- Open Access
Effectiveness of esterified whey proteins fractions against Egyptian Lethal Avian Influenza A (H5N1)
© Taha et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2010
Received: 15 September 2010
Accepted: 19 November 2010
Published: 19 November 2010
Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus is one of the most important public health concerns worldwide. The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins fractions (α- lactalbumin, β- lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin) was evaluated against A/chicken/Egypt/086Q-NLQP/2008 HPAI (H5N1) strain of clade 2.2.1 (for multiplicity of infection (1 MOI) after 72 h of incubation at 37°C in the presence of 5% CO2) using MDCK cell lines.
Both the native and esterified lactoferrin seem to be the most active antiviral protein among the tested samples, followed by β- lactoglobulin. α-Lactalbumin had less antiviral activity even after esterification.
Esterification of whey proteins fractions especially lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin enhanced their antiviral activity against H5N1 in a concentration dependent manner.
Avian influenza A (H5N1) virus is one of the most important public health concerns worldwide. It has been detected and identified in South East Asia since 2003. In 2005, the virus was already spread to many countries in Europe, Asia and Africa . Later it interrupted international travel and negatively affected the world economy especially tourism.
In December 2005, the first case of H5N1 in Egypt was detected in a migrating bird in Damietta Governorate. In mid-February 2006, H5N1 infection was reported in Egypt among domestic poultry in more than 15 governorates, resulting in severe losses for the poultry industry. In March 2006, the first human case of H5N1 in Egypt was detected . Egypt had the highest number of confirmed human avian influenza cases outside Asia. As of 4 March 2010, 104 human cases, including 30 fatalities, had been recorded in Egypt [3, 4].
Whey proteins have been reported to have numerous therapeutic applications including effects on bone (stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells as well as suppress bone resorption and increase femoral bone strength), muscles (enhancing muscle hypertrophy and strength due to its leucine content), blood (lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension), brain (increase brain serotonin levels), immune system (stimulate immunity and improving immune function), cancer (increase NK cell function and glutathione levels), wound healing (essential for post-surgical wound healing and protein depletion delays healing time), and aging (antiaging agent due to the whey content of glutathione/antioxidant component). Furthermore, they act as antioxidant, antihypertensive, antiviral, antimicrobial, chelating agent and prevent cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis [5, 6]. The biological value of whey proteins has also been reviewed for their antimicrobial and antiviral functions [7–11].
Modification of whey proteins to enhance or alter their biological and functional properties may increase its applications. Whey proteins modification can be accomplished by chemical, enzymatic, or physical techniques . Additional negative charges on β-lactoglobulin (BLG), α-lactalbumin (ALA) and human serum albumin (HSA) endowed them a significant antiviral activities against human immunedeficiency viruses—HIV-1 and HIV-2 [13–17]. BLG modified with 3-hydroxyphthaloylacid (3HP) inhibited the infection with HIV-1, Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and human cytomegalovirus [18, 19]. In addition, many studies reported that increasing the net positive charge on whey proteins led to enhancement of its antiviral activity. Esterified whey proteins showed antiviral activity against poliovirus type-1, Coxsackie virus B6, human cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus type 1 and human influenza virus A subtype H3N2 & subtype H1N1 [20–24].
Therefore, it was thought worthwhile to test the efficacy of native and modified whey proteins fractions against influenza virus subtype H5N1which may be useful for the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza viruses and at the same time can be a potential and low cost alternative candidate for an anti-influenza agent.
Materials and methods
The HPAI H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/086Q-NLQP/2008 (referred to as EGYvar/H5N1) virus (GenBank accession number: EU496398.1) was isolated from an H5 vaccinated commercial chicken farm in 2008 during the routine national surveillance conducted by the National Laboratory for Veterinary Quality Control on Poultry Production (NLQP), Giza, Egypt. The virus has been titrated using Hemagglutination test (HA) 256 HAU. The tissue culture lethal dose 100% (TCLD100%), tissue culture infective dose 50% (TCID50%) and Embryonated egg infected dose 50% (EID50%) were calculated using Read and Minch (106, 108.26, 108.64/ml respectively) in Specific Pathogen Free Embryonated Chicken Egg (SPF ECE) and Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells (MDCK) as described in WHO manual . SPF ECE was obtained from Qom Oshime SPF farm Egypt, and MDCK was obtained from NAMRU3 unit, Egypt.
α-Lactalbumin (97.46% protein) and β-lactoglobulin (97.8% protein) were kindly obtained from Davisco Food International (USA) while lactoferrin (95% protein) was kindly obtained from Armor Proteins (France). All other chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade.
The procedure of  was used for esterification of whey proteins fractions.
The extent of esterification of proteins was quantified by the colour reaction with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as described by .
3- The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey protein
The antiviral activity of native and esterified whey proteins: α-lactalbumin (ALA), β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and lactoferrin (LF) was assayed against Egyptian highly pathogenic avian virus A/chicken/Egypt/086Q-NLQP/2008 HPAI (H5N1) strain of clade 2.2.1 at concentrations of 1.00 MOI (multiplicity of infection) per cell according to .
4- Statistical analysis
All experiments were performed in triplicates and the results were expressed by the mean plus the standard deviation.
Extent of esterification
The whey proteins fractions ALA, BLG and LF were modified to the extent of 68%, 100% and 100% respectively which indicates less esterification susceptibility of ALA as compared to both BLG and LF. The observed extents of such esterification are in accordance with .
Antiviral activity of whey proteins fractions
The antiviral activity of the tested proteins may be due to its interaction with influenza nuclear proteins (PB1, PB2, PA and NP), which catalyze the transcription of viral RNA [28–30]. Since these proteins are normally associated with RNA and undergo systematic dissociation during replication, the tested positively charged proteins may interfere with this association-dissociation process or compete for the negative charges on the exposed regions of RNA, disturbing the overall replication pathways.
From the presented data, it can be concluded that esterification of LF followed by BLG and lastly by ALA enhances its antiviral activities against H5N1 infected into MDCK cell lines which is dependent on the concentration of the tested proteins. Consequently, applying this technique is associated with a protective action on the cell lines subjected to the viral infection. Further studies are needed to improve the antiviral activity of both of α-lactalbumin and to a less extent β-lactoglobulin.
The authors thank Davisco food international (USA) and Armor Proteins (France) for their kindly provided offers.
- Yingst SL, Saad MD: Qinghai-like A (H5N1) from domestic cats, northern Iraq. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2006, 12: 1295-1297.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Saad MD, Ahmed LS, Gamal-Eldein MA, Fouda MK, Khalil FM, Parker AM, Monteville RM: Possible avian influenza (H5N1) from migratory birds, Egypt. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2007, 13: 1120-1121.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Earhart KC, Elsayed NM, Saad MD, Gubareva LV, Nayel A, Deyde VM: Oseltamivir resistance mutation N294 S in Human influenza A (H5N1) virus in Egypt. Journal of Infect Public Health 2009, 2: 74-80. 10.1016/j.jiph.2009.04.004View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fasina FO, Ifende VI, Ajibade AA: Aviani nfluenza A (H5N1) in humans: lessons from Egypt. Eurosurveillance 2010, 15: 19473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marshall K: Therapeutic applications of whey protein. Alternative Medicine Review 2004, 9: 136-156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Frestedt LJ, John LZ, Michael AK, Loren SW, Eric DB: A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study. Nutrition & Metabolism 2008, 5: 1-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van der Strate BW, Beljaars L, Molema G, Harmsen MC, Meijer DK: Antiviral activities of lactoferrin (A Review). Antiviral Research 2001, 152: 225-239. 10.1016/S0166-3542(01)00195-4View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Floris R, Recio I, Berkhout B, Visser S: Antibacterial and antiviral effects of milk proteins and derivatives thereof. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2003, 9: 1257-1275. 10.2174/1381612033454810View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kvistgaard AS, Pallesen LT, Arias CF, Lopez S, Petersen TE, Heegaard CW, Rasmussen JT: Inhibitory Effects of Human and Bovine Milk Constituents on Rotavirus Infections. Journal of Dairy Science 2004, 87: 4088-4096. 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73551-1PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pan Y, Lee A, Wan J, Coventry MJ, Michalskic WP, Shiellc B, Roginski H: Antiviral properties of milk proteins and peptides (A Review). International Dairy Journal 2006, 16: 1252-1261. 10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.06.010View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bojsen A, Buesa J, Montava R, Kvistgaard AS, Kongsbak MB, Petersen TE, Heegaard CW, Rasmussen JT: Inhibitory activities of bovine macromolecular whey proteins on rotavirus infections in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Dairy Science 2007, 90: 66-74. 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)72609-7PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kananen A, Savolainen J, MaK kinen J, Perttila KU, Myllykoski L, Pihlanto-Leppa KA: Influence of chemical modification of whey protein conformation on hydrolysis with pepsin and trypsin. International Dairy Journal 2000, 10: 691-697. 10.1016/S0958-6946(00)00094-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jansen RW, Molema G, Pauwels R, Schols D, De Clerq E, Meijer DKF: Potent in vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 activity of modified human serum albumins. Molecular Pharmacology 1991, 39: 818-823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takami M, Sone T, Mizumoto K, Kino K, Tsunoo H: Maleylated human serum albumin inhibits HIV-1 infection in vitro. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1992, 1180: 180-186.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Swart PJ, Meijer DKF: Negatively charged albumins: A novel class of polyanionic proteins with a potent anti-HIV activity. Antiviral News 1994, 2: 69-71.Google Scholar
- Jiang S, Lin K, Strick N, Li YY, Neurath AR: Chemically modified bovine b-lactoglobulin blocks uptake of HIV-1 by colon- and cervix-derived epithelial cell lines. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 1996, 13: 461-462.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schoen P, Corver J, Meijer DKF, Wilschut J, Swart PJ: Inhibition of influenza virus fusion by polyanionic proteins. Biochemical Pharmacology 1997, 53: 995-1003. 10.1016/S0006-2952(96)00876-3PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neurath AR, Debnath AK, Strick N, Li YY, Lin K: 3-Hydroxyphthaloyl-b-lactoglobulin. 1. Optimization of production and comparison with other compounds considered for chemoprophylaxis of mucosally transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy 1997, 8: 131-139.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY: 3-Hydroxyphthaloyl-blactoglobulin. III. Antiviral activity against herpes viruses. Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy 1998, 9: 177-184.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chobert JM, Sitohy M, Billaudel S, Dalgalarrondo M, Haertlé T: Anticytomegaloviral Activity of Esterified Milk Proteins and L-Polylysines. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology 2007, 13: 255-258. 10.1159/000104755PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sitohy M, Billaudel S, Haertlé T, Chobert JM: Antiviral activity of esterified alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin against herpes simplex virus type 1. Comparison with the effect of acyclovir and L-polylysines. Journal of Agriculutre Food Chemistry 2007, 55: 10214-10220. 10.1021/jf0724421View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sitohy M, Michele D, Marie N, Besse B, Billaudel S, Haertle T, Chobert JM: The effect of bovine whey proteins on the ability of poliovirus and Coxsackie virus to infect Vero cell cultures. International Dairy Journal 2008, 18: 658-668. 10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.11.023View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sitohy M, Besse B, Billaudel S, Haertle T, Chobert JM: Antiviral Action of Methylated β-Lactoglobulin on the Human Influenza Virus A Subtype H3N2. Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins 2010, 2: 104-111. 10.1007/s12602-010-9036-5View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sitohy M, Scanu M, Besse B, Mollat C, Billaudel S, Haertle T, Chobert JM: Influenza virus A subtype N1H1 is inhibited by methylated β-lactoglobulin. J Dairy Research 2010, 77: 411-418. 10.1017/S0022029910000592View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- WHO: Manual on animal influenza diagnosis and surveillance. 2002. WHO/CDs/CSR/NCS.5Google Scholar
- Sitohy M, Chobert JM, Haertlé T: Simplified short-time method for the esterification of milk proteins. Milchwissenschaft 2001, 56: 127-131.Google Scholar
- Bertrand-Harb C, Chobert JM, Dufour E, Haertle T: Esterification of food proteins: Characterization of the derivatives by a colorimetric method and by electrophoresis. Sciences des Aliments 1991, 11: 641-652.Google Scholar
- Huang TS, Palese P, Krystal M: Determination of influenza virus proteins required for genomic replication. Journal of Virology 1990, 64: 5669-5673.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Poole E, Elton D, Medcalf L, Digard P: Functional domains of influenza A virus PB2 protein: identification of NP and PB1-binding sites. Virology 2004, 321: 120-133. 10.1016/j.virol.2003.12.022PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boulo S, Akarsu H, Ruigrok RW, Baudin F: Nuclear traffic of influenza virus proteins and ribonucleo protein complexes. Virus Research 2007, 124: 12-21. 7 10.1016/j.virusres.2006.09.013PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.