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Table 5 SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (as of July 22, 2021)

From: Evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants


Mutations of interest


Date of emergence

First detection in human population

Country of likely origin


B.1.1.7 (VOC2020 12/01, 501.V1, Alpha)

S: 69-70del

S: Y144del

S: N501Y

S: D614G

S: P681H


September, 2020

December, 2020

United Kingdom

[89, 99, 190]

B.1.351 (501.V2, Beta)

S: K417N

S: E484K

S: N501Y

S: D614G

S: A701V


October, 2020

December, 2020

South Africa

[100, 101, 190]

P.1 (501.V3, Gamma)

S: K417T

S: E484K

S: N501Y

S: D614G


July, 2020

January, 2021


[101, 190, 194]

B.1.617.2 (Delta)

S: L452R

S: T478K

S: D614G

S: P681R


October, 2020

December, 2020


[196, 201, 202, 346]

  1. Variant names are based on Rambaut et al.’s classification [347]. Other commonly used names are mentioned in brackets. Mutations mentioned here are non-synonymous mutations that are speculated to confer some functional significance. These variants contain other mutations that may also contribute to viral advantages [89, 99,100,101]. Updated information about SARS-CoV-2 VOCs can be accessed through the GISAID resource ( Dates of emergence are based on retrospective analyses. S, spike. del, deletion