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Table 2 Bovine miRNAs up-regulated and down-regulated in cow serum in response to acute FMDV infection

From: Proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating microRNAs in Bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent FMDV infection

miRNA regulation in Bovine serum during acute FMDV infection
miRNA Fold change p-value Ascribed function Ref
miR-26b −3.09 0.032 □ Role in adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation □ Inhibits HBV replication by targeting CHORDC1 □ Inhibits HCV replication in PBMCs □ Promotes RSV replication by targeting TLR4 □ Tumor suppressor: targets USP9X, PTGS2, CDK8, TAK1, and TAB3 □ [69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76]
miR-1281 −2.50 0.020 □ Lipid metabolism: in dairy cattle, role in adipogenesis □ [77]
let-7 g −1.96 0.024 □ Cellular proliferation: targets lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX), caspase-3, and Aurora-B □ [78,79,80]
miR-22-5p +2.73 0.030 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CDK6, SIRT1, and Sp1 □ [81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88]
miR-497 +26.16 0.031 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CCNE1, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1), represses eIF4E, E3 ubiquitin ligase □ [89,90,91,92,93]
miR-369-3p +28.57 0.015 □ Cellular proliferation: targets N-cadherin □ Down-regulates adipogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stromal cells □ [94, 95]
miR-34a +28.57 0.015 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CCND1, CDK6, FMNL2 and E2F5; activated by p53 □ Regulates lipid metabolism with HNF4α □ Immune modulatory: targets IL-6 and IL-8 □ Found in bovine milk □ [96,97,98,99,100,101]
miR-144 +28.78 0.015 □ Tumor suppressor: targets CCNE1, ROCK1, ROCK2, EZH2, TIGAR, AKT3, E2F3, ADAMTS5, ADAM10, RAB14, and c-Met □ [102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112]
miR-146a +34.36 0.018 □ Tumor suppressor: targets SOS1 □ Up-regulated by HBV X protein □ Immune modulatory: induced by NF-KB signaling; targets IRAK1 and TRAF6, thus diminishing pro-inflammatory response from TLR signaling □ [113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120]
miR-17-5p +35.88 0.038 □ Cellular proliferation: targets SMAD7, FBXO31, E2F1, and c-Myc □ Repressed HCV infection, inversely correlated with HCV treatment response □ HIV-1 Tat C modulates NOX2 and NOX4 via miR-17 □ Immune modulatory: suppresses TLR signaling through IL6 and represses IFN-stimulated MxA expression □ [121, 122]
  1. List of bovine miRNAs that were observed to be up-regulated and down-regulated in serum samples collected during the acute phase of FMDV infection. Shown are the miRNA species, the fold-change in expression levels (in ascending order), and the ascribed function from literature searches of cattle miRNAs and homologous miRNAs from other species with little to no sequence divergence. The miRNAs listed showed a fold-change in expression levels of greater than 1.50, and had p-values of <0.05