- Open Access
Quercetin 7-rhamnoside reduces porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication via independent pathway of viral induced reactive oxygen species
© Song et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011
Received: 23 February 2011
Accepted: 4 October 2011
Published: 4 October 2011
On the base of our previous study we were observed relevant studies on the hypothesis that the antiviral activity of quercetin 7-rhamnoside (Q7R), a flavonoid, won't relate ability of its antioxidant.
We were investigated the effects of Q7R on the cytopathic effects (CPE) by CPE reduction assay. Production of DNA fragment and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by PEDV infection were studied using DNA fragmentation assay and flow cytometry.
In the course of this study it was discovered that Q7R is an extremely potent compound against PEDV. The addition of Q7R to PEDV-infected Vero cells directly reduced the formation of a visible cytopathic effect (CPE). Also, Q7R did not induce DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, ROS increased the infection of PEDV, which was strongly decreased by N-acetyl-L-cysteins (NAC). However, the increased ROS was not decreased by Q7R. Antiviral activity of antioxidants such as NAC, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), and the vitamin E derivative, trolox, were hardly noticed.
We concluded that the inhibition of PEDV production by Q7R is not simply due to a general action as an antioxidants and is highly specific, as several other antioxidants (NAC, PDTC, trolox) are inactive against PEDV infection.
Many viruses are capable of inducing cell death, leading to lysis of the infected cells [1–7]. In late stages of virus infections, morphological changes, commonly known as cytopathic effect (CPE), can be microscopically observed. Virus-induced CPE is characterized by cell rounding, shinkage, deformation of nuclei and chomatin condensation. However, early death of infected cells may limit virus replication . Also, apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), during the late phase of viral infection has been suggested to play an important role in virus life cycle by facilitating viral progeny release and propagation [9, 10]. PCD is a process by which damaged, aged, or otherwise unwanted cells are eliminated though a series of steps that results in the destruction of their genome. The form of PCD known as apoptosis is characterized by a series of morphological changes, including nuclear condensation and fragmentation, cytoplasmic blebbing, and cell shinkage .
Many viruses are capable of inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results from many studies suggest that ROS are not directly involved in the induction of apoptosis in virus-infected cells [11, 12]. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that virus infection increases the production of superoxide anion radicals from neutrophils and macrophages infiltrated into the lung of mice , while transgenic mice carrying over-expressed extracellular superoxide dismutase exhibited less severe lung injury after influenza virus infection . These studies, therefore, postulated that the pathogenesis of virus infection involves not only the virus proliferation mediated apoptotic cell death in the infected cells, but also the direct ROS-induced cellular injury by neutrophils and macrophages infiltrated into the virus-infected organs. But, despite many studies, the events leading to the generation of ROS during viral infections are still unclear.
In this paper, we was demonstrated the effects of quercetin 7-rhamnoside (Q7R) on production of CPE, ROS and DNA fragmentation inducted by PEDV infection and also studied the relationship of antiviral and antioxidant activity between Q7R and antioxidants.
Ribavirin and sulforhodamine B (SRB) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). All other chemicals were a reagent grade. Q7R was isolated from aerial parts of Houttuynia cordata using a previously described method .
Viruses, Cell lines and Reagents
Vero (an african green monkey kidney cell line; ATCC CCR-81) was kindly provided by ATCC (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA). PEDV CV 777 (porcine epidemic diarrhea virus) was obtained from national veterinary research & quarantine service in Korea. Vero cells were maintained in minimal essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01% antibiotic-antimycotic. Antibiotic-antimycotic, trypsin-EDTA, FBS and MEM were supplied by Gibco BRL (Grand Island, NY). The tissue culture plates were purchased from Falcon (BD Biosciences, NJ, USAs). Virus stock was stored at -70°C until use.
Assays of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity
The antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of Q7R against viruses were determined by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method recently reported . Also, the effect of Q7R on PEDV-induced CPE was observed by cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction method recently reported . Ribavirin was used as positive, and was solublized in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) used as negative control.
Measurement of ROS induced by infection of PEDV
The level of intracellular ROS was measured by the alteration of fluorescence resulting from oxidation of 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA, Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). DCFH-DA was dissolved in DMSO to a final concentration of 20 mM before use. For the measurement of ROS, cells were treated with Q7R and other reagents for a time period indicated in the figure legends. After washing twice with cold PBS, they were incubated with 20 μM DCFH-DA at 37°C for 15 min. DCFH-DA is a stable compound that easily diffuses in to cells and is hydrolyzed by intracellular esterase to yield a reduced, non-fluorescent compound, DCFH, which is trapped within cells. The ROS produced by cells oxidized the DCFH to highly fluorescent 2', and 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF). The intensity of fluorescence was recorded using a flow cytometry (Becton Dickenson), with an excitation filter of 530 nm and an emission filter 575 nm. The ROS level was calculated as a ratio of: ROS = mean intensity of exposed cells: mean intensity of unexposed cells.
DNA fragmentation assay
Vero cells were seeded onto a 6-well culture plate at a concentration of 2 × 104 cells per well. Next day, medium was removed and the cells were washed with PBS. Then, 0.09 ml of diluted virus suspension and 0.01 ml of medium supplemented with typsin-EDTA containing an appropriate concentration of the antiviral compound were added. It was a ten-fold dilution scheme for each compound. The culture plates were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO2 for 2 days, the cells were lysed with lysis buffer (TE buffer;10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS] and incubated for 10 min on ice, then centrifuged at 13,000 rpm for 30 min at 4°C. Cysolic DNA was extracted by phenol: chlororform (1:1) extraction of the supernatants. DNA was treated with 0.1 mg/ml Rnase A for 30 min at 37°C. The DNA was separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the DNA fragmentation was visualized from the digitized image of the gel as described .
The effect of Q7R on PEDV-induced CPE
PEDV infection leads to ROS generation
The effect of Q7R on ROS increased by PEDV infection
Antiviral activity of antioxidants
DNA fragmentation assay
Many viruses are capable of inducing cell death, leading to lysis of infected cells [1–3]. In late stages of PEDV infections, morphological changes commonly known as CPE, microscopically observed. The morphology of Vero cells after infection with PEDV was greatly decreased from that of PEDV by addition of Q7R. However, the addition of ribavirin to PEDV-infected Vero cell proved to be impossible in preventing CPE.
Viral infections such as rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus and bovine viral diarreha virus frequently result in the generation of oxidative stress in the infected cells [4–7]. The events leading to the generation of ROS during viral infections are still unclear. Also, antioxidants have been shown to have antiviral activities against a variety of unrelated viruses by alleviating the oxidative stress generated by viruses [16–20]. Mechanistically, it is believed that these viruses induce apoptosis by oxidative stress mediated via ROS. Interference with this pathway by antioxidants is believed to inhibit virus-induced apoptosis and thus inhibit efficient virus multiplication. In contrast, there are also reports indicating that under certain conditions compounds act as a pro-apoptotic drug [21–23]. Depending on the viral system analyzed, antioxidative compounds differ in their ability to reduce virus growth [7, 24, 25].
Flavonoids are a large class of polyphenolic compounds and Jung et al. (2003) reported that the relationship between flavonoid structure and antioxidant activity. They found that the inhibitory activities of flavonoids on total ROS are more strongly increases with the rising number of hydroxyl groups than the foavonoid glycosides on their structures .
Our previous study showed that quercetin 7-rhamnoside (Q7R) didn't directly interact with PEDV particles and affect the initial stage of PEDV infection by interfering with its viral mRNA production . In this report, we present evidence that Q7R, but not other commonly used antioxidants, are able to protect cells from PEDV induced death. Q7R are potent agents that have been shown to be involved in a number of processes, suggesting that their antiviral effects might not be due to its antioxidant functions alone. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to verify the underlying mechanism of Q7R action in inhibiting PEDV infection.
In conclusion, Q7R is an extremely potent anti-PEDV substance which reduces PEDV growth, inhibits the CPE and DNA fragment of infected cells regardless of its antioxidant activity and then didn't directly interact with PEDV particles and affect the initial stage of PEDV infection by obstructing with its viral mRNA production. It will be interesting to further investigate the antiviral activity of the Q7R in preventing various PEDV-mediated injuries in in vivo pathological situations.
This research was supported by a grant from Korea Nazarene University in 2011.
- Agol VI, Belov GA, Bienz K, Egger D, Kolesnikova MS, Raikhlin NT, Romanova LI, Smirnova EA, Tolskaya EA: Two types of death of poliovirus-infected cells: caspase involvement in the apoptosis but not cytopathic effect. Virol 1998, 252: 343-353. 10.1006/viro.1998.9438View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Connolly JL, Rodgers SE, Clarke P, Ballard DW, Kerr LD, Tyler KL, Dermody TS: Reovirus-induced apoptosis requires activation of transcription factor NF-kB. J Virol 2000, 74: 2981-2989. 10.1128/JVI.74.7.2981-2989.2000PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levine B, Huang Q, Isaacs JT, Reed JC, Griffin DE, Hardwick JM: Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene. Nature 1993, 361: 739-742. 10.1038/361739a0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaul P, Biagioli MC, Singh I, Turner RB: Rhinovirus induced oxidative stress and interleukin-8 elaboration involves p47-phox but is independent of attachment to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and viral replication. J Infect Dis 2000, 181: 1885-1890. 10.1086/315504View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flory E, Kunz M, Scheller C, Jassoy C, Stauber R, Rapp UR, Ludwig S: Influenza virus-induced NF-kB-dependent gene expression is mediated by overexpression of viral proteins and involves oxidative radicals and activation of IkB kinase. J Biol Chem 2000, 275: 8307-8314. 10.1074/jbc.275.12.8307View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Israel N, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA: Oxidative stress in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Cell Mol Life Sci 1997, 53: 864-870. 10.1007/s000180050106View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schweizer M, Peterhans E: Oxidative stress in cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus: a crucial step in the induction of apoptosis. J Gen Virol 1999, 80: 1147-1155.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwarz EM, Badorff C, Hiura TS, Wessely R, Badorff A, Verma IM, Knowlton KU: NF-kB-Mediated Inhibition of Apoptosis Is Required for Encephalomyocarditis Virus Virulence: a Mechanism of Resistance in p50 Knockout Mice. J Virol 1998, 72: 5654-5660.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carthy CM, Granville DJ, Watson KA, Anderson DR, Wilson JE, Yang D, McManus BM: Caspase activation and specific cleavage of substrates after coxsackievirus B3-induced cytopathic effect in HeLa cells. J Virol 1998, 72: 7669-7675.PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carthy CM, Yanagawa B, Luo H, Granville DJ, Yang D, Cheung P, Cheung C, Esfandiarei M, Rudin CM, Thompson CB, Hunt DW, McManus BM: Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL overexpression inhibits cytochrome c release, activation of multiple caspases, and virus release following coxsackievirus B3 infection. Virol 2003, 313: 147-157. 10.1016/S0042-6822(03)00242-3View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Uchide N, Ohyama K: Antiviral function of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate against influenza virus: the inhibition of viral gene replication and transcription. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003, 52: 8-10. 10.1093/jac/dkg282View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uchide N, Ohyama K, Bessho T, Yuan B, Yamakawa T: Effect of antioxidants on apoptosis induced by influenza virus infection: Inhibition of viral gene replication and transcription with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. Antiviral Res 2002, 56: 207-217. 10.1016/S0166-3542(02)00109-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Buffnton GD, Christen S, Peterhans E, Stocker R: Oxidative stress in lungs of mice infected with influenza A virus. Free Radic Res Commun 1992, 16: 99-110. 10.3109/10715769209049163View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suliman HB, Ryan LK, Bishop L, Folz RJ: Prevention of in. uenza-induced lung injury in mice overexpressing extracellular superoxide dismutase. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2001, 280: L69-L78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Choi HJ, Kim JH, Lee CH, Ahn YJ, Song JH, Baek SH, Kwon DH: Antiviral activity of quercetin 7-rhamnoside against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Antiviral Res 2009, 81: 77-81. 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.10.002View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beloqui O, Prieto J, Suarez M, Gil B, Qian CH, Garcia N, Civeira MP: N-acetyl cysteine enhances the response to interferon-alpha in chronic hepatitis C:a pilot study. J Interferon Res 1993, 13: 279-282. 10.1089/jir.1993.13.279View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weiss L, Hildt E, Hofschn PH, Schwarz KB: Oxidative stress during viral infection: a review. Free Radic Biol Med 1996, 21: 641-649. 10.1016/0891-5849(96)00131-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Allard JP, Aghdassi E, Chau J, Tam C, Kovacs CM, Salit IE, Walmsley SL: Effects of vitamin E and C supplementation on oxidative stress and viral load in HIV-infected subjects. AIDS 1998, 12: 1653-1659. 10.1097/00002030-199813000-00013View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Docherty JJ, Fu MMH, Stiffler BS, Limperos RJ, Pokabla CM, DeLucia AL: Resveratrol inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication. Antiviral Res 1999, 43: 135-145. 10.1016/S0166-3542(99)00051-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaudernak E, Seipelt J, Triendl A, Grassauer A, Kuechler E: Antiviral effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on human rhinoviruses. J Virol 2002, 76: 6004-6015. 10.1128/JVI.76.12.6004-6015.2002PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Della Ragione F, Cucciolla V, Borriello A, Della Pietra V, Manna C, Galletti P, Zappia V: Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate induces apoptosis by a cytochrome c-dependent mechanism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000, 268: 942-946. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2161View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li WG, Coppey L, Weiss RM, Oskarsson HJ: Antioxidant therapy attenuates JNK activation and apoptosis in the remote noninfarcted myocardium after large myocardial infarction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2001, 280: 353-357. 10.1006/bbrc.2000.4134View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozaki K, Takeda H, Iwahashi H, Kitano S, Hanazawa S: NF-kB inhibitors stimulate apoptosis of rabbit mature osteoclasts and inhibit bone resorption by these cells. FEBS Lett 1997, 410: 297-300. 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00653-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin KI, Lee SH, Narayanan R, Baraban JM, Hardwick JM, Ratan RR: Thiol agents and Bcl-2 identify an alphavirus-induced apoptotic pathway that requires activation of the transcription factor NFkappa B. J Cell Biol 1995, 131: 1149-1161. 10.1083/jcb.131.5.1149View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weiss L, Hildt E, Hofschneider PH: Anti-hepatitis B virus activity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC): new aspects of a well-established drug. Antiviral Res 1996, 32: 43-53. 10.1016/0166-3542(95)00977-9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jung HA, Jung MJ, Kim JY, Chung HY, Choi JS: Inhibitory activity of flavonoids from Prunus davidiana and other flanovoids on total ROS and hydroxyl radical generation. Arch Pharm Res 2003, 26: 809-815. 10.1007/BF02980025View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.