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Table 1 Properties of toll-like receptors

From: Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity against herpesviridae infection: a current perspective on viral infection signaling pathways

TLRs Localization Ligands
TLR1/2 [33,34,35] Cell surface Triacylated lipopeptides
TLR2/6 [36,37,38,39,40,41] Cell surface Diacylated lipopeptides (Mycoplasma), Lipoteichoic acid (Streptococcus), Zymosan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
TLR2 [38, 42,43,44,45,46,47,48] Cell surface Peptidoglycan (Gram-positive bacteria), Lipoarabinomannan (Mycobacteria), Hemagglutinin (measles virus), phosphatidylinositol mannoside 6 (Mycobacteria), Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (Trypanosoma)
TLR3 [49,50,51,52] Endosome ssRNA virus (West Nile virus), dsRNA virus (Respiratory syncytial virus, murine cytomegalovirus)
TLR4 [43, 53,54,55,56,57,58,59] Cell surface Lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacteria), Mannan-binding lectin (Candida albicans), glycoinositol- phospholipids (Trypanosoma cruzi), Envelope proteins (respiratory syncytial virus, mouse mammary tumor)
TLR5 [60, 61] Cell surface Flagellin (flagellated bacteria)
TLR7 [62, 63] Endosome ssRNA viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, influenza virus)
TLR8 [64,65,66] Endosome ssRNA from RNA viruses
TLR9 [67,68,69,70,71] Endosome dsRNA viruses (herpes simplex virus, murine cytomegalovirus), CpG motifs from bacteria and viruses, Hemozoin (Plasmodium)