Isolation and full-genome sequencing of Seneca Valley virus in piglets from China, 2016
- Suhong Qian†1, 2,
- Wenchun Fan†1, 2,
- Ping Qian1, 2, 3,
- Huanchun Chen1, 2, 3 and
- Xiangmin Li1, 2, 3Email author
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 12 July 2016
Accepted: 3 October 2016
Published: 19 October 2016
Seneca valley virus (SVV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is a small non-enveloped RNA virus, that is linked to porcine idiopathic vesicular disease (PIVD). SVV infection in swine results in vesicular disease and epidemic transient neonatal losses (ETNL). The first case of SVV infection was reported in Guangdong, South China in 2015.
We isolated and characterized an SVV HB-CH-2016 strain from vesicular lesion tissue specimens from piglets with PIVD in Hubei, Central China. The complete genome sequence of SVV HB-CH-2016 strain shares high nucleotide identities (94 to 99 %) with all previously reported SVV genomes, moreover, the polyprotein accounts for 98–99 % of amino acid sequence identity. Therefore, the SVV HB-CH-2016 strain is closely related to the SVV CH-01-2015 strain.
The case reported in this paper is the second SVV infection case in China. Our findings demonstrate that sporadic SVV infection has occurred in Central China, and therefore, active surveillance on the swine population is important. Moreover, veterinarians must pay attention to this vesicular disease and reinforce biosecurity measures and prevent SVV spread.
Seneca valley virus (SVV), a small, non-enveloped virus with a single-stranded and positive-sense RNA that 7.2 kb long, belongs to the Senecavirus genus of the family Picornavirus . Its genome forms a single, long open-reading frame (ORF) flanked by 5′-and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs). The translation of the SVV genome by host cellular machinery produces a polyprotein with 2181 amino acids (aa). The polyprotein is cleaved by viral and cellular proteases to produce 12 mature proteins in an order from 5′ to 3′ is L protein (L)-1A-1B-1C-1D-2A-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D . SVV has been linked to PIVD outbreaks of in many countries, including Canada, the Unites States, Australia, New Zealand, Italy and Brazil [2–9]. In the summer of 2015, the first case of SVV infection was reported in swine farms in Guangdong, South China . In this study, we isolated and characterized SVV from a piglet with an idiopathic vesicular disease but not infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV).
In March 2016, an outbreak of vesicular disease occurred among piglets in a swine farm in Hubei province. To determine etiology, vesicular lesion swab specimens were collected and detected using VSV, FMDV and SVDV specific primers. Total RNA from the specimens was isolated using the TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY, USA) and 1.0 μg of total RNA was reverse-transcribed using a First Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (TOYOBO, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PCR amplification was performed using various virus-specific primers (listed in Additional file 1: Table S1). Virus isolation was carried out in a BHK-21 cell culture system from the SVV-positive specimens and labeled HB-CH-2016. Mouse anti-SVV VP1 polyclonal antibody was prepared in our lab using recombinant SVV VP1 protein. Identification of SVV BH-CH-2016 using immunofluorescence assay (IFA), Western blot analysis, and plaque assay was carried out as described previously . Complete genome-sequencing was performed using 8 pairs of overlapping primers (Additional file 1: Table S1) based on the SVV CH-01-2015 strain (GenBank accession number:KT321458). The phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method, with 1000 bootstrap replicates, using MEGA6.0 software.
SVV infection in piglets cuases neonatal losses and the mortality rate of 1 ~ 4-day-old pigs is approximately 30 ~ 70 % [8, 11]. Currently, swine vesicular disease outbreaks are linked to SVV, and swine SVV infection has been reported in Canada, the United States, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Italy. Moreover, the first case of SVV infection has been reported in South China in 2015 , and sporadichave been observed in Hubei province in March 2016, Central China. Therefore, active surveillance for SVV in swine populations is important and veterinarians must be alert to this vesicular disease in China. As an emerging virus, SVV has been poorly understood, specifically with regard to its transmission, pathogenesis and immunobiology. In response, investigating the relationship between evolutionary dynamics, pathogenesis and epidemiological features of SVV infection, is crucial in facilitating the development of antiviral strategies and offering effective control measures against SVV infection.
This work was supported by the National key Research Program of China (2016YFD0501500) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2662016PY003, 2662016PY004).
SQ and WF performed the experiments. SQ and WF wrote the manuscript. SQ, WF and HC analyzed the data. PQ and XL designed the experiments. All authors reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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