- Short report
- Open Access
Elevated dietary zinc oxide levels do not have a substantial effect on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PPRSV) vaccination and infection
© Chai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 8 February 2014
- Accepted: 30 July 2014
- Published: 8 August 2014
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the most important infectious agents for the swine industry worldwide. Zinc (Zn) salts, which are widely used as a dietary supplement in swine nutrition, have shown antiviral effects in vitro as well as in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary zinc oxide supplementation on vaccination and challenge infection with PRRSV.
The clinical course of PRRS and the success of vaccination with an experimental inactivated vaccine were compared between animals receiving a conventional diet (50 ppm Zn, control group) and diets supplemented with Zn oxide (ZnO) at final Zn concentrations of 150 or 2,500 ppm. Pigs receiving higher dietary Zn levels showed a tendency towards higher neutralizing antibody levels after infection, while dietary Zn levels did not substantially influence the number of antiviral IFN-gamma secreting cells (IFN-gamma-SC) or percentages of blood immune cell subsets after infection. Finally, feeding higher dietary Zn levels reduced neither clinical symptoms nor viral loads.
Our results suggest that higher levels of dietary ZnO do not have the potential to stimulate or modulate systemic immune responses after vaccination and heterologous PRRSV infection to an extent that could improve the clinical and virological outcome.
- Inactivated vaccine
- Dietary zinc oxide
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases worldwide. Efficient PRRS virus (PRRSV) vaccines would be invaluable in minimizing the clinical and economic impact of PRRSV infections, but currently safe and effective vaccines which protect against a wide variety of strains are not available.
Zinc (Zn) ion salts exhibit a broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a variety of viruses in vitro, including the animal viruses equine arteritis virus and transmissible gastroenteritis virus[3, 4]. In the European Union standard dietary Zn levels in feedingstuffs are limited to 150 ppm due to environmental reasons. However, in other countries high levels of in-feed Zn oxide (ZnO, 2,000-3,000 ppm) may be added to the diet of pigs during a restricted period following weaning to prevent post-weaning diarrhea as high levels of ZnO have been proven to conserve the intestinal flora during the critical period following the change of diet that place at weaning. Despite this effect, the exact mechanisms of ZnO action remain uncertain, and the local or systemic effects of ZnO against specific viral pathogens also remain largely unknown.
We evaluated the systemic effects of different Zn levels added to a conventional diet containing 50 ppm Zn (Znlow, control group) against PRRSV. Two other groups were fed the diet supplemented with ZnO at final concentrations of 150 ppm Zn (Znmed), or 2,500 ppm Zn (Znhigh). Half of the animals received a single vaccination with an experimental UV-inactivated type I PRRSV (Lelystad virus; LV), since it was shown that a similar vaccination with such a virus in combination with a suitable adjuvant could strongly prime the virus-neutralizing (VN) response and reduce duration of viremia after homologous challenge. In contrast to Vanhee et al., we chose a single-vaccination approach and challenge-infected the animals with a heterologous type I PRRSV (95,38% sequence identity for the envelope glycoprotein GP5, which bears a major neutralizing epitope) in order test the influence of elevated Zn levels on an suboptimal antigen stimulus and on cross-protection.
The study was approved by the local animal welfare authority (Landesamt für Gesundheit und Soziales, Berlin, Germany) under the registration number G 0116/12. German Landrace piglets (n = 72) of both sexes from a PRRSV-free herd were weaned at the age of 28 days, moved to a biosafety level 2 experimental facility (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Berlin, Germany), and randomly allocated to six pens (n = 12 per pen). Piglets were assigned to three different diets (2 pens per diet). At the age of 63 days, the animals receiving the Znhigh diet were switched to the Znmed diet, in order to avoid toxic effects of Zn. One week after commencing the different diets, one pen per diet was chosen randomly and the animals were vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated LV (accession M96262; kindly provided by Prof. H. Nauwynck (Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium)). Four weeks after vaccination, at the age of 63 days, all pigs were challenged with PRRSV field strain CReSA 3267 (accession JF276435; kindly provided by Prof. J. Segalés and Prof. E. Mateu (CReSA, Barcelona, Spain). Animals were infected by intranasal application of 1 ml of virus suspension with a titer of 5 × 106 TCID50/ml to each nostril using a spray nebulizer.
Pigs were monitored daily for the presence of clinical signs and body weights were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly after vaccination and at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days post infection (dpi). Nasal swabs were taken on the same dpi as blood samples for quantification of virus shedding. All pigs were necropsied on day 35 pi. Lung and lymphoid tissues were evaluated by visual inspection for macroscopic lesions, and samples from lungs, lymph nodes, tonsils, and spleen were taken and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −70°C.
For virological analysis, serum samples (4, 7, 14, 21, 28 dpi), nasal swabs (4, 7, 14 dpi), and tonsil, lung and tracheobronchial lymph node samples (35 dpi) were examined by qPCR to determine PRRSV copy numbers. RNA extraction was performed using a viral RNA/DNA purification kit (Stratec) applying 200 μl of serum or 10 mg of tissue each. RNA yields and quality were determined with a NanoDrop® ND-100 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies). Reverse transcription (RT) was performed using the DyNAmo™ cDNA Synthesis Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Viral loads were quantified using a TaqMan fluorescent probe-based real-time qPCR assay in an iCycler iQ™5 detection system (Bio-Rad) with primers described elsewhere.
PRRSV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA (Ingezim PRRS DR, Ingenasa) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. VN antibodies against PRRSV were quantified by a viral neutralization test as previously described. Neutralization of PRRSV strain CReSA 3267 was examined using PRRSV GP5 specific monoclonal antibody 3H4 (Ingenasa) and Alexa Fluor™ 488 conjugated anti-mouse IgG (H + L) secondary antibody (Invitrogen).
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated using density centrifugation through a Ficoll gradient (LSM1077, PAA Laboratories). Samples were treated with erythrocyte lysis buffer for 5 min on ice, PBMC were washed with 10 ml of PBS with 0.2% BSA and centrifuged for 15 min at 700 × g at 4°C. In all samples, PBMC viability was confirmed using standard procedures.
The cell-mediated PRRSV-specific immune response was measured by using ELISpot for the enumeration of IFN-gamma-SC in PBMC (Mabtech). In order to compare homologous and heterologous responses, PBMC were stimulated in parallel (2.5 × 105 PBMC/well, 3 wells per pig and stimulus) with CReSA 3267 or LV at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. Unstimulated and PHA-stimulated cells (10 μg/ml) were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. IFN-gamma-SC numbers were counted using an ELISpot Reader System (A.EL.VIS GmbH).
Flow cytometry analysis was performed as described before using a BD FACSCanto™ flow cytometer (BD Biosciences). Data were analyzed with FlowJo™ software (TreeStar).
The generation of neutralizing antibodies is delayed in PRRSV infection and usually appears three to four weeks after infection. Accordingly, in our study virus neutralizing VN antibodies were not detectable until 28 dpi in the serum. A single-vaccination with an inactivated LV did not lead to an earlier induction of VN antibodies, but vaccinated groups developed higher (P = 0.045) VN antibody titers than their non-vaccinated counterparts at 35 dpi (Figure 3C, D). A tendency towards higher VN antibody levels was evident in pigs receiving higher levels of Zn (Znmed) at 28 dpi. This tendency continued to 35 dpi in both Znmed and Znhigh groups. Thus, the possibility remains that animals receiving higher dietary Zn levels might be better protected against reinfection with PRRSV.
The number of IFN-gamma-SC at 35 dpi revealed no differences after homologous or heterologous re-stimulation (Additional file1). Flow cytometry analysis of PBMC phenotypes was performed weekly from day 0 to day 35 post infection. Single vaccination only delayed but not prevented the PRRSV-induced decrease of CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ T cell populations, which are important for viral clearance. We found no sustained effect of dietary Zn levels on any of the analysed cell subsets (Additional file2).
Necropsies at 35 dpi revealed no gross lung lesions and lymphoid hyperplasia in tonsils, lymph nodes or spleen in any of the pigs.
Overall, the study shows that challenge infection with a wild-type PRRSV without additional environmental and social stress and the impact of secondary infections results in relatively mild clinical signs. Under these conditions, elevated dietary Zn levels could not provide enhanced protection against infection with a type I PRRSV field strain and could not improve efficacy after a single-vaccination with a heterologous inactivated vaccine.
Availability of supporting data
The data sets supporting the results of this article are included within the article (and its additional files).
The authors would like to acknowledge the animal welfare officer M. Ladwig and all animal technicians supervised by Dr. S. Banneke at Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung for their engagement. We further acknowledge E. Luge for his excellent technical assistance. We thank Dr. S. Kreuzer, Züchtungsbiologie und molekulare Genetik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, for helping with the flow cytometry data analysis and Prof. M. Schmidt, Institut für Immunologie, Freie Universität Berlin, for helpful comments about the experimental design. We also thank B. Esch, Institut für Virologie, Freie Universität Berlin for expert technical assistance. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through grant SFB 852/1.
- Murtaugh MP, Genzow M: Immunological solutions for treatment and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Vaccine 2011, 29: 8192-8204.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kimman TG, Cornelissen LA, Moormann RJ, Rebel JM, Stockhofe-Zurwieden N: Challenges for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccinology. Vaccine 2009, 27: 3704-3718.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- te Velthuis AJ, van den Worm SH, Sims AC, Baric RS, Snijder EJ, van Hemert MJ: Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture. PLoS Pathog 2010, 6: e1001176.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wei Z, Burwinkel M, Palissa C, Ephraim E, Schmidt MF: Antiviral activity of zinc salts against transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro. Vet Microbiol 2012, 160: 468-472.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Molist F, Hermes RG, de Segura AG, Martin-Orue SM, Gasa J, Manzanilla EG, Perez JF: Effect and interaction between wheat bran and zinc oxide on productive performance and intestinal health in post-weaning piglets. Br J Nutr 2011, 105: 1592-1600.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jensen-Waern M, Melin L, Lindberg R, Johannisson A, Petersson L, Wallgren P: Dietary zinc oxide in weaned pigs—effects on perfor- mance, tissue concentrations, morphology, neutrophil functions and fecal microflora. Res Vet Sci 1998, 64: 225-231.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vanhee M, Delputte PL, Delrue I, Geldhof MF, Nauwynck HJ: Development of an experimental inactivated PRRSV vaccine that induces virus-neutralizing antibodies. Vet Res 2009, 40: 63.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kleiboeker SB, Schommer SK, Sang-Myeong L, Watkins S, Chittick W, Polson D: Simultaneous detection of North American and European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. J Vet Diagn Invest 2005, 17: 165-170.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Patterson R, Dodson K, Murtaugh M, Torrelles JB, Schlesinger LS, Renukaradhya GJ: Cross-protective immunity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by intranasal delivery of a live virus vaccine with a potent adjuvant. Vaccine 2011, 29: 4058-4066.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang Z, Burwinkel M, Chai W, Lange E, Blohm U, Breithaupt A, Hoffmann B, Twardziok S, Rieger J, Janczyk P, Pieper R, Osterrieder N: Dietary Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 and zinc oxide stimulate immune reactions to trivalent influenza vaccination in pigs but do not affect virological response upon challenge infection. PLoS One 2014, 9: e87007.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Díaz I, Gimeno M, Darwich L, Navarro N, Kuzemtseva L, López S, Galindo I, Segalés J, Martín M, Pujols J, Mateu E: Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Vet Res 2012, 43: 30.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mateu E, Díaz I: The challenge of PRRS immunology. Vet J 2008, 177: 345-351.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Linhares D, Murtaugh MP, Renukaradhya GJ: Evaluation of immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs during early stage of infection under farm conditions. Vir J 2012, 9: 45.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.