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Table 4 Antibody seroprevalence of elephants throughout Thailand (n = 994) between 2010 and 2015 based on an EEHV1A glycoprotein B protein antigen specific ELISA, and the proportion of samples testing positive or negative relative to potential EEHV risk factors

From: Evidence of high EEHV antibody seroprevalence and spatial variation among captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand

Potential risk factors Positivea Negative
Sex
 Female (n = 678) 273 (40.2%) 405 (59.7%)
 Male (n = 316) 147 (46.5%) 169 (53.4%)
Age category
  < 11 years (n = 73) 32 (43.8%) 41 (56.2%)
 11–50 years (n = 797) 331 (41.5%) 466 (58.5%)
  > 50 years (n = 124) 57 (45.9%) 67 (54.0%)
Management type
 Extensive (n = 505) 238 (47.1%) 267 (52.9%)
 Intensive (n = 489) 182 (37.2%) 307 (62.8%)
Region
 Central (n = 76) 17 (22.4%) 59 (77.6%)
 East (n = 207) 78 (37.7%) 129 (62.3%)
 North (n = 435) 215 (49.4%) 220 (50.6%)
 Northeast (n = 62) 21 (33.9%) 41 (66.1%)
 South (n = 82) 36 (43.9%) 46 (56.1%)
 West (n = 132) 53 (40.2%) 79 (59.8%)
Camp clusterb
  < 10 (n = 19) 11 (57.9%) 8 (42.1%)
 10–50 (n = 372) 164 (44%) 208 (55.9%)
  > 50 (n = 603) 245 (40.6%) 358 (59.4%)
Border contact
 Yes (n = 77) 25 (32.5%) 52 (67.5%)
 No (n = 917) 395 (43.0%) 522 (57.0%)
Evaluation period
 Apr-Oct (n = 824) 337 (40.9%) 487 (59%)
 Nov-Mar (n = 179) 83 (48.8%) 87 (51.2%)
  1. aSamples were considered positive if at least one dilution (1:100, 1:200) was positive (OD ratio > 3) . All other combinations were defined as negative
  2. bDefined as number of camps (i.e., those within a radius of 2 km) that shared resources like a river, road or land area, or working area during the day