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Table 3 Notes on liver injury

From: Liver injury in COVID-19: clinical features and treatment management

Author Patient Abnormal liver biochemical indexes Liver injury note Time trend of liver enzyme elevation
Huang [10] 41 ALT: 32.0 (21.0–50.0) U/L
AST: 34.0 (26.0–48.0) U/L
TBIL: 11.7 (9.5–13.9) μmol/L
There were significant differences in liver biochemical indexes between severe patients and mild patients (all P < 0.05) Not mentioned
Chen [9] 99 ALT: 39.0 (22.0–53.0) U/L
AST: 34.0 (26.0–48.0) U/L
TBIL: 15.1 (7.3) μmol/L
Most patients had mild liver dysfunction Liver enzymes increased slightly
Zhang [6] 115 ALT: 25.71 (9–50) U/L
AST: 28.30 (15–40) U/L
TBIL: 11.31 (5–21) μmol/L
Slight abnormality of liver function; There were significant differences in liver biochemical indexes between severe patients and mild patients (all P < 0.05) The changes of ALT, AST and TBIL in ICU patients were not significant with time (P > 0.05)
Bloom [5] 60 ALT: 39 (15.0–63.0) U/L
AST: 55 (18–92) U/L
TBIL: 0.9 ± 2.2 μmol/L
It has been proved that patients with severe COVID-19 have higher biochemical levels of liver ALT and AST showed the same trend
With the extension of time, there was a slight increase, which reached the peak on the ninth day, and then decreased slowly, and the increase was not more than 40 U/L
Wang [30] 138 ALT: 24 (16–40) U/L
AST: 31 (24–51) U/L
TBIL: 9.8 (8.4–14.1) μmol/L
The levels of ALT and AST in ICU patients were significantly higher than those not in ICU patients Not mentioned
Cardoso [31] 20 (critically ill patients) Not mentioned Liver injury is common, but usually transient and not severe. However, cholestasis is obvious ALT and AST only increased slightly(10d in ICU), and the highest < 2 × ULN
GGT increased more and more obviously, reaching 3 × ULN
Cai [3] 417 ALT: 21 (15–31) U/L
AST: 26.5 (21–35) U/L
TBIL: 10.9 (8.3–16.3) μmol/L
AST, ALT and GGT were higher in severe patients The increase of ALT and GGT was common, but the frequency of AST and TBIL was slightly lower
Xu [8] 25 (death) ALT: 24 (16.5–46) U/L
AST: 37 (29.5–57.5) U/L
Slight abnormality of liver function Not mentioned
Wang [32] 105 ALT: 23.5 (14.0–36.0) U/L (N = 105)
AST: 24.2 (19.7, 34.8) U/L (N = 50)
TBIL: 10.2 (7.4, 12.9) μmol/L (N = 50)
Severe COVID-19 patients are more likely to have liver dysfunction During the treatment, most of the patients only had mild or isolated elevation, and most of them were normal after discharge