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  1. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) usually infects infants causing hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), even fatal neurological disease like aseptic meningitis. Effective drug for preventing and treating EV71 infection is unava...

    Authors: Zhuoran Li, Ya’ni Wu, Hui Li, Wenqian Li, Juan Tan and Wentao Qiao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:255
  2. Rotavirus (RV) is a principal cause of diarrhea. However, there is a limited understanding regarding alteration of the gut microbial community structure and abundance during RV infection. This study was to cha...

    Authors: Wei Zhao, Mei Ling Yu, XiaoLi Tao, Mei Hui Cheng, Chang Cheng Liu, Yang Liu and Yong Gang Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:254
  3. The uncontrollable spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas during 2015–2017, and its causal link to microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults, led the World Health Organisation to decl...

    Authors: Julio Carrera, Alice M. Trenerry, Cameron P. Simmons and Jason M. Mackenzie
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:251
  4. Daphnis nerii cypovirus-23 (DnCPV-23) is a new type of cypovirus and has a lethal effect on the oleander hawk moth, Daphnis nerii which feeds on leave of Oleander and Catharanthus et al. After DnCPV-23 infection,...

    Authors: Wendong Kuang, Chenghua Yan, Zhigao Zhan, Limei Guan, Jinchang Wang, Junhui Chen, Jianghuai Li, Guangqiang Ma, Xi Zhou and Liang Jin
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:250
  5. Vaccination against HCV is an effective measure in reduction of virus-related public health burden and mortality. However, no prophylactic vaccine is available as of yet. DNA-based immunization is a promising ...

    Authors: Ali Shayeghpour, Roya Kianfar, Parastoo Hosseini, Mehdi Ajorloo, Sepehr Aghajanian, Mojtaba Hedayat Yaghoobi, Tayebeh Hashempour and Sayed-Hamidreza Mozhgani
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:248
  6. Despite the five decades having passed since discovery of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), together with development of an effective anti-HBV vaccine, infection with the virus remains a serious public health probl...

    Authors: Njabulo Mnyandu, Shonisani Wendy Limani, Patrick Arbuthnot and Mohube Betty Maepa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:247
  7. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has been described as a causing factor for acute-on-chronic-liver-failure (ACLF) in patients with underlying chronic liver disease (CLD), such as chronic hepatitis or cirr...

    Authors: Anabella Fantilli, Sarah Daniela López Villa, Alina Zerega, Guadalupe Di Cola, Luis López, Maribel Wassaf Martínez, María Belén Pisano and Viviana Elizabeth Ré
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:245
  8. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a huge challenge worldwide. Although previous studies have suggested that type I interferon (IFN-I) could inhibit the virus replication, the expression characteristics of...

    Authors: Jing Wu, Xingxiang Liu, Jianguo Shao, Yuanyuan Zhang, Renfei Lu, Hong Xue, Yunfang Xu, Lijuan Wang, Hui Zhou, Lugang Yu, Ming Yue and Chen Dong
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:244
  9. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a novel disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to millions of deaths worldwide. Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are a f...

    Authors: Ali Monfared, Leila Akhondzadeh, Mahsa Mousazadeh, Atefeh Jafari, Masoud Khosravi, Mohammadkazem Lebadi, Pegah Aghajanzadeh, Yalda Haghdar-Saheli, Ali Movassaghi, Elham Ramezanzadeh, Farzaneh Shobeirian, Ehsan Kazemnezhad and Samaneh Esmaeili
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:243
  10. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (CHB) is a significant public health problem that could benefit from treatment with immunomodulators. Here we describe a set of therapeutic HBV vaccines that target th...

    Authors: Mohadeseh Hasanpourghadi, Mikhail Novikov, Dakota Newman, ZhiQuan Xiang, Xiang Yang Zhou, Colin Magowan and Hildegund C. J. Ertl
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:242
  11. Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:241

    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2021 18:225

  12. Members of the family Inoviridae (inoviruses) are characterized by their unique filamentous morphology and infection cycle. The viral genome of inovirus is able to integrate into the host genome and continuously ...

    Authors: Jian Zeng, Yan Wang, Ju Zhang, Shixing Yang and Wen Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:240
  13. HIV and HBV infections remain responsible for high rate of morbidity and mortality in many African Countries, affecting women and newborns. This study aims to analyze the spatial pattern of HIV and HBV infecti...

    Authors: Amélia Nkutxi Vueba, Ricardo Almendra, Paula Santana, Clarissa Faria and Maria do Céu Sousa
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:239
  14. To evaluate viral loads in children with human adenovirus (HAdV) pneumonia at different stages of disease and compare the viral load between upper and lower respiratory tract samples.

    Authors: Le-Yun Xie, Sai-Zhen Zeng, Tian Yu, Xian Hu, Tao Wang, Le Yang, Li-Li Zhong, Jin-Song Li, Zhao-Jun Duan and Bing Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:238
  15. The highly pathogenic Influenza H7N9 virus is believed to cause multiple organ infections. However, there have been few systematic animal experiments demonstrating the virus distribution after H7N9 virus infec...

    Authors: Xiao-Xin Wu, Song-Jia Tang, Shu-Hao Yao, Yu-Qin Zhou, Lan-Lan Xiao, Lin-Fang Cheng, Fu-Ming Liu, Nan-Ping Wu, Hang-Ping Yao and Lan-Juan Li
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:237
  16. Previous works have observed that younger infants with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are more responsive to antiviral treatment. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, th...

    Authors: Yi Li, Yiwei Xiao, Lili Li, Yarong Song, Xiangjun Zhai, Jianxun Liu, Zhongping Duan, Ling Yan, Feng Ding, Jia Liu, Liguo Zhu, Jie Jiang, Huaibin Zou, Lingxiang Li, Caihong Liang, Jie Wang…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:236
  17. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) serum markers during typical acute self-limited infection are usually depicted as a composite of traditional HBV markers. The current study updates and expands our knowledge of acute he...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Vera Holzmayer, Anne L. McNamara, Mark Anderson and Gavin A. Cloherty
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:235
  18. HAdV is one of the common pathogens in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We aim to describe the clinical and laboratory features, epidemiological characteristics, and HAdV species...

    Authors: Caiyun Wang, Juanjuan Liu, Yumei Mi, Jing Chen, Jing Bi and Yinghu Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:234
  19. Dabieshan tick virus (DTV) was first identified in Haemaphysalis longicornis from Hubei Province, China in 2015. However, its pathogenic potential to animals and human remains to be further explored. In this stud...

    Authors: Lijun Shao, Ruiheng Chang, Lin Liu, Yongjin Wang, Yun Gao, Shaoqing Wang, Hengyi Sun and Guoyu Niu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:233
  20. Different species of human rhinovirus (HRV) can induce varied antiviral and inflammatory responses in human blood macrophages and lower airway epithelium. Although human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) are a pr...

    Authors: Ji Heui Kim, Jung Yeon Jang and Yong Ju Jang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:232
  21. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus haemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) is the leading cause of death in captive Asian elephant calves in Asia, North America, and Europe with a mortality rate of ~ 65% in calves t...

    Authors: Mei-Ho Lee, Senthilvel K. S. S. Nathan, Laura Benedict, Pakeeyaraj Nagalingam, Erin Latimer, Tom Hughes, Diana Ramirez and Jum Rafiah Abd Sukor
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:231
  22. In 2011, a new influenza virus, named Influenza D Virus (IDV), was isolated from pigs, and then cattle, presenting influenza-like symptoms. IDV is one of the causative agents of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD...

    Authors: Yutian Wang, Weiyang Sun, Zhenfei Wang, Menglin Zhao, Xinghai Zhang, Yunyi Kong, Xuefeng Wang, Na Feng, Tiecheng Wang, Feihu Yan, Yongkun Zhao, Xianzhu Xia, Songtao Yang and Yuwei Gao
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:230
  23. Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection of ferrets, dogs, and giant pandas causes an acute systemic disease involving multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, lymphoid system, and central nervou...

    Authors: Jingjian Dong, Yan Chen, Lili Shi, Bing Shen, Xianliang Sun, Kaiyi Ruan, Xianzhu Xia, Hao Feng and Na Feng
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:229
  24. The management of COVID-19 in organ transplant recipients is among the most imperative, yet less discussed, issues based on their immunocompromised status along with their vast post-transplant medication regim...

    Authors: Mojtaba Shafiekhani, Farbod Shahabinezhad, Tahmoores Niknam, Seyed Ahmad Tara, Elham Haem, Parviz Mardani, Zahra Zare, Sedigheh Jafarian, Khatereh Mirzad Jahromi, Sara Arabsheybani, Yalda Sadat Moeini, Jalile Alavi, Seyed Soroush Jalali, Maryam Salimi, Reza Shahriarirad and Seyed Ali Malekhosseini
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:228
  25. Parechoviruses (PeV-As), which constitute a new genus within the family Picornaviridae, have been associated with numerous localized outbreaks of serious diseases, such as coryza, pneumonia, maculopapular exanthe...

    Authors: Huanhuan Lu, Jinbo Xiao, Keyi Zhang, Zhenzhi Han, Yang Song, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Wenbo Xu and Yong Zhang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:227
  26. Given that many pregnant women have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is linked to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes, we looked into the relationship betw...

    Authors: Wanchang Yin, Bingjun Chen, Yilin Yang, Xiuzi Li, Ruirui Li, Jiangnan Xie, Guixian Chen, Fang He and Dunjin Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:226
  27. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, pulmonary involvement was one of the most significant concerns in assessing patients. In the current study, we evaluated patient’s signs, symptoms, and laboratory data on the first...

    Authors: Niloofar Ayoobi Yazdi, Abdolkarim Haji Ghadery, SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Fatemeh Jafari, Sirous Jafari, Malihe Hasannezad, Hamid Emadi Koochak, Mohammadreza Salehi, Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi, Mohsen Meidani, Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Zahra Ahmadinejad, Hossein Khalili, Mohammad-Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad and Ladan Abbasian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:225

    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2021 18:241

  28. B-cell proliferative disorders, such as post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD), are increased among persons afflicted by T-cell compromise. Most are Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) + and can first present...

    Authors: Elham Ahmadi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Jun Xie, Rajesh Panigrahi, Sandeep S. Jubbal, Santosh Kumar Guru, Gao Guangping, Mazyar Ziyaeyan and Joyce Fingeroth
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:223
  29. We report a genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Paraná, southern Brazil, from March 2020 to April 2021. Our analysis, based on 333 genomes, revealed that the first variants detected in t...

    Authors: Mauro M. Oliveira, Michelle O. Schemberger, Andreia A. Suzukawa, Irina N. Riediger, Maria do Carmo Debur, Guilherme Becker, Paola Cristina Resende, Tiago Gräf, Eduardo Balsanelli, Valter Antônio de Baura, Emanuel M. de Souza, Fábio O. Pedrosa, Lysangela R. Alves, Lucas Blanes, Sheila Cristina Nardelli, Alessandra M. Aguiar…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:222
  30. The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has elevated several clinical and scientific questions. These include how host genetic factors influence the pathogene...

    Authors: Pooneh Rahimi, Rahil Tarharoudi, Alireza Rahimpour, Jalal Mosayebi Amroabadi, Iraj Ahmadi, Enayat Anvari, Seyed Davar Siadat, Mohammadreza Aghasadeghi and Abolfazl Fateh
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:221
  31. Interleukin (IL)-38, a novel member of the IL-1 family, has been reported to be involved in several diseases associated with viral infection. However, the expression and functional role of IL-38 in acute viral...

    Authors: Yimin Xue, Mingguang Chen, Qian Chen, Tingfeng Huang, Qiaolian Fan, Fenghui Lin, Jun Ke and Feng Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:220
  32. Most phages infect free-living bacteria but a few have been identified that infect heritable symbionts of insects or other eukaryotes. Heritable symbionts are usually specialized and isolated from other bacter...

    Authors: Bret M. Boyd, Germain Chevignon, Vilas Patel, Kerry M. Oliver and Michael R. Strand
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:219
  33. The incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) is consistently increasing, in association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, especially HPV16. HPV variants show heterogeneity in...

    Authors: Daniela Cochicho, Rui Gil da Costa and Ana Felix
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:217
  34. With the advancement of sequencing technologies, a plethora of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) species have been widely discovered, including microRNAs (miRNAs), circular RNAs (circRNAs), and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs). Howe...

    Authors: Junzhuo Si, Xia Tang, Lei Xu, Huichao Fu, Huayi Li, Yonglin He, Jiajia Bao, Jialing Tang, Anlong Li, Nan Lu and Chun Yang
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:216
  35. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in utero is very common during pregnancy, which can lead to adverse outcomes in both pregnancy and progeny, but its pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. The decreas...

    Authors: Qiaoqiao Kong, Jing Li, Li Zhao, Peng Shi, Xiaobei Liu, Cailing Bian, Jing Liu and Tao Liu
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:214
  36. The fifth wave of H7N9 avian influenza virus caused a large number of human infections and a large number of poultry deaths in China. Since September 2017, mainland China has begun to vaccinate poultry with H5...

    Authors: Jin Guo, Wentao Song, Xiansheng Ni, Wei Liu, Jingwen Wu, Wen Xia, Xianfeng Zhou, Wei Wang, Fenglan He, Xi Wang, Guoyin Fan, Kun Zhou, Haiying Chen and Shengen Chen
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:213
  37. Pneumonia has a high incidence rate and is a major cause of mortality in children, mostly community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Human bocavirus (HBoV), since it first identified in 2005, has been repeatedly asso...

    Authors: Kai Ji, Jinhan Sun, Yan Yan, Lei Han, Jianhui Guo, Anwen Ma, Xueqi Hao, Fang Li and Yuning Sun
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:212
  38. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is the causing agent of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) characterized by a huge pro-inflammatory response and coagulation disorders that may lead to for its severe forms, in organ ...

    Authors: Hind Hamzeh-Cognasse, Alexandre Mansour, Florian Reizine, Patrick Mismetti, Isabelle Gouin-Thibault and Fabrice Cognasse
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:211
  39. In line with the Latin expression “sed parva forti” meaning “small but mighty,” the family Parvoviridae contains many of the smallest known viruses, some of which result in fatal or debilitating infections. In re...

    Authors: Mason C. Jager, Joy E. Tomlinson, Robert A. Lopez-Astacio, Colin R. Parrish and Gerlinde R. Van de Walle
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:210
  40. Porcine vesicular disease is caused by the Seneca Valley virus (SVV), it is a novel Picornaviridae, which is prevalent in several countries. However, the pathogenicity of SVV on 5–6 week old pigs and the transmis...

    Authors: Jinyong Zhang, Chenghui Li, Yuan Meng, Yubiao Xie, Ning Shi, He Zhang, Chengdong Yu, Fulong Nan, Changzhan Xie, Zhuo Ha, Jicheng Han, Zhuoxin Li, Qiuxuan Li, Peng Wang, Xu Gao, Ningyi Jin…
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:209
  41. To evaluate and understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes and characteristics of female populations in specific areas and the relationship with cervical lesions, which can effectively guide cervical cancer sc...

    Authors: Xiaotian Yan, Lingwei Shen, Yufei Xiao, Qi Wang, Fugang Li and Yun Qian
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:208
  42. As genetic analysis becomes less expensive, more comprehensive diagnostics such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) will become available to the veterinary practitioner. The WGS elucidates more about porcine repr...

    Authors: Jessica Risser, Matthew Ackerman, Robert Evelsizer, Stephen Wu, Byungjoon Kwon and James Mark Hammer
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:206
  43. Hendra virus (HeV) has caused lethal disease outbreaks in humans and horses in Australia. Flying foxes are the wildlife reservoir from which the virus was first isolated in 1996. Following a heat stress mortal...

    Authors: Jianning Wang, Danielle E. Anderson, Kim Halpin, Xiao Hong, Honglei Chen, Som Walker, Stacey Valdeter, Brenda van der Heide, Matthew J. Neave, John Bingham, Dwane O’Brien, Debbie Eagles, Lin-Fa Wang and David T. Williams
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:197
  44. Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Moza...

    Authors: Axel O. G. Hoarau, Steven M. Goodman, Dana Al Halabi, Beza Ramasindrazana, Erwan Lagadec, Gildas Le Minter, Marie Köster, Andréa Dos Santos, M. Corrie Schoeman, Eduardo S. Gudo, Patrick Mavingui and Camille Lebarbenchon
    Citation: Virology Journal 2021 18:205