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Table 2 Assessment of demographical and virological predictors for symptom severity in HMPV-infected patients

From: The role of human Metapneumovirus genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in adults

Characteristics TSSS
(mean ± SD)
p β p*
HMPV genotype
 A, n = 40 11.53 ± 4.44 0.194a 1.329 0.194
 B, n = 41 12.85 ± 4.67   ref.  
HMPV sub-lineage
 A2b, n = 25 11.16 ± 4.12 0.306b ref.  
 Unique A2 sub-lineage, n = 15 12.13 ± 5.03   0.973 0.515
 B1, n = 25 13.56 ± 4.42   2.400 0.067
 B2, n = 16 11.75 ± 4.99   0.590 0.687
Estimated no. of days elapsed between symptom onset and enrollment date r = 0.106 0.348c 0.153 0.348
  ≤ 1–2 days, n = 20 10.95 ± 4.77 0.373b − 1.578 0.221
 3–5 days, n = 36 12.53 ± 4.35   ref.  
  ≥ 6 days, n = 25 12.72 ± 4.75   0.192 0.872
Sex
 Male, n = 29 12.41 ± 4.73 0.753a − 0.337 0.753
 Female, n = 52 12.08 ± 4.54   ref.  
Age r = −0.335 0.002 c − 0.080 0.002
  < 65 years old, n = 65 12.86 ± 4.55 0.008 a ref.  
  ≥ 65 years old, n = 16 9.50 ± 3.71   −3.362 0.008
Ethnicity
 Chinese, n = 19 10.11 ± 4.31 0.054b − 2.763 0.030#
 Malay, n = 38 12.87 ± 4.02   ref.  
 Indian, n = 21 13.33 ± 5.25   0.465 0.701
 Others, n = 3 9.00 ± 4.36   − 3.868 0.151
Viral Load (log10 RNA copies/μl), n = 78 r = −0.118 0.303c − 0.206 0.584
  1. TSSS: Total symptom severity score, n: number of patients, SD: standard deviation, ref. category with the highest number of patients is chosen as reference
  2. aP-value calculated by Independent Samples t-Test
  3. bP-value calculated by One-way ANOVA
  4. cP-value calculated by bivariate correlations
  5. p*: p-value calculated by simple linear regression
  6. r: Pearson’s correlation coefficient
  7. β: linear regression coefficient
  8. statistically significant comparisons (p < 0.05) are in bold
  9. #p-value for significance was adjusted by Bonferroni correction to p < 0.0083 (0.05/6)