Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in sera of HIV-1-positive patients
© Fukumoto et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 12 November 2012
Accepted: 6 March 2013
Published: 13 March 2013
Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human polyomavirus-6 (HPyV6), and human polyomavirus-7 (HPyV7) were identified as viruses shed from the skin. Serological analysis revealed that these viruses are common among the general population. However, there is little information about the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the sera and tissues of immunocompromised individuals. The aims of this study are to know if immune status affects the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the serum, and to reveal the presence of these viruses in diseased tissues of unknown etiology.
Sera from HIV-1-positive and -negative patients were examined by real-time PCR and nested PCR detecting MCPyV, HPyV6 and HPyV7. In addition, diseased tissue samples of unknown etiology were examined.
Nine out of 23 serum samples (39.1%) from HIV-1-positive patients who had not received anti-retroviral therapy were positive for MCPyV, which is significantly higher than HIV-1-negative patients (6/110, 5.5%, P < 0.01, Chi-square test). MCPyV DNA was detected in tissue samples of Merkel cell carcinoma (22/30 [73%]), encephalitis (4/19 [21%]), pneumonia (3/17 [18%]), and myocarditis (8/14 [57%]). With the exception of Merkel cell carcinoma samples, MCPyV-positive tissues showed low copy numbers of MCPyV DNA by real-time PCR and no expression of the MCPyV large T antigen by immunohistochemistry. HPyV6 and HPyV7 were rarely detected in serum and tissue samples.
These results suggest that MCPyV viremia is associated with host immunity, and that circulation of HPyV6 and HPyV7 in the serum is rare.
KeywordsMerkel cell polyomavirus Human polyomavirus HPyV6 HPyV7 Real-time PCR HIV-1
Polyomavirus is a genus of non-enveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 5 kb. To date, 9 polyomaviruses have been discovered in humans: BK virus, JC virus, KI virus, WU virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), human polyomavirus-6 and 7 (HPyV6 and HPyV7), trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus, and HPyV9.
MCPyV is the fifth human polyomavirus. It was identified in a patient with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) by using digital transcriptome subtraction. MCC is a rare but aggressive neuroendocrine skin tumor, with approximately 80% of cases positive for MCPyV[9–22]. Serological tests revealed that the majority of adults are seropositive for MCPyV, with seroprevalence to the MCPyV VP1 capsid protein ranging from 46% to 88% in the general population, indicating high MCPyV prevalence among the general population[6, 23–25]. A recent study revealed the serological evidence of the MCPyV primary infection in childhood. MCPyV is detected not only in MCC tissues but also in several tissues including skin, oral cavity, liver, colon, lung, kidney, and saliva of patients without MCC, suggesting MCPyV is widespread in the human body[16, 27]. In addition, a very high detection rate (about 90%) was reported in samples of environmental surfaces in contact with human skin by PCR, suggesting shedding of MCPyV from the skin. However, detail of virus titer in the blood is unknown. It is reported that MCPyV DNA was not detected by PCR in sera from 57 immunocompetent patients. Another PCR study demonstrated that 3 (15%) of 20 immunosuppressed patients were positive for MCPyV DNA in the serum.
In a recent study, HPyV6 and HPyV7 were isolated from skin swabs of healthy donors by using rolling circle amplification (RCA). The study suggests that infection by these viruses is common among the general population, showing a seroprevalence of 69% for HPyV6 and 35% for HPyV7 in a cohort of 95 blood donors. However, the presence of HPyV6 and HPyV7 DNA in sera has not been reported. In addition, previous studies have not found evidence for a strong association between HPyV6 or HPyV7 infection and any disease. For example, 1 study detected HPyV6 and HPyV7 DNA in only 14% and 2% of skin samples of patients with skin cancer (n = 108), respectively. Other studies were unable to detect HPyV6 and HPyV7 in neuroendocrine tumors (n = 50) and MCC samples (n = 28)[32, 33].
MCC occurs more frequently in HIV-1-positive patients than in immunocompetent hosts[34–37]. A study using nested PCR analysis showed that HIV-1-positive men had MCPyV DNA in the skin of forehead more frequently than HIV-1-negative healthy controls. In addition, reactivation of human polyomaviruses such as KI polyomavirus and WU polyomavirus was demonstrated in immunocompromised hosts. However, little information about the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the sera of immunocompromised individuals is available. Moreover, these viruses have not been examined in samples of patients with diseases of unknown etiology. In the present study, sera from HIV-1-positive and -negative patients were examined by real-time PCR and nested PCR to know if immune status affects the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 in the serum. In addition, diseased tissue samples of unknown etiology were examined.
Frequent detection of MCPyV in sera of HIV-1-positive patients
MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 detection in serum samples by real-time PCR
MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 detection in tissue samples
MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 detection in tissue samples by real-time PCR
HPyV7 (ST, VP1)
Detection of HPyV6 DNA fragments in nested PCR
In the present study, we detected MCPyV DNA more frequently in the sera of HIV-1-positive patients than in the sera of HIV-1-negative patients. Although detailed characteristics of the HIV-1-positive patients were not available, we confirmed that these patients were not receiving antiretroviral therapy and more than half of them developed AIDS at the time of blood collection, suggesting that the patients were immunocompromised. Although the correlation between CD4 counts and MCPyV copies was not shown in the present study (Figure 2) and the detailed immune status was not determined in the HIV-1-negative patients, the significantly different positivity of MCPyV DNA in the serum between HIV-1-positive and negative patients suggests that an individual’s immune status is associated with the production of MCPyV which will be a crucial factor in elucidating MCC pathogenesis. It has been reported that profound immune suppression is one of the important risk factors for MCC development and that patients with AIDS have a 13-fold increased risk for MCC compared with the general population. Thus, a high detection rate of MCPyV in the serum may be associated with the clinical incidence of MCC.
MCPyV, HPyV6, and HPyV7 were identified as viruses shed from the skin. Seroprevalence data from a cohort of U.S. patients indicates that these 3 viruses are common among the general population[6, 40]. In contrast, our PCR data showed the presence of viral DNA in less than 10% of serum samples from HIV-1-negative patients. This finding is consistent with the results by previous reports describing frequent detection of MCPyV in the skin samples, but rare detection of MCPyV DNA in blood samples. Considering these reports and our results, it is suggested that viremia is rare among infected individuals who are not immunocompromised. Although the seroprevalence of the viruses in Japan is unknown, low detection rates of the viruses in serum suggest a low titer of circulating virus or low amounts of viral DNA in the blood of infected individuals. A low detection rate of viral DNA in MCPyV-seropositive individuals would suggest that the viruses are produced in the skin and released from the epithelium, but do not circulate in the blood. Because HPyV6 and HPyV7 were rarely detected even in HIV-1-positive serum samples, seroprevalence data on these viruses will be required to interpret the results. In addition, HPyV6 was detected in 4 samples including tissue samples in the present study, but only 1 MCC tissue was positive for both VP1 and ST genes. HPyV6 LT DNA was negative in the one serum and one tissue samples by the nested PCR among the 4 samples positive for HPyV6 ST gene by the real-time PCR. Such different reactivities among polyomavirus-encoded genes in each case were observed in the previous reports of MCPyV in MCC[20, 22], suggesting sequence mutation in the target genes or the presence of partial genomes of HPyV6 in the serum.
MCPyV was detected at a high rate in samples of patients with myocarditis (57%); additionally, 10–20% of pneumonia and encephalitis samples were positive. Our results in the present study showed low copy numbers of MCPyV in tissues other than MCC. These findings are constant to previous findings that no or low amounts of MCPyV was detected in normal tissues or neoplastic lesions of organs other than the skin. The previous study demonstrated that MCC cases infected with MCPyV at more than 0.05 copy per cell were positive in immunohistochemistry for MCPyV large T antigen. Although more than 0.05 copy per cell of MCPyV were detected in one pneumonia and one myocarditis cases, immunohistochemistry showed no expression of the MCPyV large T antigen in tissues other than MCC tissues, indicating no direct association of MCPyV infection with the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, since MCPyV was detected in inflammatory conditions such as myocarditis and pneumonia by real-time PCR in the present study, MCPyV production may be induced by inflammations or inflammatory cytokines. This observation is compatible with a recent finding that inflammatory monocyte is a reservoir for MCPyV in vivo. Another possibility is that the virus has an inherent affinity for heart or lung cells. Further investigation of the virus receptor will be required to determine its affinity.
MCPyV DNA was detected more frequently in the sera of HIV-1-positive patients than in the sera of HIV-1-negative patients. HPyV6 was detected in less than 2% of serum and tissue samples, whereas HPyV7 was not detected. These results suggest that MCPyV replication is associated with host immunity, and that circulation of HPyV6 and HPyV7 in the serum is rare.
This study was approved by the institutional review board at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Approval No. 273). We used 23 HIV-1-positive and 111 HIV-1-negative sera stored at the National Institute of Infectious Disease. All the HIV-1-positive patients had not received anti-retrovirus therapy at the time of blood collection. Their CD4 counts at the time of blood collection were recorded for analysis. The HIV-1-negative sera were obtained from patients with various diseases including influenza virus infection, myocarditis, encephalitis, hepatitis, malignancies, etc. No MCC patient was included. In addition, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) or frozen tissue samples from 150 patients with various diseases such as encephalitis, pneumonia, myocarditis, and hepatitis were collected. DNA samples extracted from JCV-positive progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and BKV-associated nephropathy were used as JCV and BKV-positive controls, respectively.
DNA was extracted from 50 μL of serum by using the DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA from sera was eluted in a final volume of 50 μL of elution buffer. For tissue samples, DNA was extracted from three pieces of 10 μm-thick FFPE sections and 10 mg of frozen tissue samples with the Qiaamp FFPE DNA extraction kit and the DNeasy Tissue Kit (Qiagen), respectively. DNA from FFPE and frozen tissues were eluted in a final volume of 30 μL and 100 μL of elution buffer, respectively.
Real-time PCR was performed using a standard TaqMan® PCR kit protocol (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) on a MX3005P (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA). DNA samples were analyzed for the presence of MCPyV, HPyV6 VP1, HPyV6 small T (ST), HPyV7 VP1, and HPyV7 ST genes. The amount of human genomic DNA (as measured by the β-actin gene) in the DNA extracted from each specimen was also determined. Primers and probes for HPyV6 and HPyV7 were designed for the VP1 and ST regions by using Primer Express software (Applied Biosystems) based on the reference sequences of HPyV6 (GenBank accession no. HM011558) and HPyV7 (HM011569). HPyV6-VP1 forward (5′-CCCTGGCTGTTGTTAATTTGC-3′) and reverse (5′-CTGAAGGCTTCCCAAACCAA-3′) primers were used with the TaqMan probe 5′-(FAM) TGAAATTCCTGAGGCCCTGTGTGATGAT (TAMRA)-3′. HPyV6-ST forward (5′-AAGCACCAGGTGGGTGATGA-3′) and reverse (5′-CAACGCCTGAATGTTTTAAAGGA-3′) primers were used with the TaqMan probe 5′-(FAM) TTGGTCCCTCAGGGTGGCATTCAA (BHQ1)-3′. HPyV7-VP1 forward (5′-AGAAGGTCCAGGCAATAGTGATG-3′) and reverse (5′-CTGGGAAATTTGCAGCATTTACT-3′) primers were used with the TaqMan probe 5′-(HEX) AGCTAGCCTGCAAGCCCTCAGAAAGC (BHQ1)-3′. HPyV7-ST forward (5′-CCAGCATTTGCCCCATAAAA-3′) and reverse (5′- AAAGCATAAGAAGAAGGCCAAAGA-3′) primers were used with the TaqMan probe 5′-(HEX) AGGCCCCCGGTGGTCTTTAG (BHQ1)-3′. Primers and probes for MCPyV and β-actin were described previously. PCR amplification was performed in a 20 μL reaction volume by using QuantiTect Multiplex PCR Master Mix (Qiagen), with 0.4 μM of each primer, 0.2 μM of TaqMan probe, and 1 μL of isolated DNA. PCR was carried out at 50°C for 2 min, 95°C for 15 min, and 40 cycles of 94°C for 1 min and 60°C for 1 min. Quantitative results were obtained by generating standard curves for sequence-validated PCR products or plasmids containing HPyV6-VP1, HPyV6-ST, HPyV7-VP1, HPyV7-ST, MCPyV-LT, or the cellular target (β-actin gene). Virus copy number per cell was calculated as previously described, by dividing the virus copy number by half of the β-actin copy number, because each cell contains 2 alleles of β-actin. These real-time PCR amplified at least 10 copies of target gene constantly, and did not cross-react with JCV and BKV in JCV or BKV-positive control samples (data not shown). In addition, HPyV6 and HPyV7 real-time PCR did not amplify any fragment from a plasmid containing a full genome of MCPyV (data not shown).
Primer list for HPyV6 nested PCR
Immunohistochemistry was performed on FFPE samples with the rabbit anti-MCPyV-LT polyclonal antibody as the primary antibody, as described previously.
Data were analyzed using a Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U-test on SPSS software (IBM, Armonk, NY).
This work was supported by Health and Labor Sciences Research Grants [No. H22-AIDS-Ippan-002, H23-AIDS-Ippan-002, H24-AIDS-Ippan-003] from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan [No. 21590520, 22390243 and 24659212].
- Gardner SD, Field AM, Coleman DV, Hulme B: New human papovavirus (B.K.) isolated from urine after renal transplantation. Lancet 1971, 1: 1253-1257.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Padgett BL, Walker DL, ZuRhein GM, Eckroade RJ, Dessel BH: Cultivation of papova-like virus from human brain with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Lancet 1971, 1: 1257-1260.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allander T, Andreasson K, Gupta S, Bjerkner A, Bogdanovic G, Persson MA, Dalianis T, Ramqvist T, Andersson B: Identification of a third human polyomavirus. J Virol 2007, 81: 4130-4136. 10.1128/JVI.00028-07PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaynor AM, Nissen MD, Whiley DM, Mackay IM, Lambert SB, Wu G, Brennan DC, Storch GA, Sloots TP, Wang D: Identification of a novel polyomavirus from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. PLoS Pathog 2007, 3: e64. 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030064PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Feng H, Shuda M, Chang Y, Moore PS: Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma. Science 2008, 319: 1096-1100. 10.1126/science.1152586PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schowalter RM, Pastrana DV, Pumphrey KA, Moyer AL, Buck CB: Merkel cell polyomavirus and two previously unknown polyomaviruses are chronically shed from human skin. Cell Host Microbe 2010, 7: 509-515. 10.1016/j.chom.2010.05.006PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- van der Meijden E, Janssens RW, Lauber C, Bouwes Bavinck JN, Gorbalenya AE, Feltkamp MC: Discovery of a new human polyomavirus associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa in an immunocompromized patient. PLoS Pathog 2010, 6: e1001024. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001024PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scuda N, Hofmann J, Calvignac-Spencer S, Ruprecht K, Liman P, Kuhn J, Hengel H, Ehlers B: A novel human polyomavirus closely related to the african green monkey-derived lymphotropic polyomavirus. J Virol 2011, 85: 4586-4590. 10.1128/JVI.02602-10PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kassem A, Schopflin A, Diaz C, Weyers W, Stickeler E, Werner M, Zur Hausen A: Frequent detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinomas and identification of a unique deletion in the VP1 gene. Cancer Res 2008, 68: 5009-5013. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-0949PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Becker JC, Houben R, Ugurel S, Trefzer U, Pfohler C, Schrama D: MC polyomavirus is frequently present in Merkel cell carcinoma of European patients. J Invest Dermatol 2009, 129: 248-250. 10.1038/jid.2008.198PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Busam KJ, Jungbluth AA, Rekthman N, Coit D, Pulitzer M, Bini J, Arora R, Hanson NC, Tassello JA, Frosina D: Merkel cell polyomavirus expression in merkel cell carcinomas and its absence in combined tumors and pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol 2009, 33: 1378-1385. 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181aa30a5PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duncavage EJ, Zehnbauer BA, Pfeifer JD: Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma. Mod Pathol 2009, 22: 516-521. 10.1038/modpathol.2009.3PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakajima H, Takaishi M, Yamamoto M, Kamijima R, Kodama H, Tarutani M, Sano S: Screening of the specific polyoma virus as diagnostic and prognostic tools for Merkel cell carcinoma. J Dermatol Sci 2009, 56: 211-213.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sihto H, Kukko H, Koljonen V, Sankila R, Bohling T, Joensuu H: Clinical factors associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in Merkel cell carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009, 101: 938-945. 10.1093/jnci/djp139PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Varga E, Kiss M, Szabo K, Kemeny L: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in Merkel cell carcinomas. Br J Dermatol 2009, 161: 930-932. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09221.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wieland U, Mauch C, Kreuter A, Krieg T, Pfister H: Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA in persons without merkel cell carcinoma. Emerg Infect Dis 2009, 15: 1496-1498. 10.3201/eid1509.081575PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Andres C, Belloni B, Puchta U, Sander CA, Flaig MJ: Prevalence of MCPyV in Merkel cell carcinoma and non-MCC tumors. J Cutan Pathol 2010, 37: 28-34. 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2009.01352.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Foulongne V, Dereure O, Kluger N, Moles JP, Guillot B, Segondy M: Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA detection in lesional and nonlesional skin from patients with Merkel cell carcinoma or other skin diseases. Br J Dermatol 2010, 162: 59-63. 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09381.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mangana J, Dziunycz P, Kerl K, Dummer R, Cozzio A: Prevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus among Swiss Merkel cell carcinoma patients. Dermatology 2010, 221: 184-188. 10.1159/000315067PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ota S, Ishikawa S, Takazawa Y, Goto A, Fujii T, Ohashi K, Fukayama M: Quantitative analysis of viral load per haploid genome revealed the different biological features of merkel cell polyomavirus infection in skin tumor. PLoS One 2012, 7: e39954. 10.1371/journal.pone.0039954PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kuwamoto S, Higaki H, Kanai K, Iwasaki T, Sano H, Nagata K, Kato K, Kato M, Murakami I, Horie Y: Association of Merkel cell polyomavirus infection with morphologic differences in Merkel cell carcinoma. Hum Pathol 2011, 42: 632-640. 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.09.011PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Katano H, Ito H, Suzuki Y, Nakamura T, Sato Y, Tsuji T, Matsuo K, Nakagawa H, Sata T: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus in Merkel cell carcinoma and Kaposi’s sarcoma. J Med Virol 2009, 81: 1951-1958. 10.1002/jmv.21608PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kean JM, Rao S, Wang M, Garcea RL: Seroepidemiology of human polyomaviruses. PLoS Pathog 2009, 5: e1000363. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000363PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pastrana DV, Tolstov YL, Becker JC, Moore PS, Chang Y, Buck CB: Quantitation of human seroresponsiveness to Merkel cell polyomavirus. PLoS Pathog 2009, 5: e1000578. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000578PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Viscidi RP, Rollison DE, Sondak VK, Silver B, Messina JL, Giuliano AR, Fulp W, Ajidahun A, Rivanera D: Age-specific seroprevalence of Merkel cell polyomavirus, BK virus, and JC virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2011, 18: 1737-1743. 10.1128/CVI.05175-11PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen T, Hedman L, Mattila PS, Jartti T, Ruuskanen O, Soderlund-Venermo M, Hedman K: Serological evidence of Merkel cell polyomavirus primary infections in childhood. J Clin Virol 2011, 50: 125-129. 10.1016/j.jcv.2010.10.015PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Loyo M, Guerrero-Preston R, Brait M, Hoque MO, Chuang A, Kim MS, Sharma R, Liegeois NJ, Koch WM, Califano JA: Quantitative detection of Merkel cell virus in human tissues and possible mode of transmission. Int J Cancer 2010, 126: 2991-2996.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Foulongne V, Courgnaud V, Champeau W, Segondy M: Detection of Merkel cell polyomavirus on environmental surfaces. J Med Virol 2011, 83: 1435-1439. 10.1002/jmv.22110PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dworkin AM, Tseng SY, Allain DC, Iwenofu OH, Peters SB, Toland AE: Merkel cell polyomavirus in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of immunocompetent individuals. J Invest Dermatol 2009, 129: 2868-2874. 10.1038/jid.2009.183PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Husseiny MI, Anastasi B, Singer J, Lacey SF: A comparative study of Merkel cell, BK and JC polyomavirus infections in renal transplant recipients and healthy subjects. J Clin Virol 2010, 49: 137-140. 10.1016/j.jcv.2010.06.017PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schrama D, Buck CB, Houben R, Becker JC: No evidence for association of HPyV6 or HPyV7 with different skin cancers. J Invest Dermatol 2011. advance online publication, September 8Google Scholar
- Schmitt M, Hofler D, Koleganova N, Pawlita M: Human polyomaviruses and other human viruses in neuroendocrine tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2011, 20: 1558-1561. 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0424PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duncavage EJ, Pfeifer JD: Human polyomaviruses 6 and 7 are not detectable in Merkel cell polyomavirus-negative Merkel cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol 2011, 38: 790-796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Becker JC, Kauczok CS, Ugurel S, Eib S, Brocker EB, Houben R: Merkel cell carcinoma: molecular pathogenesis, clinical features and therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2008, 6: 709-719. 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2008.06830.xPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Engels EA, Frisch M, Goedert JJ, Biggar RJ, Miller RW: Merkel cell carcinoma and HIV infection. Lancet 2002, 359: 497-498. 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07668-7PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pulitzer MP, Amin BD, Busam KJ: Merkel cell carcinoma: review. Adv Anat Pathol 2009, 16: 135-144. 10.1097/PAP.0b013e3181a12f5aPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Izikson L, Nornhold E, Iyer JG, Nghiem P, Zeitouni NC: Merkel cell carcinoma associated with HIV: review of 14 patients. AIDS 2011, 25: 119-121.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wieland U, Silling S, Scola N, Potthoff A, Gambichler T, Brockmeyer NH, Pfister H, Kreuter A: Merkel cell polyomavirus infection in HIV-positive men. Arch Dermatol 2011, 147: 401-406. 10.1001/archdermatol.2011.42PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharp CP, Norja P, Anthony I, Bell JE, Simmonds P: Reactivation and mutation of newly discovered WU, KI, and Merkel cell carcinoma polyomaviruses in immunosuppressed individuals. J Infect Dis 2009, 199: 398-404. 10.1086/596062PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tolstov YL, Pastrana DV, Feng H, Becker JC, Jenkins FJ, Moschos S, Chang Y, Buck CB, Moore PS: Human Merkel cell polyomavirus infection II. MCV is a common human infection that can be detected by conformational capsid epitope immunoassays. Int J Cancer 2009, 125: 1250-1256. 10.1002/ijc.24509PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakamura T, Sato Y, Watanabe D, Ito H, Shimonohara N, Tsuji T, Nakajima N, Suzuki Y, Matsuo K, Nakagawa H: Nuclear localization of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen in Merkel cell carcinoma. Virology 2010, 398: 273-279. 10.1016/j.virol.2009.12.024PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mertz KD, Junt T, Schmid M, Pfaltz M, Kempf W: Inflammatory monocytes are a reservoir for Merkel cell polyomavirus. J Invest Dermatol 2010, 130: 1146-1151. 10.1038/jid.2009.392PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Asahi-Ozaki Y, Sato Y, Kanno T, Sata T, Katano H: Quantitative analysis of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in KSHV-associated diseases. J Infect Dis 2006, 193: 773-782. 10.1086/500560PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.