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Table 2 Different types of ALI cultures used in coronavirus studies

From: Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies

Cell types Origin HCoVs Features References
Primary bronchial Trachea, Bronchus All HCoVs Differentiated pseudostratified epithelium, many cell types [56, 57]
Calu-3 Sub-mucosal glands (adenocarcinoma) MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV Single or polarized epithelium, one cell type [109, 110]
Primary alveolar Alveoli MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, HCoV-HKU1 Differentiated squamous epithelium, two cell types [79, 80, 111]