dia...

    Authors: M Gittens-St Hilaire and Nicole Clarke-Greenidge
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:152
  10. PVs (PV) are small, non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that have been identified as the primary etiological agent for cervical cancer and their potential for malignant transformation in mucosal tissue ...

    Authors: John Lowe, Debasis Panda, Suzanne Rose, Ty Jensen, Willie A Hughes, For Yue Tso and Peter C Angeletti
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:150
  11. The I5L gene is one of ~90 genes that are conserved throughout the chordopoxvirus family, and hence are presumed to play vital roles in the poxvirus life cycle. Previous work had indicated that the VP13 protei...

    Authors: Bethany Unger, R Jeremy Nichols, Eleni S Stanitsa and Paula Traktman
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:148
  12. Although the important role of the non-structural 1 (NS) gene of influenza A in virulence of the virus is well established, our knowledge about the extent of variation in the NS gene pool of influenza A viruses i...

    Authors: Siamak Zohari, Péter Gyarmati, Anneli Ejdersund, Ulla Berglöf, Peter Thorén, Maria Ehrenberg, György Czifra, Sándor Belák, Jonas Waldenström, Björn Olsen and Mikael Berg
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:147
  13. Occult or latent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is defined as infection with detectable HBV DNA and undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg) in patients' blood. The cause of an overt HBV infection becoming an o...

    Authors: Formijn J van Hemert, Hans L Zaaijer, Ben Berkhout and Vladimir V Lukashov
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:146
  14. Low levels of uracil in DNA result from misincorporation of dUMP or cytosine deamination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototype poxvirus, encodes two enzymes that can potentially reduce the amount of uracil in ...

    Authors: Frank S De Silva and Bernard Moss
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:145
  15. Our studies were aimed at developing a vaccination strategy that could provide protection against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N3 or its variants outbreaks. A purified viral stock of highly...

    Authors: Mirza Imran Shahzad, Khalid Naeem, Muhammad Mukhtar and Azra Khanum
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:144
  16. RNA recombination is one of the two major factors that create RNA genome variability. Assessing its incidence in plant RNA viruses helps understand the formation of new isolates and evaluate the effectiveness ...

    Authors: Alla G Gagarinova, Mohan Babu, Martina V Strömvik and Aiming Wang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:143
  17. The high diversity of HIV variants driving the global AIDS epidemic has caused many to doubt whether an effective vaccine against the virus is possible. However, by identifying the selective forces that are dr...

    Authors: Gama P Bandawe, Darren P Martin, Florette Treurnicht, Koleka Mlisana, Salim S Abdool Karim and Carolyn Williamson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:141
  18. Toll-like receptors have a key role in innate immune response to microbial infection. The toll-like receptor (TLR) family consists of ten identified human TLRs, of which TLR2 and TLR9 have been shown to initia...

    Authors: Piritta Peri, Riikka K Mattila, Helena Kantola, Eeva Broberg, Heidi S Karttunen, Matti Waris, Tytti Vuorinen and Veijo Hukkanen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:140
  19. In this report we describe the genomic sequence of guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV) assembled from a tissue culture-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clone, plasmid clones of viral restriction fragment...

    Authors: Mark R Schleiss, Alistair McGregor, K Yeon Choi, Shailesh V Date, Xiaohong Cui and Michael A McVoy
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:139
  20. Nipah virus (NiV) is a recently emerged paramyxovirus capable of causing fatal disease in a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus ...

    Authors: Jared R Patch, Ziying Han, Sarah E McCarthy, Lianying Yan, Lin-Fa Wang, Ronald N Harty and Christopher C Broder
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:137
  21. The Anopheles gambiae heat shock cognate gene (hsc70B) encodes a constitutively expressed protein in the hsp70 family and it functions as a molecular chaperone for protein folding. However, the expression of hsc7...

    Authors: Seokyoung Kang, Cheolho Sim, Brian D Byrd, Frank H Collins and Young S Hong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:136
  22. Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (Geminiviridae) are emerging economically important plant viruses with a circular, single-stranded DNA genome. Previous studies have shown that geminiviruses and RNA viruses exhib...

    Authors: Cica Urbino, Gael Thébaud, Martine Granier, Stéphane Blanc and Michel Peterschmitt
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:135
  23. As part of efforts to control Japanese encephalitis (JE), the World Health Organization is producing a set of standards for JE surveillance, which require the identification of patients with acute encephalitis...

    Authors: Fidan Jmor, Hedley CA Emsley, Marc Fischer, Tom Solomon and Penny Lewthwaite
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:134
  24. Neuraminidase inhibitors (NI) play a major role in plans to mitigate future influenza pandemics. Modeling studies suggested that a pandemic may be contained at the source by early treatment and prophylaxis wit...

    Authors: Stefan O Brockmann, Markus Schwehm, Hans-Peter Duerr, Mark Witschi, Daniel Koch, Beatriz Vidondo and Martin Eichner
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:133
  25. The transcription/replication of the influenza viruses implicate the terminal nucleotide sequences of viral RNA, which comprise sequences at the extremities conserved among the genomic segments as well as vari...

    Authors: Bernadette Crescenzo-Chaigne, Cyril Barbezange and Sylvie van der Werf
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:132
  26. Identification of neutralizing antibodies with specificity away from the traditional mutation prone antigenic regions, against the conserved regions of hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza virus has the potential...

    Authors: Angeline PC Lim, Conrad EZ Chan, Steven KK Wong, Annie HY Chan, Eng Eong Ooi and Brendon J Hanson
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:130
  27. Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is the causative agent of chicken infectious anemia (CIA). Study on the type of CAV isolates present and their genetic diversity, transmission to their progeny and level of protectio...

    Authors: Zerihun Hailemariam, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair-Bejo and Tan Ching Giap
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:128
  28. Cell-surface viral proteins most frequently enter the cell through clathrin or caveolae endocytosis. Respiratory syncytial virus antigen internalization by immune cells is via caveolin, however, uptake of para...

    Authors: Abel Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carla Sánchez-Hernández and Beatriz Gómez-García
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:127
  29. The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL7 gene is highly conserved among herpesviridae. Since the construction of recombinant HSV-1 with a mutation in the UL7 gene has not been reported, the involvement of HSV-1 UL7...

    Authors: Michiko Tanaka, Tetsutaro Sata and Yasushi Kawaguchi
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:125
  30. Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world. All APMVs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxovirid...

    Authors: Baibaswata Nayak, Sachin Kumar, Peter L Collins and Siba K Samal
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:124
  31. Cotton blue disease (CBD), an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting du...

    Authors: TF Silva, RL Corrêa, Y Castilho, P Silvie, J-L Bélot and MFS Vaslin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:123
  32. Kluyvera, a genus within the family Enterobacteriaceae, is an infrequent cause of human infections. Bacteriophage Kvp1, the only bacteriophage isolated for one of its species, Kluyvera cryocrescens, is a member o...

    Authors: Erika J Lingohr, Andre Villegas, Yi-Min She, Pieter-Jan Ceyssens and Andrew M Kropinski
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:122
  33. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus was studied using nucleotide sequencing of the C-terminal region of the N protein gene and phylogenetic analysis on 59 isolates from 16 provinces of China in...

    Authors: Yan Zhang, Yixin Ji, Xiaohong Jiang, Songtao Xu, Zhen Zhu, Lei Zheng, Jilan He, Hua Ling, Yan Wang, Yang Liu, Wen Du, Xuelei Yang, Naiying Mao and Wenbo Xu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:120
  34. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower airway disease in infants and young children, but no safe and effective RSV vaccine is yet available. Factors attributing to this problem are ...

    Authors: Elizabeth C Moore, Jamie Barber and Ralph A Tripp
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:116
  35. Umbre (UMB) virus was first isolated from India in 1955 and classified as Orthobunyavirus (Turlock serogroup). Eight isolates of this virus, isolated from Culex mosquitoes were characterized on the basis of pa...

    Authors: Pragya D Yadav, Akhilesh C Mishra and Devendra T Mourya
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:115
  36. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral pathogen associated with bronchiolitis and lower respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. The respiratory epithelium is the prim...

    Authors: Dongchi Zhao, Dan Peng, Lei Li, Qiwei Zhang and Chuyu Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:114
  37. The analysis of the nonstructural (NS) gene of the highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated in Sweden early 2006 indicated the co-circulation of two sub-lineages of these viruses at t...

    Authors: István Kiss, Péter Gyarmati, Siamak Zohari, Karin Wilbe Ramsay, Giorgi Metreveli, Elisabeth Weiss, Maria Brytting, Marielle Stivers, Sofia Lindström, Ake Lundkvist, Kirill Nemirov, Peter Thorén, Mikael Berg, György Czifra and Sándor Belák
    Citation: Virology Journal 2008 5:113