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Table 5 Univariable regression analysis of potential risk factors for the presence of EEHV antibodies in elephants sampled throughout Thailand between 2010 and 2015 (n = 994) based on an EEHV1A glycoprotein B protein antigen specific ELISA

From: Evidence of high EEHV antibody seroprevalence and spatial variation among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand

Potential risk factors Prevalence (%) p-Value OR 95% CI
Sex
 Female (n = 678) 40.2 Ref 1 NA
 Male (n = 316) 46.5 0.06 1.29 0.98–1.68
Age category (year)
  < 10 (n = 73) 43.8 Ref 1 NA
 10–50 (n = 797) 41.5 0.70 0.91 0.56–1.48
  > 50 (n = 124) 45.9 0.77 1.09 0.61–1.95
Management type
 Extensive (n = 505) 47.1 Ref 1 NA
 Intensive (n = 489) 37.2 0.00 0.66 0.51–0.85
Region
 North (n = 435) 49.4 Ref 1 NA
 Central (n = 76) 22.4 < 0.00 0.29 0.16–0.51
 East (n = 207) 37.7 0.00 0.61 0.44–0.86
 Northeast (n = 62) 33.9 0.02 0.52 0.29–0.90
 South (n = 82) 43.9 0.36 0.80 0.49–1.28
 West (n = 132) 40.2 0.06 0.68 0.46–1.01
Camp clustera
  < 10 (n = 19) 57.9 Ref 1 NA
 10–50 (n = 372) 44.0 0.24 0.57 0.21–1.44
  > 50 (n = 603) 40.6 0.13 0.49 0.19–1.24
Evaluation period
 Apr-Oct (n = 824) 40.9 Ref 1 NA
 Nov-Mar (n = 170) 48.8 0.37 1.24 0.76–2.01
  1. Ref reference category, NA not applicable, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aDefined as number of camps (i.e., those within a radius of 2 km) that shared resources like a river, road or land area, or working area during the day