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  1. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates the expression levels of cellular proteins by ubiquitination of protein substrates followed by their degradation via the proteasome. As a highly conserved cellul...

    Authors: Fanyun Kong, Hongjuan You, Delong Kong, Kuiyang Zheng and Renxian Tang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:73

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins play a crucial role in HPV-related diseases, such as cervical cancer, and can be used as ideal targets for therapeutic vaccines. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ...

    Authors: Jiaoyu He, Yasi Yang, Zuyi Chen, Yang Liu, Shanfei Bao, Yun Zhao and Xianping Ding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:72

    Content type: Research

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  3. Lates calcarifer, known as seabass in Asia and barramundi in Australia, is a widely farmed species internationally and in Southeast Asia and any disease outbreak will have a great economic impact on the aquacultu...

    Authors: Jing Chen, Xinyu Toh, Jasmine Ong, Yahui Wang, Xuan-Hui Teo, Bernett Lee, Pui-San Wong, Denyse Khor, Shin-Min Chong, Diana Chee, Alvin Wee, Yifan Wang, Mee-Keun Ng, Boon-Huan Tan and Taoqi Huangfu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:71

    Content type: Research

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  4. A novel nepovirus was identified and characterised from caraway, and tentatively named caraway yellows virus (CawYV). Tubular structures with isomeric virus particles typical for nepoviruses were observed in i...

    Authors: Yahya Z. A. Gaafar, Katja R. Richert-Pöggeler, Angelika Sieg-Müller, Petra Lüddecke, Kerstin Herz, Jonas Hartrick, Christina Maaß, Roswitha Ulrich and Heiko Ziebell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:70

    Content type: Short report

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  5. Coronaviruses (CoVs) primarily cause enzootic infections in birds and mammals but, in the last few decades, have shown to be capable of infecting humans as well. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndro...

    Authors: Dewald Schoeman and Burtram C. Fielding

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:69

    Content type: Review

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  6. Shingles (localized zoster) and disseminated zoster are caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). Reactivation of VZV is related to impaired cell-mediated immunity. Extensive burns aff...

    Authors: Yoshitaka Kubota, Kentaro Kosaka, Toshinori Hokazono, Yoshihisa Yamaji, Takafumi Tezuka, Shinsuke Akita, Motone Kuriyama and Nobuyuki Mitsukawa

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:68

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may lead to a series of lesions in the cervix. Distributions of HPV genotypes reveal that an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) is positively correlated with th...

    Authors: C. Zhang, Wj Cheng, Q. Liu, Q. Guan and Qw Zhang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:67

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes enzootic bovine leukosis, the most common neoplastic disease of cattle. Previously, we reported the luminescence syncytium induction assay (LuSIA), an assay for BLV infectivi...

    Authors: Hirotaka Sato, Sonoko Watanuki, Lanlan Bai, Liushiqi Borjigin, Hiroshi Ishizaki, Yasunobu Matsumoto, Yuma Hachiya, Hiroshi Sentsui and Yoko Aida

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:66

    Content type: Research

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  9. Yellow fever, Dengue, West Nile and Zika viruses are re-emerging mosquito-borne Flaviviruses of public health concern. However, the extent of human exposure to these viruses and associated disease burden in Kenya...

    Authors: E. Chepkorir, D. P. Tchouassi, S. L. Konongoi, J. Lutomiah, C. Tigoi, Z. Irura, F. Eyase, M. Venter and R. Sang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:65

    Content type: Research

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  10. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) due to group A rotavirus (RVA) agent is one of the major causes of hospitalization in paediatric age. The G3P[8] RVA genotype has been usually considered as one of the major human g...

    Authors: Susanna Esposito, Barbara Camilloni, Sonia Bianchini, Giovanni Ianiro, Ilaria Polinori, Edoardo Farinelli, Marina Monini and Nicola Principi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:64

    Content type: Case Report

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  11. Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common childhood disease, which is usually caused by enterovirus A (EV-A) serotypes. Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the main etiologic ag...

    Authors: Jie Zhang, Hongbo Liu, Yilin Zhao, Haihao Zhang, Hao Sun, Xiaoqin Huang, Zhaoqing Yang, Jiansheng Liu and Shaohui Ma

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:63

    Content type: Research

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  12. Dengue is hyperendemic in Colombia, where a cyclic behavior of serotype replacement leading to periodic epidemics has been observed for decades. This level of endemicity favors accumulation of dengue virus gen...

    Authors: Katherine Laiton-Donato, Diego A. Alvarez, Dioselina Peláez-Carvajal, Marcela Mercado, Nadim J. Ajami, Irene Bosch and José A. Usme-Ciro

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:62

    Content type: Short report

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  13. In the original publication of the article [1], as the quotation below was included without specific permission from Dr. Gary Marty, which is against the Virology Journal guidelines for the citation of unpublishe...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:60

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Virology Journal 2019 16:41

  14. Much evidence has demonstrated the influence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations on the clinical course of HBV infection. As large (L) protein plays a crucial role for viral entry, we hypothesized that mutati...

    Authors: Suguru Ogura, Masahiko Tameda, Kazushi Sugimoto, Makoto Ikejiri, Masanobu Usui, Masaaki Ito and Yoshiyuki Takei

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:59

    Content type: Research

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  15. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have gained much attention as cellular factors regulating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. miR-27b has been shown to regulate HCV infection in the hepatocytes via various mechanisms that h...

    Authors: Fuminori Sakurai, Rina Hashimoto, Chieko Inoue, Keisaku Wakabayashi, Tomohito Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Imaizumi, Taracena Gandara Marcos Andres, Eiko Sakai, Kanae Itsuki, Naoya Sakamoto, Takaji Wakita and Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:58

    Content type: Research

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  16. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important viral pathogen for swine industry worldwide. However, current PCV2 vaccines provide incomplete protection against the PCV2d, which has recently eme...

    Authors: Zhumei Hou, Honghua Wang, Yanni Feng, Qingwang Li and Junwei Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:57

    Content type: Research

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  17. Tetraparvovirus, formerly known as Partetravirus, is a newly discovered genus in the family Parvoviridae that is considered phylogenetically distinct from other parvoviruses. However, nothing is known about the p...

    Authors: Yangyang Pan, Yun Wang, Meng Wang, Qian Zhang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Jun Zhou, Jing Ma, Jam Kashif, Gengquan Xu, Libin Wang, Jiangfeng Fan, Yan Cui and Sijiu Yu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:56

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Nucleorhabdoviruses possess bacilliform particles which contain a single-stranded negative-sense RNA genome. They replicate and mature in the nucleus of infected cells. Together with viruses of three other gen...

    Authors: Yahya Z. A. Gaafar, Katja R. Richert-Pöggeler, Christina Maaß, Heinrich-Josef Vetten and Heiko Ziebell

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:55

    Content type: Research

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  19. The picornaviral 3C protease mediates viral polyprotein maturation and multiple cleavages of host proteins to modulate viral translation and transcription. The 3C protease has been regarded as a valid target d...

    Authors: Di Sun, Mingshu Wang, Xingjian Wen, Sai Mao, Anchun Cheng, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Shaqiu Zhang, Xiaoyue Chen, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:54

    Content type: Research

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  20. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) seriously interfered in the production of rice and maize in China. These two viruses are members of the genus Fijiviru...

    Authors: Zenghui Wang, Chengming Yu, Yuanhao Peng, Chengshi Ding, Qingliang Li, Deya Wang and Xuefeng Yuan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:53

    Content type: Research

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  21. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was first identified in the late 1970s; it causes intestinal hemorrhage with severe bloody diarrhea in kennels and dog shelters worldwide. Since its emergence, CPV-2 has been r...

    Authors: Minh Hoang, Wei-Hao Lin, Van Phan Le, Bui Thi To Nga, Ming-Tang Chiou and Chao-Nan Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:52

    Content type: Research

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  22. Heterosexual transmission has contributed greatly to the current HIV-1 epidemic in China. However, the HIV-1 genetic characteristics in the heterosexually transmitted population in Jiangsu province remained un...

    Authors: Peipei Xiao, Ying Zhou, Jing Lu, Li Yan, Xiaoqin Xu, Haiyang Hu, Jianjun Li, Ping Ding, Tao Qiu, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan and Haitao Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:51

    Content type: Research

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  23. Human pegivirus (HPgV), formally called GB virus C (GBV-C), is a member of the pegivirus genus in Flaviviridae family. High prevalence of HPgV infection is seen among sex workers, blood transfusion recipients ...

    Authors: Wubet Taklual, Shixing Tang and Wu Yue

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:50

    Content type: Research

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  24. Equine rotavirus A (ERVA) is the leading cause of diarrhea in neonatal foals and has a negative impact on equine breeding enterprises worldwide. Among ERVA strains infecting foals, the genotypes G3P[12] and G1...

    Authors: Mariano Carossino, Maria E. Barrandeguy, Erdal Erol, Yanqiu Li and Udeni B. R. Balasuriya

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:49

    Content type: Research

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  25. Interleukin (IL)-35 regulates imbalance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and T helper (Th) 17 cells, leading to an important modulator in autoimmune disorder, cancer, and infectious diseases. Our previous st...

    Authors: Lanlan Yang, Shengnan Jia, Xue Shao, Siqi Liu, Qian Zhang, Jie Song, Wudong Wang and Zhenjing Jin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:48

    Content type: Research

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  26. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cancer, creating enormous economic and social burdens. The Chinese government recommends routine screening of inpatients for HCV before i...

    Authors: Lili Liu, Hongqin Xu, Yue Hu, Jia Shang, Jianning Jiang, Lei Yu, Caiyan Zhao, Dazhi Zhang, Xinxin Zhang, Junfeng Li, Wei Li, Yanan Wu, Diefei Hu, Xiaofang Wang, Qian Zhao, Qiongfang Zhang…

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:47

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Compared with chickens, ducks are normally resistant to avian influenza virus without clinical signs while they habor almost all subtypes of influenza A viruses. To date, however the mechanism for duck anti-in...

    Authors: Jianmei Yang, Hongrui Cui, Qiaoyang Teng, Wenjun Ma, Xuesong Li, Binbin Wang, Dawei Yan, Hongjun Chen, Qinfang Liu and Zejun Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:46

    Content type: Research

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  28. VP1 of the chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a structural protein that is required for virus encapsulation. VP1 proteins are present both in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, the functional nuclear localization ...

    Authors: Jai-Hong Cheng, Guan-Hua Lai, Yi-Yang Lien, Fang-Chun Sun, Shan-Ling Hsu, Pei-Chin Chuang and Meng-Shiou Lee

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:45

    Content type: Research

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  29. Since H7N9 influenza A virus (H7N9) was first reported in 2013, five waves of outbreaks have occurred, posing a huge threat to human health. In preparation for a potential H7N9 epidemic, it is essential to eva...

    Authors: Ai-jun Chen, Jie Dong, Xin-hui Yuan, Hong Bo, Shu-zhen Li, Chao Wang, Zhao-jun Duan and Li-shu Zheng

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:44

    Content type: Research

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  30. Although vaccines for hepatitis B virus (HBV) are highly effective, HBV infections in vaccinees occur. Index samples of breakthrough infections are typically anti-HBc negative but HBV DNA positive with protect...

    Authors: Mary C. Kuhns, Anne L. McNamara, Vera Holzmayer and Gavin A. Cloherty

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:43

    Content type: Research

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  31. HIV integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactors, including lens-epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75), Ku70, p300, and Rad52, are subject to small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification. In addition ...

    Authors: Yingfeng Zheng, Kallesh Danappa Jayappa, Zhujun Ao, Xiangguo Qiu, Ruey-Chyi Su and Xiaojian Yao

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:42

    Content type: Research

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  32. Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emergent virus in salmon aquaculture belonging to the family Reoviridae. PRV is associated with a growing list of pathological conditions including heart and skeletal inflammatio...

    Authors: Molly J. T. Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Nick Gayeski, Alexandra Morton, Kurt Beardslee, Bill McMillan and Frederick S. B. Kibenge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:41

    Content type: Research

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Virology Journal 2019 16:60

  33. Enterovirus C96 (EV-C96) is a newly named type of enterovirus belonging to species C, and the prototype strain (BAN00–10488) was firstly isolated in 2000 from a stool specimen of a patient with acute flaccid p...

    Authors: Lan Hu, Yong Zhang, Mei Hong, Qin Fan, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang and Wenbo Xu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:40

    Content type: Research

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  34. The aim of our study was to determine which diagnostic course is best to identify women at risk of CIN2+ among post-menopausal women with cytological diagnosis of ASCUS

    Authors: Maria Teresa Bruno, Angela Coco, Salvatore Di Pasqua and Giulia Bonanno

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:39

    Content type: Research

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  35. Tobacco production in China has been affected by plant viruses with Milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) as a recent invader posing serious concern. According to most of the studies, MDV mainly infects hosts from Faba...

    Authors: Ali Kamran, Han Hou, Yi Xie, Cunxiao Zhao, Xiaomin Wei, Chaoqun Zhang, Xiangwen Yu, Fenglong Wang and Jinguang Yang

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:38

    Content type: Short report

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  36. Porcine sapelovirus (PSV), a species of the genus Sapelovirus within the family Picornaviridae, are a significant cause of enteritis, pneumonia, polioencephalomyelitis and reproductive disorders in pigs. Howev...

    Authors: Tingting Zhao, Li Cui, Xiangqian Yu, Zhonghai Zhang, Xiaojuan Shen and Xiuguo Hua

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:37

    Content type: Research

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  37. Cross protection is a promising alternative to control plant viral diseases. One critical factor limiting the application of cross protection is the availability of attenuated mutants or mild strains. Potato viru...

    Authors: Q. Q. Cong, Y. Wang, J. Liu, Y. F. Lan, Z. K. Guo, J. G. Yang, X.-D. Li and Y. P. Tian

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:36

    Content type: Research

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  38. Papillomaviruses (PVs) and polyomaviruses (PyVs) infect diverse vertebrates including human and cause a broad spectrum of outcomes from asymptomatic infection to severe disease. There has been no PV and only o...

    Authors: Ping Liu, Ye Qiu, Cheng Xing, Ji-Hua Zhou, Wei-Hong Yang, Qiong Wang, Jin-Yan Li, Xi Han, Yun-Zhi Zhang and Xing-Yi Ge

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:35

    Content type: Research

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  39. Whether sofosbuvir is suitable for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients with severe renal impairment is inconclusive. This systematic review aims to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of SOF-based regi...

    Authors: Mingshu Li, Jun Chen, Zhixiong Fang, Yi Li and Qian Lin

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:34

    Content type: Research

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  40. Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause an acute highly fatal hemorrhagic disease in young Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), both ex situ and in situ. Amongst eight EEHV types described so far, ...

    Authors: Taweepoke Angkawanish, Mirjam Nielen, Hans Vernooij, Janine L. Brown, Peter J. S. van Kooten, Petra B. van den Doel, Willem Schaftenaar, Kannika Na Lampang and Victor P. M. G. Rutten

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:33

    Content type: Research

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  41. Viruses in the genus Begomovirus (Family Geminiviridae) include many important economic plant viruses transmitted by whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex. In general, different begomoviruses may be ac...

    Authors: Jing Zhao, Yao Chi, Xin-Jia Zhang, Teng Lei, Xiao-Wei Wang and Shu-Sheng Liu

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:32

    Content type: Research

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  42. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a fish rhabdovirus belonging to the Novirhabdovirus genus, causes severe disease and mortality in many marine and freshwater fish species worldwide. VHSV isolates are cl...

    Authors: Shamila Yusuff, Gael Kurath, Min Sun Kim, Tarin M. Tesfaye, Jie Li, Douglas G. McKenney and Vikram N. Vakharia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:31

    Content type: Research

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  43. Canine distemper virus (CDV), currently termed Canine morbillivirus, is an extremely contagious disease that affects dogs. It is identified as a multiple cell tropism pathogen, and its host range includes a vast ...

    Authors: Santiago Rendon-Marin, Renata da Fontoura Budaszewski, Cláudio Wageck Canal and Julian Ruiz-Saenz

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:30

    Content type: Review

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  44. Alternative splicing (AS) is an important mRNA maturation step that allows increased variability and diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. AS is dysregulated in numerous diseases, and its implication in the car...

    Authors: Simon Boudreault, Victoria E. S. Armero, Michelle S. Scott, Jean-Pierre Perreault and Martin Bisaillon

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:29

    Content type: Research

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  45. HCV exhibits a high genetic diversity and is classified into 7 genotypes which are further divided into 86 confirmed subtypes. However, there are multiple isolates with unassigned subtypes. We aimed to amplify...

    Authors: Bo Wang, Luise Krüger, Patrycja Machnowska, Amare Eshetu, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Viviane Bremer, Andrea Hauser, Norbert Bannert and C.-Thomas Bock

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:28

    Content type: Short report

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  46. Recent studies have shown a 13-fold increase of oropharyngeal cancer in the presence of HPV, while α-HPV detection seems to be rare in oral cavity in comparison to anal or cervical district, many novel β and γ...

    Authors: Catia Sias, Leonidas Salichos, Daniele Lapa, Franca Del Nonno, Andrea Baiocchini, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi and Anna Rosa Garbuglia

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:27

    Content type: Research

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  47. Dengue continues to be a major international public health concern. Despite that, there is no clinically approved antiviral for treatment of dengue virus (DENV) infections. In this study, geraniin extracted fr...

    Authors: Siti Aisyah Abdul Ahmad, Uma D. Palanisamy, Joon Joon Khoo, Amreeta Dhanoa and Sharifah Syed Hassan

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:26

    Content type: Research

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  48. Porcine circovirus 3 is a newly described circovirus circulating worldwide. PCV3 may play an etiologic role in different pig diseases. Two different genotypes of PCV3 were described, PCV3a and PCV3b. In order ...

    Authors: Carolin Prinz, Milena Stillfried, Lena Katharina Neubert and Joachim Denner

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:25

    Content type: Research

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  49. As a low pathogenic influenza virus, avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 (H9N2 AIV) often induces high morbidity in association with secondary bacterial infections in chickens or mammals. To explore this phenom...

    Authors: Haoran Lu, Luxuan Zhang, Junfang Xiao, Che Wu, Huanmin Zhang, Yihu Chen, Zhengyong Hu, Wencheng Lin, Qingmei Xie and Hongxin Li

    Citation: Virology Journal 2019 16:24

    Content type: Research

    Published on: