- Open Access
The potential influence of human parainfluenza viruses detected during hospitalization among critically ill patients in Kuwait, 2013–2015
Virology Journal volume 14, Article number: 19 (2017)
The four types of human parainfluenza viruses (PIV) are important causes of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly in children; however, limited information exists about the incidence of PIV in critically ill patients. The aim of this study is to describe the spectrum, incidence and clinical features of PIV-associated infections diagnosed during the hospital stay of patients admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and intensive care unit (ICU) of 5 medical centers across Kuwait.
This was a population-based, retrospective study from 2013 to 2015. Specimens were analyzed by molecular methods. This analysis was performed using the database of Virology Unit, Mubarak Al-Kabeer Hospital. Data from 1510 admitted patients with suspected respiratory viral infections was extracted.
The database contained a total of 39 (2.6%) patients infected with PIV (53.8% male and 46.2% females) and 20 (51.3%) were under 1 year of age. The most frequently isolated type was type 3 (28, 71.8%) followed by type 1 (9, 23.1%). At admission the most common clinical diagnosis was pneumonia in 12 patients (30.8%, p < 0.05) followed by bronchiolitis in 10 patients (25.6%).
PIV plays an important yet unrecognized role in the outcomes of PIUC and ICU patients. Our results contribute to the limited epidemiologic data of PIV in PIUC and ICU in this region.
Viral infections are ubiquitous and are common in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality . The vast majority of scientific articles dealing with infections address bacterial or fungal infections, and viral agents are often disregarded. Despite their prevalence, viral infections are frequently not considered to be of clinical significance among the critically ill patients, unless the patient is immunocompromised. Among immunocompetent critically ill patients, viral infections can lead to a significant morbidity and mortality .
Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) were first discovered in 1950. They are enveloped non-segmented, negative single-stranded RNA viruses. PIV are genetically and antigenically divided into four types: PIV-1, PIV-2, PIV-3 and PIV-4, each with different genetic and antigenic features . PIV are a cause of community-acquired pneumonia in healthy individuals and can infect individuals of any age group [4–6]. The majority of PIV-infected patients are treated in outpatient clinics, yet PIV infections are one of the most common causes of respiratory diseases leading to hospitalization [4, 5, 7]. Among the immunocompromised patients, PIV especially type 3 has been associated with serious outcomes and complications . PIV can also be clinically significant in ICU and PICU patients [9, 10]. However, not much is known about the burden of PIV infections among ICU and PICU patients. Such data are essential because they could shed light on the importance of these infections and could help researchers and public health officials determine the need for new vaccines and effective antiviral drugs. Until now, no specific antiviral drugs or effective vaccine are available despite the progress made in these fields recently [11–13]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of PIV infections on ICU and PICU patients in Kuwait, in addition to defining the clinical features of PIV infections among these patients over a 3-year period.
Patient records from the Virology Unit (VU), Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University Database, were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with viral infections admitted to the PICU & ICU from January 2013 to December 2015. The VU is an academic institution serving five hospitals in Kuwait (Amiri Hospital, Mubarak Al-Kabir Hospital, Sabah Hospital, Farwaniya Hospital, and Adan Hospital).
Database and study population
Only Patients with viral infections were included in this study. Data extracted from the records included demographic characteristics, clinical diagnosis, immune deficiency, and number and types of viruses isolated. As this study was retrospective, it did not require ethical approval. These patients were investigated for bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens to rule out infection and co-infection. No bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens were detected in these patients.
All PIV-infected patients were immunocompetent which was defined as the absence of organ transplantation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), autoimmune disease, leukemia, pancytopenia, lymphoma or under immunosuppressive drug therapy. All patients underwent a respiratory virus panel screening. Respiratory system samples (bronchoalveolar lavage or tracheal aspirate) were collected in disposable mucus extractors (Vygon SA, Écouen, France). Samples were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect 20 respiratory pathogen which include: influenza virus A (Flu A), influenza virus A H1N1 (H1N1), influenza virus B (Flu B), human coronavirus (HCoV)-NL63, -229E, -OC43 and HKU1, PIV-1, -2, -3, -4 human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-A and -B, rhinovirus (HRV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-A and B, adenovirus (AdV), enterovirus (EV), parechovirus (HPeV), human bocavirus (HBoV), using FTD® Respiratory Pathogens kit (Fast-Track Diagnostics Ltd., Sliema, Malta).
Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Viral studies were not taken routinely and were undertaken only on a clinical basis in patients with suspected viral infections. The patients were divided into three groups: 1) individuals with single documented viral infection during their hospitalization (single); 2) those that were diagnosed with double viral infections during their hospitalization (double); and, 3) those that were diagnosed with triple or more viral infections during their hospitalization (triple). The double and triple infections were detected simultaneously from the same clinical sample provided.
Data analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS v20.0; IBM Corp, Armonk, N.Y. USA). Descriptive statistics for continuous variables were compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test. For categorical variables, the χ2 test, the Fisher exact test or the Z test was applied to evaluate the difference between proportions or to assess whether there were any associations between the proportions. A two-tailed probability value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Table 1 shows the demographic characteristics and clinical parameters of 1510 patients admitted to ICU (37.5%) and PICU (62.5%) with viral infections. A total of 39 (2.6%) patients were found to have confirmed PIV infections, with 21 (1.4%) in ICU and 18 (1.2%) in PICU. The most frequently isolated PIV type was type 3 (28, 71.8%) followed by type 1 (9, 23.1%). The least frequently isolated PIV type was type 4 (2, 5.1%), and type 2 was not detected. Single infections were identified in 26 patients (66.6%), double co-infection in 9 patients (23.1%) and triple co-infection in 4 patients (10.3%). For double co-infection category, the most frequently isolated virus with PIV was HRV (n = 6; 15.4%) followed by Flu A, AdV, and RSV (n = 1; 2.3% each). For triple co-infection category, Flu A and HRV were identified in all four patients.
The age of the patients ranged from 4 days to 71 years with a mean of 14.6 ± 23.4 years and Median (Inter-Quartile) is 7 months (2 months–24.5 years) (Table 2). Table 1 shows age grouping of the study population according to sex. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1.
PIV infections were identified in 20 (51.3%) of infants below 1 year of age, 4 (10.3%) below 5 years of age, 7 (18%) patients below 14 years of age, 7 (18%) patients below 59 years of age and 5 (12.8%) ≥59 years of age (Table 3). The most affected age group was infants’ ≤5 months of age 18 (46.2%).
Table 4 shows frequency of PIV types in the 39 ICU and PICU patients in relation to symptoms. The majority of the infections caused by the PIV types affected the lower respiratory tract (35 patients, 89.7%) than the upper respiratory tract (2 patients, 5.1%). Pneumonia was the most frequent reason for hospitalization (12 patients, 30.8%), P < 0.05, followed by bronchiolitis (10 patients, 25.6%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (7 patients, 18%).
The monthly distribution of PIV infections was highest during the period from April to May and November to December. The lowest levels were detected in February and August (Fig. 1). The incidence of PIV infections in ICU patients was highest during the months of April and December and PICU patients during the month of May and November. Infection in ICU patients peaked in April (18.2%) and PICU patients in November (13.6%).
The monthly distribution of PIV infections according to the types isolated is shown in Fig. 2. The incidence of PIV-1 peaked in April (7 patients, 18%), followed by May, November, and December (5 patients, 12.8% each). PIV-3 was present throughout the year except in February and August. The incidence of PIV-3 peaked in April and November (13 patients, 33.3% each), followed by July and December (7 patients, 18% each).
This is a population-based retrospective study aimed at characterizing the impact of PIV infections among infants, children and adults admitted to the PICU and ICU in 5 centers across Kuwait over a 3-year period. This study was performed within five centers to give it a potential strength, which emphasizes on the generalizability of the results for the whole country. Our data highlighted the importance of PIV as a significant cause of respiratory tract infections and disease in ICU and PICU patients which should not be overlooked by both physicians and public health officials. As we found in Kuwait, PIV infections were identified among 2.6% of all ICU and PICU admissions, 1.4% among ICU and 1.2% among PICU patients. Multiple studies from across the world have found that PIV is associated with hospitalization of patients with respiratory tract infections, such as those from Kuwait , Saudi Arabia ; Jordon ; United States [17, 18], China [19, 20], Thailand , Iran , Bangladesh , Kenya , South Korea , Mexico  and Brazil . Although, PIV are considered as a significant causative agents of both upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in infants and young children [3, 12, 27], the importance of these viruses has been underestimated .
Previous studies have described different incidences of PIV infections, but these studies involved different study populations and used different detection techniques. A study from Saudi Arabia, investigated the incidence of PIV in hospitalized infants, children aged up to 10 years only during the winter season by direct immunofluorescence assay documented PIV infections in 15.6% of hospitalized patients . In another study by Peltola et al. , exploring the etiology of croup in hospitalized children, documented PIV-1, in 29.1% of patients. A study from Spain, involving hospitalized children aged up to 14 years with acute respiratory tract infections, PIV infections accounting for 11.8% of the positive cases . In a study from Brazil aiming to define the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children younger than 5 years, PIV infections were detected in 3.81%, ranked third among the most dominant viral agents .
As documented by Oh , we found that children under 5 years of age had greater hospitalization rates, possibly because their respiratory and immune systems are immature, predisposing to severe respiratory tract infections/disease . In this study, the chance of isolating PIV-1, PIV-3, or PIV-4 in PICU patients aged 5 months or younger (46.2%) was three times higher than that in children between 6 months to 4 years of age (15.4%). However, our study showed that 28.2% of PIV-infected ICU patients were older than 30 years.
Mixed viral infections were detected in our study with 33.3% (13/39) of positive cases with co-infections. This rate is higher than those previously described in which co-infection rates ranged from 3 to 20% [31, 33–37]. Earlier studies have described the different incidence of mixed infections probably due to dissimilar study populations and detection techniques. Additional research is essential to address high rates of mixed-infections with other respiratory viruses and to decide if the mixed-infections could result in enhanced severity of PIV infections. In young children, PIV infections are the most common cause of croup, bronchiolitis and pneumonia [6, 38, 39]. In ICU patients, COPD and bronchitis seem to be the most prominent symptoms. PIV, are frequently detected in COPD and bronchitis in the adult population [40–43].
There are four serotypes each with different genetic and antigenic properties, and they vary in clinical picture, incidence, and seasonality [44, 45]. We showed the presence of the three types of PIV infections in Kuwait among ICU and PICU patients, including PIV-4, which was identified for the first time during 2013–2015. PIV-4 has been associated with mild infections [46, 47]. Other studies have shown that it can cause severe illnesses in some settings [48–50]. Though, none of these studies from our region describe the presence of PIV-4 [15, 16, 22]. The incidence of PIV-3 was higher than those of PIV-1 and PIV-4 in this study, as found in other studies [30, 51–53], whereas PIV-2 was not detected. It is documented that PIV-3 is the type most commonly identified in hospitalized patients with pneumonia and bronchiolitis [3, 54].
Outbreaks of respiratory virus infections in countries with meditation or desert climates were documented during the cold season, whereas in tropical countries, they seem to be more associated with the rainy period . The seasonal occurrences of PIV types differ from place to place, an outcome attributed to climatic changes . In a study from Saudi Arabia, Only PIV-3 infection was detected all year round, but epidemics occurred during summer (June–August) . In the USA, biannual patterns were described for PIV-1 and annual peaks for PIV-3 [53, 57]. The seasonal incidence of PIV-1 and PIV-3 among critically ill patients in Kuwait occurred twice-a-year during autumn (April to May) and winter (November to December), and once-a-year during winter (January to December) for PIV-4 (Fig. 2).
This study highlighted the importance of PIV as a causative agent of respiratory tract infection in critically ill patients, mainly in developing countries, where few data concerning respiratory viruses are available. Further studies may better define the burden of PIV infections and the need for effective measures for prevention and treatment strategies.
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Flu A:
Influenza A virus
Human immunodeficiency virus
Incentive Care Unit
Lower respiratory tract infections
Pediatric intensive care unit
Respiratory syncytial virus
Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Upper respiratory tract infections
Ghani AS, Morrow BM, Hardie DR, Argent AC. An investigation into the prevalence and outcome of patients admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit with viral respiratory tract infections in Cape Town, South Africa. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13:e275–81. doi:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3182417848.
Leung TF, Lam DS, Miu TY, Hon KL, Chau CS, Ku SW, Lee RS, Chow PY, Chiu WK, Ng DK, Hong Kong Society of Paediatric Respirology (HKSPR) RSV Concern Group. Epidemiology and risk factors for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections requiring pediatric intensive care admission in Hong Kong children. Infection. 2014;42:343–50.
Henrickson KJ. Parainfluenza viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:242–64.
Marx A, Gary Jr HE, Marston BJ, Erdman DD, Bremen RF, Török TJ, Plouffe JF, File Jr TM, Anderson LJ. Parainfluenza virus infection among adults hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29:134–40.
Lukšić I, Kearns PK, Scott F, Rudan I, Campbell H, Nair H. Viral etiology of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age–a systematic review and meta-analysis. Croat Med. 2013;J54:122–34.
Ruuskanen O, Lahti E, Jennings LC, Murdoch DR. Viral pneumonia. Lancet. 2011;377:1264–75.
Bicer S, Giray T, Çöl D, Erdağ GC, Vitrinel A, Gürol Y, Çelik G, Kaspar C, Küçük O. Virological and clinical characterizations of respiratory infections in hospitalized children. Ital J Pediatr. 2013;39:e22. doi:10.1186/1824-7288-39-22.
Srinivasan A, Wang C, Yang J, Inaba H, Jerry LS, Wing H, Hayden RT. Parainfluenza Virus Infections in Children with Hematologic Malignancies. Pediatr Infect Dis. 2011;J30:855–9.
Choi SH, Hong SB, Ko GB, Lee Y, Park HJ, Park SY, Moon SM, Cho OH, Park KH, ChongYP KSH, Huh JW, Sung H, Do KH, Lee SO, Kim MN, Jeong JY, Lim CM, Kim YS, Woo JH, Koh Y. Viral infection in patients with severe pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:325–32.
Wiemken T, Peyrani P, Bryant K, Kelley RR, Summers gill J, Arnold F, Carrico R, McKinney WP, Jonson C, Carrico K, Ramirez J. Incidence of respiratory viruses in patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit: results from the Severe Influenza Pneumonia Surveillance (SIPS) project. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:705–10.
Gomez M, Mufson MA, Dubovsky F, Knightly C, Zeng W, Losonsky G. Phase-I study MEDI-534, of a live, attenuated intranasal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza-3 virus in seropositive children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;28:655–8.
Sato M, Wright PF. Current status of vaccines for parainfluenza virus infections. Pediatr Infect Dis. 2008;J27:S123–5.
Schmidt AC, Schaap-Nutt A, Bartlett EJ, Schomacker H, Boonyaratanakornkit J, Karron RA, Collins PL. Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2011;5:515–26.
Khadadah M, Essa S, Higazi Z, Behbehani N, Al-Nakib W. Respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinoviruses are the major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in Kuwait. J Med Virol. 2010;8:1462–7.
Meqdam MM, Subaih SH, Thwiny IR. Rapid detection and clinical features of influenza and parainfluenza in infants and young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory illnesses. J Trop Pediatr. 2005;51:160–5.
Nasarallh G, Meqdam MM, Al-Shurman A. Prevalence of parainfluenza and influenza viruses among Jordanian children with upper respiratory tract infection. Saudi Med J. 2000;21:841–5.
Counihan ME, Shay DK, Holman RC, Lowther SA, Anderson LJ. Human parainfluenza virus-associated hospitalizations among children less than five years of age in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis. 2001;J20:646–53.
Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Iwane MK, Staat MA, Curns AT, Erdman DD, Szilagyi PG. Parainfluenza virus infection of young children: estimates of the population-based burden of hospitalization. J Pediatr. 2009;154:694–9.
Liu WK, Liu Q, Chen DH, Liang HX, Chen XK, Huang WB, Qin S, Yang ZF, Zhou R. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:28. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-13-28.
Feng L, Li Z, Zhao S, Nair H, Lai S, Xu W, Li M, Wu J, Ren L, Liu W, Yuan Z, Chen Y, Wang X, Zhao Z, Zhang H, Li F, Ye X, Li S, Feikin D, Yu H, Yang W. Viral etiologies of hospitalized acute lower respiratory infection patients in China, 2009–2013. PLoS One. 2014;9:e99419. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099419.
Morgan OW, Chittaganpitch M, Clague B, Chantra S, Sanasuttipun W, Prapasiri P, Naorat S, Laosirithavorn Y, Peret TCT, Erdman DD, Baggett HC, Olsen SJ, Fry AM. Hospitalization due to human parainfluenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract illness in rural Thailand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:280–5.
Shatizadeh S, Yavarian J, Rezaie F, Mahmoodi M, Naseri M, Azad TM. Epidemiological and clinical evaluation of children with respiratory virus infections. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2014;28:1–6.
Nasreen S, Luby SP, Brooks WA, Homaira N, Al Mamun A, Bhuiyan MU, Rahman M, Ahmed D, Abedin J, Rahman M, Alamgir ASM, Fry AM, Streatfield PK, Rahman A, Bresee J, Widdowson MA, Azziz-Baumgartner E. Population-based incidence of severe acute respiratory virus infections among children aged <5 years in rural Bangladesh, 2010. PLoS One. 2014;9:e89978. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089978.
Feikin DR, Njenga MK, Bigogo G, Aura B, Aol G, Audi A, Jagero G, Muluare PO, Gikunju S, Nderitu L, Balish A, Winchell J, Schneider E, Erdman D, Oberste MS, Katz MA, Breiman RF. Etiology and incidence of viral and bacterial acute respiratory illness among older children and adults in rural western Kenya, 2007–2010. PLoS One. 2012;7:e43656. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043656.
Noyola DE, Arteaga-Dominguez G. Contribution of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza and parainfluenza viruses to acute respiratory infections in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:1049–52.
de Arruda E, Hayden FG, McAuliffe JF, De Sousa MA, Mota SB, McAuliffe MI, Geist FC, Carvalho EP, Fernandes MC, Guerrant RL, Gwaltney Jr JM. Acute respiratory viral infections in ambulatory children of urban northeast Brazil. J Infect Dis. 1991;164:252–8.
Teo WY, Rajadurai VS, Sriram B. Morbidity of parainfluenza 3 outbreak in preterm infants in a neonatal unit. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2010;39:837–46.
Yang HT, Jiang Q, Zhou X, Bai MQ, Si HL, Wang XJ, Lu Y, Zhao H, He HB, He CQ. Identification of a natural human serotype 3 parainfluenza virus. Virol J. 2011;8:58. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-8-58.
Peltola V, Heikkinen T, Ruuskanen O. Clinical courses of croup caused by influenza and parainfluenza viruses. Pediatr Infect Dis. 2002;J21:76–8.
Calvo C, Garcia-Garcia ML, Ambrona P, Rico M, Pozo F, Del Mar Molinero M, Pérez-Breña P, Casas I. The burden of infections by parainfluenza virus in hospitalized children in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:792–4.
Fé MMM, Monteiro AJ, Moura FE. Parainfluenza virus infections in a tropical city: clinical and epidemiological aspects. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12:192–7.
Oh JW. Respiratory viral infections and early asthma in childhood. Allergol Int. 2006;55:369–72.
Cai XY, Lu XD, Lin GY, Cai ZW, Lin C, Chen PZ, Zheng YL, Zhou XH, Feng XY, Xiao ZX. Monitoring of viral pathogens in pediatric intensive care unit and analysis of clinical significance. Chin J Pediatr. 2013;51:453–9.
Cilla G, Onate E, Perez-Yarza EG, Montes M, Vicente D, Perez-Trallero E. Viruses in community-acquired pneumonia in children aged less than 3 years old: High rate of viral coinfection. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1843–9.
Essa S, Owayed A, Altawalah H, Khadadah M, Behbehani N, Al-Nakib W. Mixed Viral Infections Circulating in Hospitalized Patients with Respiratory Tract Infections in Kuwait. Adv Virol. 2015;2015:e714062. doi:10.1155/2015/714062.
Fabbiani M, Terrosi C, Martorelli B, Valentini M, Bernini L, Cellesi C, Cusi MG. Epidemiological and clinical study of viral respiratory tract infections in children from Italy. J Med Virol. 2009;81:750–6.
Pierangeli A, Gentile M, Di Marco P, Pagnotti P, Scagnolari C, Trombetti S, Lo Russo L, Tromba V, Moretti C, Midulla F, Antonelli G. Detection and typing by molecular techniques of respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute respiratory infection in Rome, Italy. J Med Virol. 2007;79:463–8.
Johnson D. Croup. BMJ Clin Evid. 2009;2009. ISSN: 17528526.
Pavia AT. Viral infections of the lower respiratory tract: old viruses, new viruses, and the role of diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52 suppl 4:S284–9.
Greenberg SB, Allen M, Wilson J, Atmar RL. Respiratory viral infections in adults with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:167–73.
Gump DW, Phillips CA, Forsyth BR, McIntosh K, Lamborn KR, Stouch. WHO Role of infection in chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1976;113:465–74.
Kurai D, Saraya T, Ishii H, Takizawa H. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD. Front Microbiol. 2013;4(Issue). OCT. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00293.
Smith CB, Golden CA, Kanner RE, Renzetti Jr AD. Association of viral and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections with acute respiratory illness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1980;12:225–32.
Heilman CA. From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases the World Health Organization. Respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza viruses. J Infect Dis. 1990;161:402–6.
Henderson FW. Pulmonary infections with respiratory syncytial virus and the parainfluenza viruses. Semin Respir Infect. 1987;2:112–21.
Collins PL, Chanock RM, McIntosh K. Parainfluenza viruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1996. p. 1205–10.
Killgore GE, Dowdle WR. Antigenic characterization of parainfluenza 4A and 4B by the hemagglutination-inhibition test and distribution of HI antibody in human sera. Am J Epidemiol. 1970;91:308–16.
Aguilar JC, Pérez-Breña MP, García ML, Cruz N, Erdman DD, Echevarría JE. Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1191–5.
García GML, Aguilar RJ, Echeverría MJE, Calvo RC, Pinto FI, Ordobás GM, Roman Riechmann E, Pérez Breña P. Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections. An Esp Pediatr. 2002;57:116–20.
Miall F, Rye A, Fraser M, Hunter A, Snowden JA. Human parainfluenza type 4 infections: a case report highlighting pathogenicity and difficulties in rapid diagnosis in the post-transplant setting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:541–2.
Hazlett DT, Bell TM, Tukei PM, Ademba GR, Ochieng WO, Magana JM, Gathara GW, Wafula EM, Pamba A, Ndinya-Achola JO. Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children in Nairobi, Kenya. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 1988;39(6):632–40.
Tsai HP, Kuo PH, Liu CC, Wang JR. Respiratory viral infections among pediatric inpatients and outpatients in Taiwan from 1997 to 1999. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:111–8.
Weinberg GA. Parainfluenza viruses: an underappreciated cause of pediatric respiratory morbidity. Pediatr Infect Dis. 2006;J25:447–8.
Reed G, Jewett PH, Thompson J, Tollefson S, Wright PF. Epidemiology and clinical impact of parainfluenza virus infections in otherwise healthy infants and young children <5 years old. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:807–13.
Pecchinia R, Berezina EN, Souzab MC, Vaz-de-Limab L, Satob N, Salgadob M, Ueda M, Passos SD, Rangel R, Catebelota A. Parainfluenza virus as a cause of acute respiratory infection in hospitalized children. Braz J Infect Dis. 2015;19:358–62.
Bakir TMF, Halawani MB, Ramia S. Viral aetiology and epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized Saudi children. J Trop Pediatr. 1998;44:100–3.
Hall CB. Respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:1917–28.
The authors are very thankful to all the associated personnel in any reference that contributed in/for the purpose of this research.
This research holds no conflict of interest and is not funded through any source.
Availability of data and materials
All authors contributed equally at all stages of the research conduction and development. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
About this article
Cite this article
Essa, S., Al-tawalah, H., AlShamali, S. et al. The potential influence of human parainfluenza viruses detected during hospitalization among critically ill patients in Kuwait, 2013–2015. Virol J 14, 19 (2017) doi:10.1186/s12985-017-0681-0
- Parainfluenza viruses
- Intensive Care Unit (ICU)
- Pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)