Development of a SYBR green real-time PCR method for rapid detection of sheep pox virus
© Tian et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 30 November 2011
Accepted: 12 October 2012
Published: 27 November 2012
In this study, we developed a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for the detection of sheep pox virus using a plasmid construct carrying one of the highly conserved genes encoding the virion envelope protein (P32) as a template.
The method was demonstrated to be highly sensitive, allowing a precise SPV DNA quantitation over a range of nine orders of magnitude (from 101 to 109 copies of standard DNA). Then, specimens from SPV suspected sheep were analyzed by conventional gel-based PCR, real-time PCR and sequence analysis.
Comparison between these different techniques revealed that real-time PCR is more sensitive than conventional gel-based PCR, allowing detection low viral titers of SPV in infected sheep.
Sheep pox (SP) is malignant diseases of small ruminants causing heavy economic loss in the endemic countries [1, 2]. The causative agents, sheep pox and goat pox viruses, belong to the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae[3, 4]. The diseases are endemic in India, Bangladesh, throughout the near and middle east, northern and central Africa .
Prompt detection of sheep pox virus (SPV) in the field samples is important for effective SPV control, thereby reducing the potentially serious economic damage which can result from an outbreak . Because of the isolation of virus in cell cultures is technically difficult and time-consuming, so it is not a suitable routine diagnostic tool. Therefore, A rapid, specific and sensitive assays are required for the diagnosis of SPV. The aims of this study were to develop a rapid and sensitive method, able to detect a wide range of field samples of SPV in a feasible way in a short time.
Results and discussion
SYBR green real-time PCR amplification was carried out with Mx3005P Real-Time PCR System (Agilent Stratagene, USA) and the data were analyzed with MxProTM QPCR System (version 4.10). Duplicates of the SPV standard dilutions and DNA templates were simultaneously subjected to real-time analysis. After 40 amplification cycles, a melting analysis was carried out to verify the correct product by its specific melting temperature (Tm). The optimal annealing temperature was 57 °C, whereas optimal primer concentrations were 0.4μM. The results were analyzed using MxProTM QPCR Software and Tm values were taken to verify the specificities of the PCR products.
To assess the use of the real-time PCR for the detection of viral DNA in the clinical samples. Seven of these 26 samples were found to be positive by conventional PCR, ten of 26 samples were found to be positive by real-time PCR. All samples identified positive by conventional PCR and real-time PCR were confirmed to be SPV by sequence analysis.
Real-time PCR assays have been widely utilized for early diagnosis of many other animal viral diseases [7, 8]. In this study a real-time PCR assay was developed and evaluated for detection of SPV in field samples. The assay described in this report generates complete result in 1.5 h and can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool.
To improve the sensitivity of the method described it was necessary to optimize the conditions of primers and annealing temperature. With these parameters, the detection of the plasmid P32 could be up to a 10−8 dilution. This method does not require post-PCR manipulation because the melt curve data allow to verifying amplification products, thus diminishing the potential contamination risk. No primer–dimers were observed in the amplification products when analysed by melting curve. Under the above conditions, it was possible to establish a sensitivity of 10 copy numbers per reaction mixture.
Considering the prevalence and economic impact of SPV, a simple, cost-effective, sensitive and rapid diagnostic technique is very important. The SYBR green real-time PCR assay described in this study has all these attributes. This technique has applications in routine diagnostics in common laboratories.
Materials and methods
In this study, 26 field samples (scars) were collected from SPV suspected animals during 2009 in China during general surveillance. Samples were placed at −70°C for further use. The DNA of all field samples was extracted using QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (Cat. No.51306, Qiagen).
Oligonucleotide primers designed for SPV amplification by conventional gel-based PCR and real-time PCR
This work was sponsored by National Modern Meat Caprine Industrial Technology System (nycytx-39).
- Afshar A, Bundza A, Myers DJ, Dulac GC, Thomas FC: Sheep pox: experimental studies with a West African isolate. Can Vet J 1986, 27: 301-306.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bhanuprakash V, Indrani BK, Hosamani M, Singh RK: The current status of sheep pox disease. Comparative Immunology. Micr Infect Dis 2006, 29: 27-60.Google Scholar
- Babiuk S, Bowden TR, Parkyn G, Dalman B, Manning L, Neufeld J, Embury-Hyatt C, Copps J, Boyle DB: Quantification of lumpy skin disease virus following experimental infection in cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis 2008, 55: 299-307. 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2008.01024.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tuppurainen ES, Venter EH, Coetzer JA: The detection of lumpy skin disease virus in samples of experimentally infected cattle using different diagnostic techniques. J Vet Res 2005, 72: 153-164.Google Scholar
- Babiuk S, Bowden TR, Boyle DB, Wallace DB, Kitching RP: Capripoxviruses: an emerging worldwide threat to sheep, goats and cattle. Transbound Emerg Dis 2008, 55: 263-272. 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2008.01043.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mangana-Vougiouka O, Markoulatos P, Koptopoulos G, Nomikou K, Bakandritsos N, Papadopoulos P: Sheep poxvirus identification from clinical specimens by PCR, cell culture, immunofluorescence and agar gel immunoprecipitation assay. Mol Cell Probe 2000, 14: 305-310. 10.1006/mcpr.2000.0319View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Agüero M, Sánchez A, San Miguel E, Gómez-Tejedor C, Jiménez-Clavero MA: A real-time TaqMan PCR method for neuraminidase type 1 (N1) gene detection of H5N1 Eurasian strains of avian influenza virus. Avian Dis 2007,51(1 Suppl):378-381.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shaw AE, Reid SM, Ebert K, Hutchings GH, Ferris NP, King DP: Implementation of a one-step real-time PCR protocol for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease. J Virol Methods 2007,143(1):81-85. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2007.02.009PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.