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Fig. 3 | Virology Journal

Fig. 3

From: In vitro virucidal activity of Echinaforce®, an Echinacea purpurea preparation, against coronaviruses, including common cold coronavirus 229E and SARS-CoV-2

Fig. 3

Echinaforce inhibits infection of HCoV-229E in organotypic airway cultures. a To simulate natural infection, organotypic nasal epithelial cultures were infected with droplets of HCoV-229E from the apical side. b Viral titer in apical secretions was determined at 24, 48 and 72 hpi. Apical pre-treatment with 50 μg/ml lead to complete inhibition of virus replication in 5 out of 8 cultures at 72 hpi, while 10 μg/ml showed complete inhibition only in 1 out of 8 cultures. For both treatment concentrations, a reduction of mean titer was observed when compared to non-treated controls. **p = 0.0015, ****p < 0.0001

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